[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 77-year-old man developed chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) after surgical repair of a large infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Self-administered subcutaneous dalteparin therapy (5000 units o.d.) led to rapid relief of symptoms and sustained improvements in his platelet count and fibrinogen level; activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis appeared to be relatively unaffected. Long-term treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin can provide good symptomatic control of chronic DIC associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Preview · Article · Jul 2001 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the in vivo contribution to complement activation of an extracorporeal circuit and the use of high-dose aprotinin during major surgery.
Sequential samples were obtained from 8 patients undergoing thoracic surgery, 20 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) using venovenous bypass, and 19 patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
The latter two groups were part of a randomized controlled trial of high-dose aprotinin.
Total complement activation was measured with the hemolytic complement activity and the C3 activation-specific marker, C3d antigen.
Complement activation did not occur during thoracic surgery. During OLT, C3d antigen levels, expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (SD), were elevated from baseline at skin closure (8.6 +/- 2.5 v 13.0 +/- 5.2 mg/L; p = 0.0082). During cardiac surgery, C3d antigen levels increased 10 minutes after the start of CPB (pre-CPB, 8.0 +/- 1.9 v 14.2 +/- 3.1 mg/L; p = 0.0001) and remained at greater than baseline values postoperatively (8.0 +/- 1.9 v 11.8 +/- 2.3 mg/L; p = 0.002). There was no difference in complement activation in those receiving high-dose aprotinin during OLT or cardiac surgery. Complement activation during cardiac surgery using extracorporeal circulation occurred to a greater extent than during OLT and thoracic surgery. Complement activation during cardiac surgery or OLT was not attenuated by the use of high-dose aprotinin.
No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During open cardiac operations using cardiopulmonary bypass, there is activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. We assessed the separate contributions of the surgical procedure itself and cardiopulmonary bypass to this, by studying sequential samples from patients undergoing routine open cardiac operations or thoracic operations without cardiopulmonary bypass.
Activation of coagulation and the extent of fibrinolysis were measured from sequential samples obtained before the operation to 48 hours after the operation for 7 thoracic patients and 8 cardiac patients.
In the thoracic group operation length was shorter (p = 0.002), and there was no significant increase in thrombin-antithrombin III complexes or D-dimers until 24 hours postoperatively. In contrast, there was a highly significant increase in thrombin-antithrombin III complexes (p = 0.0043) and D-dimer levels (p = 0.009) during cardiopulmonary bypass. The increase in fibrinolytic activity was caused by an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (p = 0.013). At 48 hours postoperatively, the cardiac patients had a more hypercoagulable state than thoracic patients with significantly higher levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes (p = 0.041) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (p = 0.0033).
This study suggests the major activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis seen during cardiac operations is caused by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alginates are used as haemostats in wound dressings. They act as calcium ion (Ca) donors as they contain mannuronic (M) or guluronic (G) groups with a high Ca content. This study compared the effects of calcium and zinc containing alginates and non-alginate dressings on blood coagulation and platelet activation to determine which was the best haemostat. We showed that alginate materials activated coagulation more than non-alginate materials. The extent of coagulation activation was affected differently by the alginate M or G group composition. It was demonstrated that alginates containing zinc ions had the greatest potentiating effect on prothrombotic coagulation and platelet activation.
No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Journal of Biomaterials Applications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis is associated with compromised hemostasis and coagulopathy during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). It has been suggested that hemostasis is better preserved during OLT in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) than other cirrhotic states. The aim of this study was to compare coagulation and fibrinolysis in 15 patients with PBC with 31 patients with other liver disease before and during OLT. Preoperatively, both groups had subnormal mean levels of prekallikrein, factor XIIa, antithrombin III (ATIII), plasminogen, and alpha2-antiplasmin. C1 esterase inhibitor and kallikrein inhibition in PBC was higher than the normal range (P < .01), but not in non-PBC. Non-PBC had lower median fibrinogen levels and shorter euglobulin clot lysis times (ECLT) (P < .05). Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen levels did not differ between groups but were elevated from the normal range, as were median thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT). Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in PBC (0.0041). Perioperatively in the PBC group during the early anhepatic phase of OLT, there was more thrombin generation, as evidenced by higher TAT levels (P = .0455) and less hyperfibrinolysis with longer ECLTs. We hypothesize that there is a preserved capacity to generate thrombin and less fibrinolytic activation during the anhepatic phase of OLT, and we suggest that, in PBC, the use of antifibrinolytic agents may have an adverse effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF Ag) is a marker of endothelial injury which has been shown to rise during surgical procedures, including cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The aim of this study was to determine whether intermittent aortic cross-clamping during CPB causes the release of vWF Ag from the coronary vascular bed, which would suggest coronary vascular endothelial cell perturbation. Fifteen consecutive patients undergoing CPB with aortic cross-clamping during coronary artery bypass surgery and/or valve replacement by the same surgeon were studied. Paired venous and coronary sinus samples were taken pre- and post-thoracotomy, prior to cross-clamping on CPB, and 1, 5 and 10 minutes after release of the aortic cross-clamp. Plasma vWF Ag (IU/ml) was measured by ELISA. Venous vWF Ag measured prior to skin incision was 0.75 +/- 0.11 IU/ml (mean +/- SEM) and fell to 0.53 +/- 0.07 IU/ml after institution of CPB but prior to aortic cross-clamping (P < 0.01 vs pre-incision sample). Coronary sinus vWF Ag measured prior to aortic cross-clamping was 0.54 +/- 0.06 IU/ml (P = NS vs paired venous sample). At 1, 5 and 10 min after release of the aortic cross-clamp there was a progressive rise in vWF Ag in both venous and coronary sinus samples (1 min: 0.67 +/- 0.05 IU/ml vs 0.75 +/- 0.10 IU/ml, 5 min: 0.73 +/- 0.07 IU/ml vs 0.76 +/- 0.09 IU/ml, 10 min: 0.74 +/- 0.08 IU/ml vs 0.79 +/- 0.09 IU/ml; P = NS venous vs coronary sinus, respectively). Levels of vWF Ag were highest immediately prior to the termination of CPB (venous: 0.95 +/- 0.12 IU/ml; coronary sinus: 0.91 +/- 0.14 IU/ml). We conclude that cardiac surgery using CPB with aortic cross-clamping is associated with a progressive rise in coronary sinus and venous levels of vWF Ag.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main cause of nonsurgical bleeding during orthotopic liver transplantation has been attributed to be hyperfibrinolysis due to high plasma levels of tissue plasminogen activator. The aim of this study was to investigate contact activation and its possible contribution to fibrinolysis during OLT with and without aprotinin. Aprotinin or placebo was given to 20 patients undergoing OLT as part of a randomized double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected before, during, and after OLT. There were decreased preoperative levels of prekallikrein and factor XIIa (P < 0.05), with a trend for kallikrein and factor XIIa activity to increase during OLT peaking on reperfusion (P < 0.05). Kallikrein inhibition, C1 esterase inhibitor, and alpha-2-macroglobulin levels were normal before surgery, with low normal levels of antithrombin III and alpha-2-antiplasmin; these levels decreased during OLT with no specific change on reperfusion. In the aprotinin-treated group, kallikrein inhibition levels increased (P < 0.05) from preoperative mean (+/- SD) values of 101 +/- 47% to 154 +/- 42% and antiplasmin levels increased (P < 0.05) from 72 +/- 28% to 243 +/- 53% during the anhepatic phase, reflecting the effect of aprotinin. The antifibrinolytic effect of aprotinin was demonstrated by decreased levels of D-dimer on reperfusion (P < 0.05) and at the end of OLT (P < 0.001) in the aprotinin-treated group. We have shown that contact activation during OLT is minimal and that aprotinin does not alter the pattern of contact activation, but provides an antikallikrein effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperfibrinolysis during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been attributed to high plasma levels of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This study investigated the contribution of urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) to hyperfibrinolysis and the effects of high-dose perioperative aprotinin (Trasylol) on fibrinolytic activation. Plasma samples were collected before, during, and after OLT in fifty five patients receiving either high dose aprotinin or placebo in a randomized double-blind trial. t-PA antigen and u-PA antigen and activity levels were increased preoperatively compared with normal controls (P < 0.05). Hyperfibrinolysis was seen during the anhepatic phase as shown by shortened euglobulin clot lysis times (ECLT) and an increase in D-dimer titers. t-PA levels peaked on reperfusion and fell at the end of the operation, and u-PA levels did not increase during OLT, but showed a decrease at the end of the operation. With aprotinin treatment, t-PA levels were lower on graft reperfusion than the placebo group (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in u-PA antigen or activity levels between groups. Fibrinolytic inhibition during OLT by aprotinin was demonstrated by prolonged ECLT (P < 0.05), reduced D-dimer levels (P < 0.05), and an increase in antiplasmin activity (P < 0.05). This study showed that the main antifibrinolytic action of aprotinin is as an antiplasmin agent with some effect on t-PA-but not u-PA-mediated fibrinolysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemostasis was assessed in 115 steady-state heart transplant recipients (HTRs) and compared with that of 23 age-matched healthy controls and 21 age-matched patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Compared with the controls, the HTRs had increased levels of fibrinogen (mean and 95% confidence limits of 4.50 [4.32-4.68] g/L versus 3.47 [3.07-3.87] g/L, P < 0.001), factor VIIC (1.16 [0.98-1.21] IU/ml versus 0.99 [0.89-1.10] IU/ml, P < 0.001), and von Willebrand factor antigen (1.72 [1.58-1.88] IU/ml versus 1.00 [0.80-1.26] IU/ml, P < 0.001). HTRs had increased antithrombin III activity (P = 0.002) and protein C activity (P = 0.002), with a decrease in total protein S levels (P < 0.001) but no change in free protein S levels. Stepwise discriminant analysis of hemostatic variables showed that fibrinogen was the best discriminator of the three groups, classifying 55.6% of HTR, 40% of IHD, and 66.7% of the controls. More marked prothrombotic changes were found in HTRs transplanted for IHD than for other causes; this reached significance for prothrombin (P = 0.048), factor IX (P = 0.003), and poor fibrinolytic activity as measured by euglobulin clot lysis time (P = 0.008). The HTRs with accelerated coronary sclerosis (ACS) tended to have the most prothrombotic changes; this reached significance with factor IX (P = 0.03). In conclusion, HTRs have perturbed hemostasis; the net effects of these changes are prothrombotic. The relationship between prothrombotic changes and ACS merits further studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When high-dose aprotinin is used during cardiopulmonary bypass, there is a prolongation of the activated coagulation time (ACT), which is used to monitor heparinization. The aim of this study was to provide guidelines for monitoring heparin levels by the ACT if aprotinin is used during cardiopulmonary bypass.
Heparinized blood from six healthy controls and nine patients on cardiopulmonary bypass was aliquoted and mixed with various concentrations of aprotinin. ACTs were performed on these samples. Activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT) were performed on the citrated plasma mixed with varying concentrations of heparin and aprotinin from the same control patients. Prothrombin times (PT) were performed on plasmas mixed with aprotinin. Aprotinin produced a dose-related prolongation of ACT and APTT but had no effect on PT. This effect occurred whatever the activating agent and in the absence of heparin.
Aprotinin prolongs the ACT and APTT independently of heparin. If high-dose aprotinin is used during cardiopulmonary bypass, ACTs should be maintained at times > 750 seconds to allow for appropriate levels of heparin.