[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene XRCC3 (X-ray cross complementing group 3) has the task of repairing damage that occurs when there is recombination between homologous chromosomes. Repair of recombination between homologous chromosomes plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity, although it is known that double-strand breaks are the main inducers of chromosomal aberrations. Changes in the XRCC3 protein lead to an increase in errors in chromosome segregation due to defects in centrosomes, resulting in aneuploidy and other chromosomal aberrations, such as small increases in telomeres. We examined XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. The individuals of the control group (N = 100) were selected from the general population of the São Paulo State. Odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated using a logistic regression model. Patients who had the allele Met of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism had a significantly increased risk of tumor development (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.50-6.50). There were no significant differences in overall survival of patients. We suggest that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is involved in susceptibility for developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain metastasis is the most common intracranial malignancy in adults, occurring in about 10 to 30% of adult cancer patients.
Tumor metastasis is a complex process requiring cell motility, invasion, platelet aggregation ability, angiogenesis, and avoidance
of host immune responses. Increasing gene dosage through oncogene copy gain (extra copies) or amplification is a common genetic
mechanism for up-regulation of gene expression; this mechanism participates in the development of solid tumors and metastases
by stimulation of cell division or by inhibition of cell death or cell cycle arrest. Using quantitative real time polymerase
chain reaction we determined gene dosage of eight tumor-related genes: ELF3, MDM4, LRRN2, PDGFRA, EGFR, MYC, MDM2, and ERBB2,
in a series of 18 brain metastases originated from lung cancer (six cases), breast carcinoma (three cases), melanoma (three
samples), ovarian carcinoma (two cases), and one each from colon, bladder, kidney and undifferentiated carcinoma. Copy gains,
in at least one gene, were identified in ten cases (55%) whereas amplification could be determined in six samples (33%). Concurrent
alterations were observed in three lesions derived from two lung carcinoma and from one ovarian carcinoma: one of the lung
carcinoma metastases accumulated copy gains of LRRN2, MDM2, PDGFRA, and ERBB2, whereas the second displayed amplification
of LRNN2 and ERBB2. The lesion derived from the ovarian carcinoma accumulated amplification of MYC and EGFR. Differential
amplification levels could be determined for the intracellular / extracellular domains of genes EGFR and/or ERBB2 in four
cases. These data suggest that copy gain/gene amplification appears associated with greater tumor aggressiveness and that
quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative methodology to identify differential intragenic amplification
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: XRCC genes (X-ray cross-complementing group) were discovered mainly for their roles in protecting mammalian cells against damage caused by ionizing radiation. Studies determined that these genes are important in the genetic stability of DNA. Although the loss of some of these genes does not necessarily confer high levels of sensitivity to radiation, they have been found to represent important components of various pathways of DNA repair. To ensure the integrity of the genome, a complex system of DNA repair was developed. Base excision repair is the first defense mechanism of cells against DNA damage and a major event in preventing mutagenesis. Repair genes may play an important role in maintaining genomic stability through different pathways that are mediated by base excision. In the present study, we examined XRCC1Arg194Trp and XRCC1Arg399Gln polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. Patients who had the allele Trp of the XRCC1Arg194Trp polymorphism had an increased risk of tumor development (OR = 8.80; confidence interval at 95% (95%CI) = 4.37-17.70; P < 0.001), as did the allele Gln of XRCC1Arg399Gln (OR = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.53-1.93; P = 0.971). Comparison of overall survival of patients did not show significant differences. We suggest that XRCC1Arg194Trp and XRCC1Arg399Gln polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility for developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor can activate several signaling pathways, leading to proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis of epithelial tissues by binding with its receptor. The EGF protein is involved in nervous system development, and polymorphisms in the EGF gene on chromosome band 4q25 are associated with brain cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism of EGF+61G/A and extraaxial brain tumors in a population of the southeast of Brazil. We analyzed the genotype distribution of this polymorphism in 90 patients and 100 healthy subjects, using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Comparison of genotype distribution revealed a significant difference between patients and control subjects (P < 0.001). The variant genotypes of A/G and G/G were associated with a significant increase of the risk of tumor development, compared with the homozygote A/A (P < 0.0001). When the analyses were stratified, we observed that the genotype G/G was more frequent in female patients (P=0.021). The same genotype was observed more frequently in patients with low-grade tumors (P=0.001). Overall survival rates did not show statistically significant differences. Our data suggest that the EGF A61G polymorphism can be associated with susceptibility to development of these tumors.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular pathology of meningiomas and shwannomas involve the inactivation of the NF2 gene to generate grade I tumors. Genomic losses at 1p and 14q are observed in both neoplasms, although more frequently in meningiomas. The inactivation of unidentified genes located in these regions appears associated with tumor progression in meningiomas, but no clues to its molecular/clinical meaning are available in schwannomas. Recent microarray gene expression studies have demonstrated the existence of molecular subgroups in both entities. In the present study, we correlated the presence of genomic deletions at 1p, 14q, and 22q with the expression patterns of 96 tumor-related genes obtained by cDNA low-density microarrays in a series of 65 tumors including 42 meningiomas and 23 schwannomas. Two expression pattern groups were identified by cDNA mycroarray analysis when compared to the expression pattern in normal control RNA in both meningiomas and schwannomas, each one with patterns similar and different from the normal control. Meningioma and schwannoma subgroups differed in the expression of 38 and 16 genes, respectively. Using MLPA and microsatellites, we identified genomic losses at 1p, 14q, and 22q at nonrandom frequencies (12.5-69%) in meningiomas and schwannomas. Losses at 22q were almost equally frequent in both molecular expression subgroups in both neoplasms. However, deletions at 1p and 14q accumulated in meningiomas with a gene expression pattern different from the normal pattern, whereas the inverse situation occurred in schwannomas. Those anomalies characterized the schwannomas with expression pattern similar to the normal control. These findings suggest that deletions at 1p and 14q enhance the development of an abnormal tumor-related gene expression pattern in meningiomas, but this fact is not corroborated in schwannomas.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the cellular detoxification of a large number of endogenous and exogenous chemical agents that have electrophilic functional groups. People who have deficiencies in this family of genes are at increased risk of developing some types of tumors. We examined GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. Patients who had the Val allele of the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism had an increased risk of tumor development (odds ratio = 8.60; 95% confidence interval = 4.74-17.87; P < 0.001). Overall survival of patients did not differ significantly. We suggest that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La alteración genética más frecuente en oligodendrogliomas es la pérdida conjunta de lp/19q. Este evento ya acontece en etapas primarias del desarrollo de estos tumores. Es de gran valor clínico conocer si dichos tumores poseen esta deleción ya que se ha correlacionado con un mejor pronóstico de los pacientes. Además de esta alteración. también se ha observado la deleción de CDKN2A y PTEN y la amplificación de EGFR; estos cambios parecen asociarse a una mayor agresividad tumoral. Mediante la técnica de MLPA en una misma reacción podemos determinar si existe pérdida de lp/19q y deleciones/amplificaciones de los genes anteriormente mencionados en el ADN procedente de muestras tumorales. En este trabajo hemos analizado 40 oligodendrogliomas y el kit MLPA P088 para determinar el estado alélico de lp/19q, así como el kit MLPA P105 para observar la amplificación/ deleción de los genes CDKN2A, PTEN, ERBB2, TP53 y EGFR. Mostraron pérdida de 1p el 45% de los tumores (18/40) y el 65% (26/40) de los oligodendrogliomas presentaron deleción de las sondas que hibridan en las regiones de 19q. Para el kit MLPA P105, mostraron duplicación/deleción de EGFR en el 7,5% (3/41) y 35% (14/40) de las muestras, respectivamente. El 60% de los casos (24/40) mostraron deleción de CDKN2 y ninguna muestra presentó duplicación de las sondas para este gen. El gen ERBB2 se presentó duplicado en el 12,5% de los tumores (5/40) y un único tumor mostró pérdidas de dicho gen. El 30% (12/40) de las muestras presentó deleción para PTEN y el 12,5% (5/40) mostró duplicación de dicho gen y, por último, 12,5% de los casos (5/40) presentaron duplicaciones de TP53. Estos resultados indican que la técnica de MLPA es idónea para la identificación de las alteraciones moleculares características de oligodendrogliomas. Estas alteraciones estarían contribuyendo a la formación del tumor, siendo la anomalía más significativa en oligodendrogliomas la pérdida de 1p/19q.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Neurocirugia (Asturias, Spain)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concurrent deletion at 1p/19q is a common signature of oligodendrogliomas, and it may be identified in low-grade tumours (grade II) suggesting it represents an early event in the development of these brain neoplasms. Additional non-random changes primarily involve CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR. Identification of all of these genetic changes has become an additional parameter in the evaluation of the clinical patients' prognosis, including good response to conventional chemotherapy. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis is a new methodology that allows an easy identification of the oligodendrogliomas' abnormalities in a single step. No need of the respective constitutional DNA from each patient is another advantage of this method. We used MLPA kits P088 and P105 to determine the molecular characteristics of a series of 40 oligodendrogliomas. Deletions at l p and 19q were identified in 45% and 65% of cases, respectively. Alterations of EGFR, CDKN2A, ERBB2, PTEN and TP53 were also identified in variable frequencies among 7% to 35% of tumours. These findings demonstrate that MLPA is a reliable technique to the detection of molecular genetic changes in oligodendrogliomas.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Neurocirugia (Asturias, Spain)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of the 1p/19q allelic status in gliomas, primarily those with a major oligodendroglial component, has become an excellent molecular complement to tumor histology in order to identify those cases sensitive to chemotherapy. In addition to loss of heterozygosity (LOH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has been shown to be an alternative methodology to identify deletions of those chromosome arms. We used MLPA to explore the 1p and 19q allelic constitution in a series of 76 gliomas: 41 tumors with a major oligodendroglial component, 34 glioblastomas, and one low-grade astrocytoma. We compared the MLPA findings of the oligodendroglial cases with those previously obtained using LOH in the same samples. Thirty-eight of 41 oligodendrogliomas displayed identical findings by both LOH and MLPA, and losses at either 1p and/or 19q were identified in 12 of 35 (34%) astrocytic tumors. These findings agree with data previously reported comparing MLPA versus FISH or CGH in gliomas and suggest that MLPA can be used in the identification of the 1p/19q allelic deletions on these brain neoplasms.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microarray gene expression profiling is a high-throughput system used to identify differentially expressed genes and regulation patterns, and to discover new tumor markers. As the molecular pathogenesis of meningiomas and schwannomas, characterized by NF2 gene alterations, remains unclear and suitable molecular targets need to be identified, we used low density cDNA microarrays to establish expression patterns of 96 cancer-related genes on 23 schwannomas, 42 meningiomas and 3 normal cerebral meninges. We also performed a mutational analysis of the NF2 gene (PCR, dHPLC, Sequencing and MLPA), a search for 22q LOH and an analysis of gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation (MS-MLPA). Results showed a high frequency of NF2 gene mutations (40%), increased 22q LOH as aggressiveness increased, frequent losses and gains by MLPA in benign meningiomas, and gene expression silencing by hypermethylation. Array analysis showed decreased expression of 7 genes in meningiomas. Unsupervised analyses identified 2 molecular subgroups for both meningiomas and schwannomas showing 38 and 20 differentially expressed genes, respectively, and 19 genes differentially expressed between the two tumor types. These findings provide a molecular subgroup classification for meningiomas and schwannomas with possible implications for clinical practice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer; this gene is mutated in up to 50% of human tumors. It has a critical role in the cell cycle, apoptosis and cell senescence, and it participates in many crucial physiological and pathological processes. Polymorphisms of p53 have been suggested to be associated with genetically determined susceptibility in various types of cancer. Another process involved with the development and progression of tumors is DNA hypermethylation. Aberrant methylation of the promoter is an alternative epigenetic change in genetic mechanisms, leading to tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In the present study, we examined the TP53 Arg72Pro and Pro47Ser polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and the pattern of methylation of the p53 gene by methylation-specific PCR in 90 extra-axial brain tumor samples. Patients who had the allele Pro of the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism had an increased risk of tumor development (odds ratio, OR = 3.23; confidence interval at 95%, 95%CI = 1.71-6.08; P = 0.003), as did the allele Ser of TP53 Pro47Ser polymorphism (OR = 1.28; 95%CI = 0.03-2.10; P = 0.01). Comparison of overall survival of patients did not show significant differences. In the analysis of DNA methylation, we observed that 37.5% of meningiomas, 30% of schwannomas and 52.6% of metastases were hypermethylated, suggesting that methylation is important for tumor progression. We suggest that TP53 Pro47Ser and Arg72Pro polymorphisms and DNA hypermethylation are involved in susceptibility for developing extra-axial brain tumors.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies. DNA methylation is implicated in DNA mismatch repair genes deficiency. In the present study, we evaluated the methylation status of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 in 20 diffuse- and 26 intestinal-type gastric cancer samples and 20 normal gastric mucosal of gastric cancer patients from Northern Brazil. We found that none of the nonneoplastic samples showed methylation of any gene promoter and 50% of gastric cancer samples showed at least one methylated gene promoter. Methylation frequencies of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 promoter were 21.74%, 17.39%, 0% and 28.26% respectively in gastric cancer samples. MLH1 and PMS2 methylation were associated with neoplastic samples compared to nonneoplastic ones. PMS2 methylation was associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type cancer compared with normal controls. Intestinal-type cancer showed significant association with MLH1 methylation. Diffuse-type cancer was significantly associated with MSH2 methylation. Our findings show differential gene methylation in tumoral tissue, which allows us to conclude that methylation is associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Methylation of mismatch repair genes was associated with gastric carcinogenesis and may be a helpful tool for diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. However, MSH6 does not seem to be regulated by methylation in our samples.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Biocell: official journal of the Sociedades Latinoamericanas de Microscopía Electronica ... et. al
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption or loss of tumor suppressor gene TP53 is implicated in the development or progression of almost all different types of human malignancies. Other members of the p53 family have been identified. One member, p73, not only shares a high degree of similarity with p53 in its primary sequence, but also has similar functions. Like p53, p73 can bind to DNA and activate transcription. Using PCR-SSCP and gene sequencing, we analyzed the TP53 and TP73 genes in a case of a grade III anaplastic astrocytoma that progressed to glioblastoma. We found a deletion of AAG at position 595-597 of TP53 (exon 6), resulting in the deletion of Glu 199 in the protein and a genomic polymorphism of TP73, identified as an A-to-G change, at position E8/+15 at intron 8 (IVS8-15A>G). The mutation found at exon 6 of the gene TP53 could be associated with the rapid tumoral progression found in this case, since the mutated p53 may inactivate the wild-type p53 and the p73alpha protein, which was conserved here, leading to an increase in cellular instability.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by early onset of symptoms related to normal aging and by a high predisposition to various types of cancer, including gliomas. WS is caused by inherited recessive mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a helicase considered a caretaker of the genome. Aiming to study the role of WRN Cys1367Arg in glioma susceptibility and oncologic prognosis of patients, we investigated the genotype distribution of this single nucleotide polymorphism in 94 glioma patients and 100 healthy subjects. Comparisons of genotype distributions and allele frequencies did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. Overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated, but no statistically significant difference was observed. Our data suggest that WRN Cys1367Arg SNP is not involved either in susceptibility to developing gliomas or in patient survival, at least in the Brazilian population.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the forth most frequent malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic alteration, occurring through a methyl radical addition to the cytosine base adjacent to guanine. Many tumor genes are inactivated by DNA methylation in gastric cancer. We evaluated the DNA methylation status of ANAPC1, CDKN2A and TP53 by methylation-specific PCR in 20 diffuse- and 26 intestinal-type gastric cancer samples and 20 normal gastric mucosa in individuals from Northern Brazil. All gastric cancer samples were advanced stage adenocarcinomas. Gastric samples were surgically obtained at the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital, State of Pará, and were stored at -80 degrees C before DNA extraction. Patients had never been submitted to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, nor did they have any other diagnosed cancer. None of the gastric cancer samples presented methylated DNA sequences for ANAPC1 and TP53. CDKN2A methylation was not detected in any normal gastric mucosa; however, the CDKN2A promoter was methylated in 30.4% of gastric cancer samples, with 35% methylation in diffuse-type and 26.9% in intestinal-type cancers. CDKN2A methylation was associated with the carcinogenesis process for ~30% diffuse-type and intestinal-type compared to non-neoplastic samples. Thus, ANAPC1 and TP53 methylation was probably not implicated in gastric carcinogenesis in our samples. CDKN2A can be implicated in the carcinogenesis process of only a subset of gastric neoplasias.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the most common and severe problems in clinical medicine, and nervous system tumors represent about 2% of the types of cancer. The central role of the nervous system in the maintenance of vital activities and the functional consequences of the loss of neurons can explain how severe brain cancers are. The cell cycle is a highly complex process, with a wide number of regulatory proteins involved, and such proteins can suffer alterations that transform normal cells into malignant ones. The INK4 family members (CDK inhibitors) are the cell cycle regulators that block the progression of the cycle through the R point, causing an arrest in G1 stage. The p14ARF (alternative reading frame) gene is a tumor suppressor that inhibits p53 degradation during the progression of the cell cycle. The PTEN gene is related to the induction of growth suppression through cell cycle arrest, to apoptosis and to the inhibition of cell adhesion and migration. The purpose of the present study was to assess the mutational state of the genes p14ARF, p15INK4b, p16INK4a, and PTEN in 64 human nervous system tumor samples. Homozygous deletions were found in exon 2 of the p15INK4b gene and exon 3 of the p16INK4a gene in two schwannomas. Three samples showed a guanine deletion (63 codon) which led to a loss of heterozygosity in the p15 gene, and no alterations could be seen in the PTEN gene. Although the group of patients was heterogeneous, our results are in accordance with other different studies that indicate that homozygous deletion and loss of heterozygosity in the INK4 family members are frequently observed in nervous system tumors.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TP53 tumor suppressor gene codifies a protein responsible for preventing cells with genetic damage from growing and dividing by blocking cell growth or apoptosis pathways. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TP53 codon 72 (Arg72Pro) induces a 15-fold decrease of apoptosis-inducing ability and has been associated with susceptibility to human cancers. Recently, another TP53 SNP at codon 47 (Pro47Ser) was reported to have a low apoptosis-inducing ability; however, there are no association studies between this SNP and cancer. Aiming to study the role of TP53 Pro47Ser and Arg72Pro on glioma susceptibility and oncologic prognosis of patients, we investigated the genotype distribution of these SNPs in 94 gliomas (81 astrocytomas, 8 ependymomas and 5 oligodendrogliomas) and in 100 healthy subjects by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. Chi-square and Fisher exact test comparisons for genotype distributions and allele frequencies did not reveal any significant difference between patients and control groups. Overall and disease-free survivals were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used for comparisons, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two groups. Our data suggest that TP53 Pro47Ser and Arg72Pro SNPs are not involved either in susceptibility to developing gliomas or in patient survival, at least in the Brazilian population.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the forth malignancy in frequency in the world. In the northern Brazil is the second neoplasia most frequent in males and the third most frequent in females. Genetic and epigenetic alterations are evolved on gastric carcinogenesis and DNA methylation is the epigenetic alteration better studied. We analyzed de novo DNA methyltransferases methylation pattern and its association with RUNX3 gene methylation pattern in Brazilian samples of intestinal-type and diffuse-type of gastric cancer. PCR methylation specific was used to evaluate DNA methylation pattern. Sixty-six samples were studied in this work. Only the gene RUNX3 presented altered methylation pattern, being methylated in 38.5% of gastric cancer intestinal-type samples and in 70% of gastric cancer dif fuse-type samples and, by this reason, it should be evolved in the genesis of this neoplasia. There was a statistically significant difference among diffuse-type and intestinal-type samples (p=0.0418) and among normal and tumour tissues (p<0.0001) for RUNX3 gene but not to DNMT3A, DNMT3B e DNMT3 genes on CpG islands analyzed. Alteration of RUNX3 methylation pattern is not associated to de novo alteration of DNA methyltransferases methylation pattern on studied regions.Therefore, it becomes necessary a better comprehension of this phenomenon on gastric carcinogenesis.