Claude Besmond

Hôpital Universitaire Robert Debré, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (30)134.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the association of the RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products) exon3 gene polymorphisms with stages of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. The RAGE exon 3 genotype was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) procedure in 487 type 1 diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy subdivided into four groups according to their level of renal involvement and in 351 control subjects (GENEDIAB study). We reported here three main low frequency dimorphisms, previously submitted to data banks, Gly82Ser, Val89 CTC/CTG, and Arg77Cys. The genotype distribution of these polymorphisms was not statistically different in type 1 diabetic patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.37). Among the three described polymorphisms, only the RAGE Gly82Ser genotype frequency was significantly increased in the group with advanced nephropathy (11%) defined by a chronic renal failure compared to the three others groups: no nephropathy, 5%; incipient (microalbuminuria) 5%; established (macroalbuminuria), 2%) (P=0.04). The 82 Ser allele was identified as an independent risk marker for the stage of advanced nephropathy: adjusted odds ratio 3.17(95% CI 1,32-7,85, p=0.008). These data suggest that the 82 Ser allele of the RAGE gene is a risk allele for developing advanced nephropathy. This suggests that some RAGE gene polymorphisms may be associated with progression to diabetic advanced nephropathy in Caucasian type 1 diabetic patients.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Diabetes & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic liver disease is a major complication of cystic fibrosis. Its incidence and severity show marked heterogeneity, even among the homogeneous group of homozygous DeltaF508 patients, suggesting that environmental or genetic factors other than the deletion DeltaF508 may influence the development of cystic fibrosis related liver disease. We investigated whether the allelic variants of mannose binding lectin, an important protein of the immune system, could be associated with the presence of cirrhosis in a population of 216 homogeneous homozygous DeltaF508 patients. Analysis of the data shows that the presence of cirrhosis in cystic fibrosis patients is significantly associated with a mutated mannose binding lectin genotype (homozygous or compound heterozygous for mannose binding lectin variants). The modulating role of mannose binding lectin in the occurrence of cirrhosis in cystic fibrosis could be explained by the fact that hepatotoxic damage from viruses or bacteria might be increased by the immunodeficiency associated with mannose binding lectin variants and might facilitate the degradation of liver status. These data highlight the crucial role of mannose binding lectin in the clinical outcome of cystic fibrosis, as it has recently been shown that the mannose binding lectin gene is a modulating gene of the respiratory involvement in cystic fibrosis patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2001 · Journal of Medical Genetics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Medecine Therapeutique Pediatrie

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Hemoglobin

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Hemoglobin
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    Preview · Article · Nov 1999 · BMJ Clinical Research
  • G Prevost · I Fajardy · P Fontaine · P M Danze · C Besmond
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. AGEs increase in diabetes and modulate cellular functions through binding to a specific cell surface receptor (RAGE). The RAGE gene maps to chromosome 6p in the HLA class III area and is telomeric to the class II region at 250 kb from DRA. A recent report described the characterization of a major RAGE gene variant as a biallelic single base polymorphism (G/A 557) in the exon 3 sequence leading to a change of a glycine to a serine at position 82. Using DGGE and PCR-RFLP, we have investigated the distribution of this dimorphism in conjunction with HLA class II genes in large populations of type 1 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Although no association of this RAGE gene polymorphism with disease susceptibility was found, we report a strong linkage disequilibrium between the variant carrying the serine amino acid at position 82 and two HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR4 specificities. In particular, we describe two major extensive HLA class II haplotypes associated with this serine variant and identified as DRB1*0401-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0301 in the diabetic group and DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 in control individuals. These data were partially confirmed by family transmission analysis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · European Journal of Immunogenetics
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    ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding protein (MBP) is a serum lectin that participates in the innate immune response. MBP deficiency may constitute a risk factor in the development of infections. Three MBP structural variants have been identified with a dominant effect on MBP serum concentration. Similarly, polymorphisms in the promoter of the corresponding gene (HSMBP1B) have been related to variations of MBP concentration in serum. Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have an increased susceptibility to infections with encapsulated organisms resulting in meningitis, septicaemia, and osteomyelitis. We have investigated the HSMBP1B genotype in 242 children with SCD living in Paris. Apart from the known variant alleles, we identified three novel ones and report their distribution in our sample population. In addition, we found rather unexpectedly an increased frequency of the variant alleles in patients who had not suffered severe infections.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 1999 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
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    ABSTRACT: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now used when severe male-factor infertility has been documented. Since defective mitochondrial functions may result in male hypofertility, it is of prime importance to evaluate the risk of paternal transmission of an mtDNA defect to neonates. DNA samples from the blood of 21 infertile couples and their 27 neonates born after ICSI were studied. The highly polymorphic mtDNA D-loop region was analyzed by four PCR-based approaches. With denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which allows 2% of a minor mtDNA species to be detected, the 27 newborns had a DGGE pattern identical to that of their mother but different from that of their father. Heteroplasmy documented in several parents and children supported an exclusive maternal inheritance of mtDNA. The parental origin of the children's mtDNA molecules also was studied by more-sensitive assays: restriction-endonuclease analysis (REA) of alpha[32P]-radiolabeled PCR products; paternal-specific PCR assay; and depletion of maternal mtDNA, followed by REA. We did not detect paternal mtDNA in nine neonates, with a sensitivity level of 0.01% in five children, 0.1% in two children, and 1% in two children. The estimated ratio of sperm-to-oocyte mtDNA molecules in humans is 0.1%-1.5%. Thus, we conclude that, in these families, the ICSI procedure performed with mature spermatozoa did not alter the uniparental pattern of inheritance of mtDNA.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 1999 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last few years, substantial progress has been made in developing strategies for the detection and characterization of various mutations causing β-thalassemia. The Indian population comprises of numerous endogamous caste groups and β-thalassemia is seen in almost all of them. Knowledge of the spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations in the population is a prerequisite for successful implementation of a prevention programme. Among the different approaches available today, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers a valid technical approach which is applicable for screening of known mutants and polymorphisms as well as in locating regions of DNA bearing unknown mutations.We analysed 356 unrelated β-thalassemia heterozygotes by DGGE and detected 30 anomalous DGGE patterns. Fifteen mutations were characterized after sequencing 25 anomalous patterns. Of these, codon 10(GCC → GCA) is a recently reported novel β-thalassemia mutation while −28(A → G) and codon 121(G → T) are being reported for the first time in the Indian population. HbS and HbE also showed two anomalous DGGE patterns each. Framework (FW) linkage studies showed that four mutations were associated with different β-globin gene frameworks. Linkage of IVSI-5(G → C) and cap site +1 (A → C) to FW2 and 619-bp deletion to FW1 is being observed for the first time.Multiple DGGE patterns corresponding to the same mutation is one of the major drawbacks of this technique. In spite of this, if sufficient preliminary work has been carried out to compile a comprehensive catalogue of DGGE patterns; this is a powerful approach to characterize the mutation or to localize a small region of DNA in the case of rarer mutations. Am. J. Hematol. 61:120–125, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1999 · American Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last few years, substantial progress has been made in developing strategies for the detection and characterization of various mutations causing beta-thalassemia. The Indian population comprises of numerous endogamous caste groups and beta-thalassemia is seen in almost all of them. Knowledge of the spectrum of beta-thalassemia mutations in the population is a prerequisite for successful implementation of a prevention programme. Among the different approaches available today, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers a valid technical approach which is applicable for screening of known mutants and polymorphisms as well as in locating regions of DNA bearing unknown mutations. We analysed 356 unrelated beta-thalassemia heterozygotes by DGGE and detected 30 anomalous DGGE patterns. Fifteen mutations were characterized after sequencing 25 anomalous patterns. Of these, codon 10(GCC --> GCA) is a recently reported novel beta-thalassemia mutation while -28(A --> G) and codon 121(G --> T) are being reported for the first time in the Indian population. HbS and HbE also showed two anomalous DGGE patterns each. Framework (FW) linkage studies showed that four mutations were associated with different beta-globin gene frameworks. Linkage of IVSI-5(G --> C) and cap site +1(A --> C) to FW2 and 619-bp deletion to FW1 is being observed for the first time. Multiple DGGE patterns corresponding to the same mutation is one of the major drawbacks of this technique. In spite of this, if sufficient preliminary work has been carried out to compile a comprehensive catalogue of DGGE patterns; this is a powerful approach to characterize the mutation or to localize a small region of DNA in the case of rarer mutations.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · American Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: The three major allelic variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene are responsible for structural defects leading to immune deficiency. The corresponding mutations are all located within exon 1 and result in amino acid substitutions in the collagenous region of the protein, which is involved in the oligomerization process. We have developed a simple and efficient strategy that permits simultaneous genotyping of these known allelic variants of the MBL gene by means of a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reaction followed by a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In addition, this procedure also allows for screening novel alleles due to mutations located elsewhere in the analyzed segment of the gene. During this study, we identified a previously undescribed nucleotide change in exon 1 at codon 44.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: In Caucasians, the R506Q mutation in exon 10 of the factor V gene (FV Leiden) confers an increased risk of thromboembolism. We have scanned this region of the gene for possible mutations in 450 subjects from populations at risk for sickle cell disease (SCD). The R506Q mutation was absent in subjects from sub-Saharan Africa, whereas its allelic frequency was 2.5% in the West Indies. Only one other substitution with no functional consequences in vitro (R485K) was found (32.4% allelic frequency) in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, we found no mutations in exon 10 of the FV gene constituting an additional risk factor for thrombosis in SCD in sub-Saharan Africa. This suggests that the putative selective advantage conferred by R506Q does not exist in these populations, unless R485K has functional consequences in vivo. If further suggests that R506Q in American Africans is of Caucasian origin. Our data are the first to document ethnic variations in the frequency of the R485K polymorphism.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 1997 · Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by marked intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe insulin resistance, and altered glucose homeostasis. This syndrome is related to mutations in the insulin receptor (IR) gene that impair the transmission of the insulin signal by several mechanisms. There is no effective therapy and patients usually die within the first months of life. Here we report the prenatal diagnosis of leprechaunism in two unrelated families in which affected children were compound heterozygotes with two different deficient IR alleles. In family Par-1, the disease IR alleles carried a missense mutation located in exon 18 (Arg1092-->Trp) and exon 20 (Glu1179-->Lys). In family Als, a 3-basepair deletion causing the loss of Asn281 in exon 3 and a major deletion of exons 10-13 were present in the maternal and paternal mutant IR alleles, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis was made in each family by a specific approach combining denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Southern blotting. This methodology allowed us to correctly predict the genotype of the two fetuses at the IR locus.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1997 · Prenatal Diagnosis
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the biological properties of insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with leprechaunism (leprechaun Par-1). Patient cells displayed normal insulin binding capacity and affinity. Basal in vivo autophosphorylation and in vitro exogenous kinase activity of patient IRs were elevated twofold to threefold compared with control receptors, and insulin had no further effect on these processes. Moreover, patient IRs were unable to promote the stimulation of metabolic and mitogenic pathways. IR substrate-1 (IRS-1) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase tyrosine phosphorylation and glycogen and DNA synthesis were not increased in the basal state in patient fibroblasts and were also insensitive to the stimulatory effect of insulin. As for IGF-I, although binding and receptor kinase activity were normal, the ability to stimulate glycogen and DNA synthesis was altered in patient cells. Two mutant alleles of the IR gene were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and direct sequencing. The maternal allele contained a point mutation in exon 18 encoding the tryptophan-for-arginine substitution at position 1092, and the paternal allele had a point mutation in exon 20 substituting lysine for glutamic acid at codon 1179. Thereby, leprechaun Par-1 was a compound heterozygote for two missense mutations located in the IR beta-subunit. The present investigation provides the first evidence that leprechaunism can be causally related to structural alterations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the IR. These alterations result in severe impairment of insulin and IGF-I action.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Metabolism

  • No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Human Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Human Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the structure and function of the insulin receptor (IR) in two sisters with leprechaunism. The patients had inherited alterations in the IR gene and were compound heterozygotes. Their paternal IR allele carried a major deletion, including exons 10-13, which shifted the reading frame and introduced a premature chain termination codon in the IR sequence. This allele was expressed at a very low level in cultured fibroblasts (< 10% of total IR messenger ribonucleic acid content) and encoded a truncated protein lacking transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. The maternal IR allele was deleted of 3 bp in exon 3, causing the loss of Asn281 in the alpha-subunit. This allele generated levels of IR messenger ribonucleic acid and cell surface receptors similar to those seen in control fibroblasts. However, IRs from patients' cells had impaired insulin binding and exhibited in vivo and in vitro constitutive activation of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity. As a result of this IR-preactivated state, the cells were desensitized to insulin stimulation of glycogen and DNA syntheses. These findings strongly suggest that Asn281 of the IR alpha-subunit plays a critical role in the inhibitory constraint exerted by the extracellular alpha-subunit over the intracellular kinase activity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1996 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: We report the molecular analysis of the beta subunit of the rod phosphodiesterase (PDEB) gene in a consanguineous autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa family that shows homozygosity for polymorphisms in the genomic region comprising this gene, and positive linkage between a PDEB marker and the disease. The two affected sisters are homozygous for a T to G transversion in codon 699 of the PDEB gene, leading to the substitution of a leucine by an arginine residue. This change, enclosed in the catalytic domain of the PDEB, could result in a modification of the protein structure preventing the physiological hydrolysis of cGMP.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Human Genetics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes

Publication Stats

979 Citations
134.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2005
    • Hôpital Universitaire Robert Debré
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2000
    • King Edward Memorial Hospital
      Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • 1992
    • Hôpital Henri Mondor (Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor)
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France