[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In migraine, an interictal reduction of mitochondrial energy metabolism and a preventive effect of high-dose riboflavin were reported. To explore the relation between the two, we tested if the therapeutic response to riboflavin is associated with specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. We focused our attention on haplogroup H, which is known to differ from others in terms of energy metabolism.
Sixty-four migraineurs completed a 4-month open trial with riboflavin (400 mg QD) and were genotyped blindly for mtDNA haplogroups.
Forty patients responded to riboflavin treatment and 24 were nonresponders. The mtDNA haplogroup H was found in 29 subjects (20 migraine without aura, 9 migraine with aura). Riboflavin responders were more numerous in the non-H group (67.5%). Conversely, nonresponders were mostly H (66.7%). The difference between the two groups was significant (chi(2) = 7.07; p = 0.01). The presence of aura had no influence on riboflavin's effectiveness (chi(2) = 0.113; p = 0.74) and was not associated with a particular haplogroup (chi(2) = 0.55; p = 0.46).
In this pharmacogenetic study, riboflavin appears to be more effective in patients with migraine with non-H mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but could be related to the association of haplogroup H with increased activity in complex I, which is a major target for riboflavin. Our results may have ethnic implications, since haplogroup H is chiefly found in the European population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygosis for wolframin (WFS1) mutations determines Wolfram syndrome (WS), and common polymorphisms of WFS1 are associated with psychiatric illnesses and dependence behaviour. To test the influence of WFS1 polymorphisms on medication overuse headache (MOH), a chronic headache condition related to symptomatic drugs overuse, we analyzed 82 MOH patients for the WFS1 His611Arg polymorphism, and performed a comparison between clinical features of Arg/Arg (R/R) and non-R/R individuals. Individuals harbouring the R/R genotype showed significantly higher monthly drug consumption (t=-3.504; p=0.00075) and more severe depressive symptoms on the BDI questionnaire (t=-3.048; p=0.003) than non-R/R. WFS1 polymorphism emerged as the only significant predictor of drug consumption, at the multivariate regression analysis (F=12.277; d.f.=1,80; p=0.00075, adjusted R2=0.122). These results implicate WFS1 in the clinical picture of MOH, may be through an influence on need for drugs as in other conditions of abuse behaviour.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) are allelic disorders associated with mutations in the CACNA1A gene, which encodes the alpha1 subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel (Ca(V)2.1). SCA6 and EA2 share a number of clinical features, such as prominent cerebellar involvement and good response to acetazolamide therapy. However, while SCA6 develops as a late-onset, progressive ataxia, EA2 has an earlier, and episodic, onset. We report on two sisters with a heterogeneous clinical phenotype. The first developed progressive cerebellar ataxia after age 30, without noticeable episodes of vertigo or headache. A 1 year trial with acetazolamide did not produce significant results. The other reported episodes of vertigo, headache and gait imbalance since late childhood, with good response to acetazolamide, before developing moderate chronic cerebellar ataxia. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy, especially in the vermis, in both patients. Direct sequencing of CACNA1A identified a heterozygous 1360G>A mutation in exon 11 resulting in the substitution of alanine for threonine at residue 454 (p.Ala454Thr). This is the first description of a change residing in the cytoplasmic I-II loop associated with a clinical phenotype.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences