Publications (9)28.4 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P155 is a polyomavirus mlt mutant with normal transforming ability but impaired tumorigenic potential. The mutation, a 12-bp deletion (nucleotides 1348-1359), removes amino acids 372 to 375 from middle T and affects its ability to function in tumorigenesis (C. Gelinas, S. Masse, and M. Bastin, 1984, J. Virol. 51, 242-246). We used deletion loop mutagenesis to introduce point mutations within the wild-type sequence spanned by the P155 deletion. A mutant phenotype resembling that of P155 could be produced by as little as one alanine to valine substitution at residue 373. The mutants were impaired in their ability to induce tumors in rats but they could still transform established cell lines or primary fibroblasts in culture. To define the biochemical defect, we examined the mutant middle T antigen both for association with pp60c-src, the cellular src gene product, as well as its pattern of phosphorylation. No obvious differences explaining the phenotype were observed. The mutant middle T associated with, and activated pp60c-src, but exhibited a slightly altered pattern of phosphorylation, presumably because of additional sites on the middle T protein.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To gain an insight into the molecular mechanism of cooperation between the polyomavirus middle T gene and cellular genes in the tumorigenic process, we have examined various properties of rat cell lines transformed by middle T alone. Middle T transformants display a phenotype ranging from nontumorigenic (flat) to fully transformed (tumorigenic) and the phenotype of a given cell line correlates very well with its cellular level of middle T antigen. Highly transformed, tumorigenic variants arise spontaneously in the flat cells during their growth with a mutation rate of 2.2 X 10(-5) per cell per generation. These variants contain elevated levels of both middle T antigen and middle T transcripts, suggesting that fully transformed cells arise as a consequence of an efficient mode of viral gene expression.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA from polyomavirus mlt mutant P155 transforms cells in culture as efficiently as wild-type DNA but has a much lower tumorigenic potential when injected into newborn rodents. The mutant has a 12-base-pair deletion between nucleotides 1347 and 1360, i.e., in a region which encodes parts of the middle and large T antigens (G elinas et al., J. Virol. 43:1072-1081, 1982). To determine which of the two viral gene functions was affected by the mutation, we transferred the latter into a modified polyomavirus genome encoding exclusively the middle T protein. Our results show that the P155 mutation alters a function of the polyomavirus middle T protein required for the induction of the tumorigenic process in vivo. Beside the 12-base-pair deletion at 96.3 map units, there is no other alteration in the coding sequence of P155 middle T with respect to that of P16, the wild-type parental strain. We conclude, therefore, that the deletion is the lesion affecting the tumorigenic potential of mutant P155 .
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A procedure has been developed whereby the oncogenicity of the DNA from polyoma (Py) virus and Simian virus 40 (SV40) can be tested directly by injecting recombinant DNA into newborn rodents. Injection of 0.2-2.0 micrograms of linear DNA induced the development of subcutaneous liposarcomas and fibrosarcomas at the site of inoculation. Coinjection of high-molecular-weight rat DNA as carrier had little or no effect on tumor formation but plasmids pBR322, pAT153 , and pML2 behaved as strong inhibitors. Tumor induction by injecting DNA into newborn rodents provides an in vivo equivalent to a transformation assay but appears to be a more stringent and rigorous criterion of oncogenic transformation. The oncogenic potential of Py virus in newborn hamsters could be expressed by a recombinant encoding only the middle T protein, although with average tumor latencies 5-10 times longer than those observed with wild-type Py DNA. Py middle T required the cooperation from small T to induce tumors in newborn rats. SV40 DNA was tumorigenic only in newborn hamsters. delta 2005 DNA which is unable to produce the SV40 small T antigen was much less active and required a latent period about twice that of wild-type SV40 DNA. However, its tumorigenic potential was restored by addition of the Py small T antigen gene. This indicates that Py and SV40 small T antigens are interchangeable and that they probably play an identical role in malignant transformation. Finally, evidence was provided that intermolecular recombination or recombination between DNA fragments can occur in vivo.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncogenic potential of polyomavirus in newborn hamsters can be expressed by a recombinant encoding only the middle T protein. However, polyoma middle T requires the cooperation from small T to induce tumors in newborn rats. Similar complementary functions such as cocarcinogens or tumor promotors can be exerted by the simian virus 40 T antigens as well as by one or several products of the early region 1A of adenovirus 2.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A modified polyoma virus genome which can encode the middle T protein but not the large or small T proteins transforms rat cells in culture with an efficiency about 20% that of the wild-type genome. Although middle T-transformed cells grow as tumors when transplanted into nude mice or syngeneic rats, the middle T gene alone is totally inactive when used in a more stringent and rigorous assay for tumorigenicity such as the injection of DNA into newborn rats. Thus, functions other than those expressed by middle T antigen are required for the elaboration of all the properties associated with tumorigenesis. To assess whether a complementary function could be exerted by the large or the small T antigen, we constructed plasmids containing two modified early regions which independently encoded middle T and one of the two other proteins. Both recombinants were tumorigenic in newborn rats. Cell lines derived by transfer of these plasmids under no special selective conditions did not acquire the property of growth in low-serum medium but exhibited the same tumorigenic properties as wild-type polyoma DNA-transformed cells. Furthermore, a recombinant which encoded the middle and small T antigens, but not the large T antigen, was tumorigenic in newborn rats. Although the small T antigen provides a complementary function for tumorigenicity, it cannot complement the middle T antigen for an efficient induction of transformation of cultured cells. This suggests that the complementary function exerted by the small T antigen is different from that of the N-terminal fragment of the large T protein.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cloned DNA from the P155 mutant of polyoma virus transforms cells in culture as efficiently as wild-type DNA, but has a much lower tumorigenic potential when injected into newborn rats. Like cells transformed by wild-type DNA, cells transformed by the mutant DNA grow in low serum concentrations, form colonies in agar suspension, and grow to high saturation densities compared with untransformed cells. They are, however, much less tumorigenic since they transplant 100- to 2,000-fold less efficiently than cells transformed by wild-type DNA. Substitution of the region between 89.7 and 1.8 map units by the corresponding region of P155 DNA decreased the tumorigenicity of wild-type DNA. When this region was isolated from wild-type DNA and substituted in P155 DNA, the tumorigenicity of the latter increased to values comparable to those of wild-type DNA. This showed that the lesion affecting tumorigenicity occurred between 89.7 and 1.8 map units on the polyoma virus genome. Sequence analysis in this region revealed a 12-base-pair deletion between nucleotides 1,347 and 1,360. This identified P155 as an mlt mutant, i.e., a mutant with a deletion from a region which encodes parts of the large and middle T antigens.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary The proximal portion of the polyoma virus early region as well as the complete viral genome were cloned in pBR322. Recombinant plasmids induced tumors in newborn rats but only after linearization of the DNA by various restriction endonucleases.