[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Traditionally, superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) has been recognized as an oncologic emergency, and with clinical suspicion of the syndrome, tissue diagnosis was often delayed due to possible complications in diagnostic procedures and immediately threatening of life. Previously, local radiotherapy was regarded as the best immediate strategy for management of the condition. We have analyzed 54 lung cancer patients with SVCS in the past 6 years. Our results show that dyspnea (34 cases, 63%) and facial swelling (29 cases, 54%) are the two most common symptoms. The most frequent physical finding was venous distension of the neck (35 cases, 65%). The chest X-ray findings also showed a large ratio of superior mediastinal widening (26 cases, 48%). Fine needle aspiration of palpable lymph node (20 cases, 37%) and trans-thoracic needle aspiration guided by ultrasound (US) (8 cases, 14%) made diagnosis of at least half of the cases possible (28 cases, 51%). Both of these procedures are safer and easier than other invasive methods of examination. Of the 54 patients, small cell carcinoma constituted the majority of the cases (23 cases, 43%) and, with combination chemotherapy, there was a good response rate and a longer survival time (7.4 months) as compared to that of non-small cell carcinoma (3.7 months) treated by radiotherapy. We conclude that lung cancer with SVCS could be quickly and safely diagnosed by needle aspiration of the palpable lymph node or trans-thoracic needle aspiration guided by US, and that with combination chemotherapy the SVCS in small cell carcinoma can be effectively relieved.
Article · Nov 1995 · The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: With the development of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, serodiagnosis of tuberculosis has been studied by many investigators. Only a few studies have been performed in pleural fluid. This study was designed to evaluate the IgG antibody levels to mycobacterial antigen 60 (Ag60) in pleural fluid, and evaluate its role in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy.
Eighteen patients with tuberculous pleural effusions and 18 patients with malignant pleural effusions were studied. The levels of IgG antibodies to Ag60 in pleural fluids were measured by ELISA method.
The mean titers of IgG against Ag60 in pleural fluids of tuberculous patients (508.3 +/- 382.7 EU) were significantly higher than those of the mean value of the malignant group (131.2 +/- 83.2 EU). In the TB pleurisy group, patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures from pleural fluids had significantly higher titers than those with negative cultures (796.5 +/- 394.7 vs 277.8 +/- 150.2 EU); patients with impaired immune function had significantly lower titers than those without (138.4 +/- 28.9 vs 650.6 +/- 358.1 EU). Using 250 EU as a cutoff value for a positive test, the sensitivity was 72.2% and the specificity, 94.4%.
ELISA method using Ag60 is a rapid test with an acceptable sensitivity and excellent specificity for differentiation between tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion.
Article · May 1994 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We evaluated soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), neopterin and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural effusions from 93 patients with tuberculosis, malignancies, uremia, pneumonia and other kinds of pleurisy. There were significantly elevated ADA (102.7 +/- 47 U/l) and sIL-2R (8,238 +/- 4,117 U/ml) values in tuberculous (TB) pleural fluids as compared with other non-TB pleural fluids (p < 0.005). The neopterin levels in pleural fluid were significantly lower in the cancer group (17.3 +/- 7.8 nmol/l; p < 0.005) and most strikingly elevated (309.4 +/- 112.2 nmol/l; p < 0.0001) in patients with uremic pleural effusions. Using cut-off values of 60 U/l in ADA and 5,000 U/l in sIL-2R, 92.0 and 86.9% of pleural effusions were TB in origin. Eighty-four percent of patients with malignant pleural effusions had neopterin levels less than 25 nmol/l.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sixteen patients with apical malignancies, including 12 with Pancoast tumors and four with metastatic apical pleural masses, underwent chest ultrasound (US) examinations and direct percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Of those, 15 patients were proven to have malignancies by FNAB and the remaining patient (only revealing necrosis by FNAB) was also proven to have a Pancoast tumor after surgical intervention. Percutaneous FNAB was performed through the supraclavicular approach (n = 10) or through the upper back (n = 6). The sonographic appearances of the apical malignancies were homogeneous hypoechoic (n = 8), homogeneous isoechoic (n = 3) or heterogeneous (n = 5). No complications occurred after the FNAB. Our limited experience showed that a convex probe was convenient and useful in the detection of apical malignancies. Apical malignancies, diagnosed previously by percutaneous needle aspiration under fluoroscopy or surgical intervention, can be easily diagnosed by percutaneous FNAB, especially when the FNAB is performed using the supraclavicular approach.
Article · Dec 1993 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Because of the independent and remote origin of the right upper and middle lobe bronchi, combined collapse of right upper and middle lobes is thought to be uncommon. We report 15 cases of combined right upper and middle lobe collapse found by plain chest radiograph in the past 8 years. Malignancies were confirmed in 13 cases. The other 2 cases with benign etiology included one case of endobronchial TB and one of pneumonia. These cases of combined bilobar collapse were possibly due to (1) the intraluminary infiltration of the primary tumor of the upper lobe to the middle lobe bronchus, (2) separated area of collapse produced by the primary tumor and its metastatic lymphadenopathy, (3) upper lobe tumor with external compression to intermediate bronchus that obstructed both the upper and middle bronchi, (4) multi-centric neoplasm, (5) tumor obstruction and sputum impaction at different bronchi, or (6) benign lesions operated at two different locations. The more frequent occurrence of bronchogenic carcinoma than that of benign lesions in our study revealed the invalidity of the "double lesion sign". Bronchoscopy or CT scan should be used to search for the etiology. If malignancy is confirmed in such condition, the prognosis is usually poor due to its advanced invasion.
Article · Dec 1991 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed