Publications (18)19.22 Total impact
Article: Metabolic effects of HAY's diet[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was, to evaluate the metabolic effect of HAY's diet on protein turnover, fat oxidation, respiratory quotient, body fat and weight loss. Twelve healthy adults received an individually regular diet and thereafter a corresponding isocaloric and isonitrogenous 10-day HAY-diet. Protein turnover and 13C-fat oxidation were investigated after administration of [15N]glycine and an [U-13C]algae lipid mixture. The 15N and 13C enrichment in urine and breath were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The respiratory quotient was measured by indirect calorimetry. Body fat, total body water and lean body mass were estimated by bio-electric impedance analysis. HAY's diet led to a significantly higher 13C-fat oxidation (15.4 vs. 22.0% P < 0.01), corresponding to a lower respiratory quotient (0.88 vs. 0.81; P < 0.01), whereas the protein turnover remained constant in both diets (3.06 vs. 3.05 g/kg/day). HAY's diet did not reduce total body water, lean body mass, body fat and body weight (72.2 vs. 71.4 kg).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wenngleich die Muttermilch in tolerierbaren Volumina eine bedarfsdeckende Zufuhr von Energie, Eiweiß, Spurenelementen und Vitaminen für das schnell wachsende Frühgeborene nicht gewährleistet, gilt sie doch bis zum heutigen Tag als optimale Basis für die Ernährung dieser Kinder. Ihre einzelnen Bestandteile zeichnen sich im Gegensatz zu kommerziellen Frühgeborenennahrungen durch eine hohe Bioverfügbarkeit aus (George u. DeFrancesca 1989). Die psychomotorischen Entwicklungschancen der mit Muttermilch ernährten Frühgeborenen scheinen besser zu sein als nach künstlicher Ernährung (Lucas et al. 1992).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosylureides were recently described as non-invasive markers of intestinal transit time. The underlying principle is an enzymatic splitting of (13)C-labelled ureides by intestinal bacteria. The (13)CO(2) released from the urea moiety of the glycosylureides can be measured in breath samples when the ingested tracer substrate reaches the caecum that is colonised with microbes. To date, the microbes that degrade glycosylureides are unknown. In order to identify the glucoseureide (GU)-splitting bacteria, 174 different strains of intestinal microbes obtained from five healthy adults were checked for their ability to degrade GU. The results of the microbial cultures and thin layer chromatography revealed that GU was exclusively degraded by Clostridium innocuum, belonging to the normal human intestinal microflora. C. innocuum probably synthesises a yet unknown enzyme that splits the glucose-urea bond. We suggest that the term glucoseureidehydrolase is the appropriate designation for this enzyme.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prospective, randomised study the effects of orally administered bifidobacteria on the intestinal microflora were investigated in 100 preterm and term neonates under intensive care conditions during the first 21 days of life. The 50 infants (group with bifidobacteria) received lyophilized bifidobacteria (Topfer Bifidus(R)) via nasogastral tube with an initial dosage of 3 times daily 1.25 x 10(8) bifidobacteria on day 2 of life and a daily dosage of 6 times 1.25 x 10(8) bifidobacteria on day 3 until day 21 of life. The other 50 infants (control group) did not receive bifidobacteria. The preterm and term neonates were fed either with pasteurized mother's milk or milk from healthy female donors (n = 79) or with an infant formula (Alfare(R), n = 13) or initially with Alfare(R) and thereafter with mother's milk (n=8). The intestinal microflora of preterm and term neonates under intensive care conditions could be influenced by the oral administration of bifidobacteria. The administration of bifidobacteria resulted in the group of inoculated infants in a significantly earlier colonization of bifidobacteria (8,1 +/- 3,9 days of life) than in the control group (11,3 +/- 4,7 days of life). On day 7 a bifidobacterial dominance (> 90% of the intestinal microflora) could be found in 26% of infants with inoculation of bifidobacteria and only in 2% of the control group (p < 0,001). These significant differences could be shown until day 21 of life. A difference in septicemia frequency between the two groups could not be demonstrated. At the beginning of the infection a bifidobacterial dominance was found in only one of 23 cases of septicemia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present clinical observation is related to a 14-year-old girl suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The clinical course was complicated by episodes of severe enterocolitis, E. coli- septicemia, pancreatitis and pneumonia. In the course of continued cytostatic and antibiotic treatment a persistent asymptomatic Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus-bacteremia became detectable by a total of 18 blood cultures. Microbial cultures of the faeces revealed colony-forming unites of this germ in orders of 10(9)/g. Antibiotic eradication attempts according to the resistogram were not successful. The Lactobacillus-bacteremia disappeared only after 13 months when the cytostatic therapy was terminated. An adjuvant influence of the Lactobacillus infection on the outcome of the underlying disease cannot be excluded.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prospective, randomised study the effects of orally administered bifidobacteria on the intestinal microflora were investigated in 100 preterm and term neonates under intensive care conditions during the first 21 days of life. The 50 infants (group with bifidobacteria) received lyophilized bifidobacteria (Töpfer Bifidus) via nasogastral tube with an initial dosage of 3 times daily 1.25 x 10(8) bifidobacteria on day 2 of life and a daily dosage of 6 times 1.25 x 10(8) bifidobacteria on day 3 until day 21 of life. The other 50 infants (control group) did not receive bifidobacteria. The preterm and term neonates were fed either with pasteurized mother's milk or milk from healthy female donors (n = 79) or with an infant formula (Alfaré, n = 13) or initially with Alfaré and thereafter with mother's milk (n = 8). The intestinal microflora of preterm and term neonates under intensive care conditions could be influenced by the oral administration of bifidobacteria. The administration of bifidobacteria resulted in the group of inoculated infants in a significantly earlier colonization of bifidobacteria (8.1 +/- 3.9 days of life) than in the control group (11.3 +/- 4.7 days of life). On day 7 a bifidobacterial dominance (> 90% of the intestinal microflora) could be found in 26% of infants with inoculation of bifidobacteria and only in 2% of the control group (p < 0.001). These significant differences could be shown until day 21 of life. A difference in septicemia frequency between the two groups could not be demonstrated. At the beginning of the infection a bifidobacterial dominance was found in only one of 23 cases of septicemia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hintergrund: Die durch Muttermilch bewirkte Entstehung einer Bifidobakterien-dominierten intestinalen Mikroflora ist ein in der Natur einmaliges Phänomen. Es gibt Hinweise dafür, daß gestillte Säuglinge in vieler Hinsicht von der Präsenz dieser Bakterien im mikrobiell besiedelten Dickdarm profitieren. Aus diesem Grund sind nach der Entdeckung der Bifidobakterien durch Tissier im Jahr 1900 zahlreiche Versuche unternommen worden, bifidogene Wirkungen in Säuglingsmilchnahrungen zu erzeugen. Im einzelnen wurden die niedrige Pufferkapazität, niedrige Eiweiß- und Eisenkonzentrationen, ein hoher Gehalt an Laktose, modifizierte Laktose und verschiedene andere Bifidusfaktoren für die bifidogene Wirkung verantwortlich gemacht. Bis heute gibt es jedoch kein überzeugendes Konzept für die Produktion einer solchen Formelnahrung. Die wesentlichen Schwachpunkte in der Bewertung der bisher durchgeführten Studien zur Erprobung bifidogener Säuglingsnahrungen beinhalten die fehlerhafte Interpretation der Bifiduskeimzahlen im Verhältnis zur Begleitflora, die Überbewertung einzelner Komponenten bzw. die Nichtbeachtung des Zusammenwirkens der Gesamtheit aller fördernden und hemmenden Komponenten. Diskussion: Es steht jedoch außer Zweifel, daß bifidogene Effekte erzielbar sind, wenn eine Annäherung an die Zusammensetzung der Muttermilch hinsichtlich der Quantität (und Qualität) des Eiweißes und der fermentierbaren Kohlenhydrate erfüllt ist. So haben unsere eigenen Untersuchungen mit modifizierten hydrolysierten Säuglingsmilchnahrungen ergeben, daß eine Bifidusdominanz in 30–40% der Fälle erzielt werden kann. Dies ist eine im Vergleich zur Muttermilch geringe Häufigkeit, die jedoch als vielversprechender Ausgangspunkt für weitere Forschungen auf diesem Gebiet dienen kann.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hintergrund: Die mikrobielle Besiedlung des Intestinaltrakts beginnt beim Neugeborenen unter der Geburt. Wegbereiter für die Entwicklung der typischen Bifidobakteriendominanz des gestillten Säuglings sind fakultative anaerobe Streptokokken und Colibakterien, die durch Sauerstoffentzug und Säurebildung optimale Lebensbedingungen für die anaerob wachsenden Bifidobakterien schaffen. Unter Ernährung mit Formelnahrungen entsteht beim Säugling eine Mischflora aus Bifidobakterien, Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, Streptokokken und Laktobazillen, die eine Zwischenstufe zur späteren Mikroflora des Erwachsenen darstellt. Die bifidogene Wirkung der Muttermilch basiert auf ihrem Gehalt an Wirkstoffen, die sowohl selektiv das Bifidobakterienwachstum fördern als auch das Wachstum der Begleitflora hemmen. Fördernd wirken der hohe Gehalt an Laktose, Oligosacchariden, Glykoproteinen, wie Glykomakropeptid, und die natürliche Inokulation mit Bifidobakterien von der Hautoberfläche der Mutter. Hemmende Faktoren sind die gegen die Begleitflora gerichteten Antikörper, Laktoferrin, Lysozym, Fettsäuren und Monoglyzeride als antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe sowie der vergleichsweise niedrige Eiweiß- und Eisengehalt der Muttermilch. Eine bifidushemmende Besiedlung des Darmtrakts mit pathogenen Keimen droht bei Infektionen der mütterlichen Geburtswege, die eine der häufigsten Ursachen der Frühgeburt sind. Zudem tragen die zunehmende Zahl operativer Entbindungen, die Trennung von Mutter und Kind und der großzügige Einsatz von Antibiotika zur verzögerten Besiedlung mit Bifidobakterien und zur Entstehung lebensbedrohlicher nosokomialer Infektionen bei. Möglichkeiten, dieser unheilvollen Entwicklung entgegenzuwirken, liegen in der bevorzugten Nutzung bifidobakterienschonender Antibiotika und in der Inokulation lyophilisierter Bifidobakterien. Diskussion: Die Inokulation von 50 Frühgeborenen und Neugeborenen unter Intensivpflegebedingungen mit lyophilisierten Bifidobakterien führte unter Ernährung mit Frauenmilch in unseren Studien zu einer signifikant früheren Bifidobakterienbesiedlung und Ausprägung einer Bifidobakteriendominanz als in der unbehandelten Kontrollgruppe. Septikämien enteralen Ursprungs traten nach Ausbildung einer stabilen Bifidusflora in unseren Beobachtungsgruppen nicht mehr auf.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The domination of the intestinal microflora of infants by bifidobacteria, induced by feeding with mother's milk, is a unique natural phenomenon. There is evidence that breast-fed babies profit from the colonization of their large intestine by these bacteria in many respects. For this reason, following the discovery of bifidobacteria by Tissier in 1900 numerous attempts were made to reproduce the bifidogenic effects in infant feeding formulas. Low puffer capacity, low protein and iron concentration, high lactose content, modified lactose, and numerous other bifidogenic factors were claimed to be responsible for bifidogenic effects similar to those produced by mother's milk. To date, there is no convincing concept for the production of such a formula. The main weaknesses in the evaluation previous studies lie in the incorrect interpretation of the number of bifidobacteria in the faeces in comparison to the remaining species, and in their focus on a single component, neglecting the interaction of all the components. Discussion: There is, however, no doubt that bifidogenic effects are obtainable if approximation to the overall composition of human milk with regard to the quantity (and quality) of protein and fermentable carbohydrate is achieved. Our studies with modified hydrolyzed infant formulas have shown a bifidobacteria-dominated microflora in 30-40% of cases. This is low compared to the results of feeding with mother's milk, but can be considered a promising starting-point for further research in this field.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The microbial colonization of the intestinal tract in newborns begins during delivery. Streptococci and Escherichia coli pave the way for the bifidobacterial dominance typical in breast-fed newborns. They provide optimal living conditions for anaerobic bifidobacteria by withdrawal of intraluminal oxygen. A mixed intestinal flora is established on infant formula feeding in the infant. Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, streptococci and lactobacilli are the main genera of this mixed intestinal flora. This represents an intermediate stage of the microflora in adults. The bifidogenic effect of mothers' milk is based on the active substances it contains, which selectively enhance the growth of bifidobacteria, whereas other active substances suppress the growth of the accompanying flora. Bifidus-enhancing factors in breast-feeding are lactose, oligosaccharides, glycoproteins such as glycomacropeptide and the inoculation with bifidobacteria deriving from the skin surface of the mother. Factors directed to the suppression of the accompanying microflora are antibodies, lactoferrin, lysozyme, fatty acids and monoglycerides that act as antimicrobial substances and the comparatively low protein and iron content in mothers' milk. A bifidus-inhibiting colonization of the intestinal tract with pathogenic germs is caused by maternal birth-canal infections, which are now known to be the most frequent reason for premature births. An increasing number of surgical deliveries, the separation of the newborn infant from its mother, and the generous use of antibiotics contribute to the delayed colonization of bifidobacteria and to the development of life-threatening nosocomial infections. Counteractive measures against this disastrous situation are the preferential use of bifidobacteria-preserving antibiotics and the inoculation of lyophilized bifidobacteria. Discussion: In a controlled study conducted by our group bifidobacteria-inoculation in 50 preterm and term-born infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit resulted in both a significantly earlier colonization of bifidobacteria and in an earlier bifidobacterial dominance. It could be demonstrated that septicaemias of enteral origin did not any more occur after a bifidobacterial dominance was achieved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lactulose H2-breath test is the most widely used non-invasive approach for evaluation of orocoecal transit time (OCTT). In the present study, doubly-labelled lactose-[13C, 15N]ureide (DLLU) was synthesized to investigate the OCTT in comparison to the conventional lactulose H2-breath test. Additionally the bacterial breakdown rate (BBR) and rate of elimination and the metabolic pathways of the cleavage products of DLLU (13CO2, [15N]urea, and 15NH3) were investigated. In a first study, DLLU was administered as a single oral-pulse-labelling (dosage: one gram) either without and after pretreatment of five grams of unlabelled lactoseureide (LU) on the day prior to the study to twelve healthy adult volunteers after breakfast. Breath and urine were collected in one and two hour-intervals, respectively, over a one-day period. 13C-enrichment in breath as well as 15N-enrichment in urine fractions were measured by continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). In a second study, lactulose was administered to the same subjects (dosage: ten grams). Breath was collected in quarter, half and one hour-intervals over a ten hour-period. Hydrogen concentration in breath was analysed using an electrochemical detector. The comparison of the lactose-[13C]ureide 13CO2-breath test and the lactulose H2-breath test showed that the mean increase of the 13C-enrichment in CO2 occurred 1.18 h later than the mean increase of H2 in breath. The resulting OCTTs derived from the two methods were 3.02 +/- 1.4 and 1.84 +/- 0.5 h (P < 0.05) and the corresponding BRs were 9.63 +/- 3.4 and 6.07 +/- 1.7 h (P < 0.01), respectively. The 15N-enrichment of urinary urea and ammonia without and after pretreatment with LU started between two and three hours after DLLU-administration. The cumulative percentage urinary excretion of the 15N- and 13C-tracer was 29.9% and 13.6% respectively, and was slightly increased after LU-pretreatment to 32.1% and 14.6% of the dose administered. A total of 35.2% of the 13C was found to be exhaled and remained approximately constant after LU-pretreatment (36.2%). The use of the lactulose H2-breath test for evaluation of the OCTT showed a statistically significant shortening of 1.18 h in comparison to the lactose-[13C]ureide 13CO2-breath test in healthy adults. The most important limitations of the lactulose H2-breath test are its low specificity and sensitivity due to dose-dependent accelerations of OCTT, interfering H2-rise from malabsorbed dietary fibre and H2-non-producers. In contrast, our lactose-[13C]ureide 13CO2-breath test was confirmed to avoid these disadvantages and to yield reliable results. This test is recommended especially if higher sensitivity and specificity is required, if IRMS-technique is available and if lactulose H2-tests lead to insufficient results.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sir: The eradication of Bifidobacteria and other anaerobic micro-organisms of the intestinal microflora is an undesired and sometimes life-threatening side-effect of antibiotic treatment. The disappearance of these bacteria leads to the loss of colonization resistance which in turn is associated with the risk of adhesion and translocation of pathogenic germs . We conducted studies on side-effects of penicillins, cephalosporins and other [3-1actam-antibi
Article: Resistance of
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysozyme-mediated lysis of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli was studied in in vitro tests using the agar gel plate and turbidometric Micrococcus luteus (lysodeikticus) procedure as a standard. Suspensions of the strains Bifidobacterium infantis, B. infantis liberorum, B. breve, B. longum, B. ssp, and Lactobacillus acidophilus proved to be resistant to egg white lysozyme and human milk lysozyme when incubated at 37 degrees C in concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 mg lysozyme/L, respectively, through 30 and 60 min. Heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1 h and pretreatment with ether, acetone, ascorbic acid, and hydrogen peroxide failed to incline the bacteria to the lytic effects of lysozyme. Consecutive incubation of the lysozyme-pretreated bacteria with trypsin resulted in a significantly enhanced bacteriolysis in all strains of bacteria, with the exception of B. longum. The mode of action of lysozyme and proteolytic enzymes on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli offers an explanation for the release of microbial building blocks and their colonic absorption and retention in the breast-fed baby.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential influence of phosphates in formulas on intestinal microflora was studied in 25 infants, aged 8 days to 12 weeks. The babies were either fed an infant formula with the usual phosphate concentration (n = 10) or an infant formula with reduced phosphate and protein concentrations (n = 7). The microbiological findings were compared with those obtained from breastfed infants (n = 8). Low-phosphate concentrations did not correlate with a predominance of bifidobacteria or suppression of putrefactive bacteria in the feces. The fecal excretion of phosphates and fat was found to be significantly lower with mother's milk compared to formulas both rich and poor in phosphate. Protein synthesis and breakdown rates, as well as the net protein gain, did not have a significant correlation with protein intake.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal microflora represents an enormous cell mass and has a high metabolic capacity. The symbiotic efficacy of these microbes in humans is still a matter of discussion. Of particular interest, from a biogenetic point of view, are potential symbiotic relations between the bifidobacterial microflora and the breast-fed infant. Our group has conducted studies related to this topic; they were aimed at determining the dimension of microbial assimilation by the host. Our studies with 15N-labeled bifidobacteria have shown that the bifidobacterial microflora is capable of upgrading nonessential nitrogen such as urea nitrogen for the synthesis of microbial protein. Oral single pulse labelings with 15N-labeled bifidobacteria were absorbed to approximately 90% and retained in the infant's protein pool to approximately 70%. These findings demonstrate the high intensity of the substrate flow from the microflora to the host. This might become important under conditions of marginal food protein intake or during periods of accelerated growth.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The utilization of 15N nitrogen from 15N-labelled bifidobacteria for whole body protein synthesis was studied in 4 infants by oral single-pulse labellings and in 3 other infants, who had colostomies, by colonic pulse labellings. The bifidobacteria were harvested from a modified Petuely culture medium containing 15N ammonium chloride and 15N cystine as the only sources of nitrogen. The tracer dose chosen for the balance studies was 3 mg 15N/kg. 15N concentrations in urine and feces collected over 48 hours after the pulse labellings were determined by emission spectrometry. Oral administration of 15N-labelled bifidobacteria resulted in absorption of approximately 90% renal excretion of 15%, and fecal excretion of 12% of the tracer dose, respectively. Retention in the protein pool averaged 73%. After colonic single pulse labelling with 15N-labelled bifidobacteria, the corresponding values were 85.5%, 2.2%, 14.5% and 83.0%, respectively. Absorption and incorporation of the heavy nitrogen into body proteins were directly demonstrated by increased 15N atom percent excess values within the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) supernatants and the proteins of the plasma, 0.25 and 0.04 atom%, respectively, at 24 hours after oral pulse labellings. One half of the total 15N excreted in urine consisted of urea and approximately 8% was eliminated as ammonia.
University of Rostock
Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
- Faculty of Medicine