[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is less common in China than in the United States and perinatal characteristics predict breast cancer risk in the offspring. We determined levels of pregnancy hormones in Boston and Shanghai to identify those possibly involved in the intrauterine origin of breast cancer. Participants and methods: We compared maternal and cord blood levels of estradiol, estriol, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factors (IGF) 1 and 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, adiponectin and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 241 Caucasian and 295 Chinese women.
In both centers, hormone levels at the 16th were predictive of those at the 27th gestational week, but there was little correlation between maternal and cord blood levels. In cord blood, we found significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of estradiol (44.2%), testosterone (54.5%), IGF-2 (22.7%) and strikingly SHBG (104.6%) in Shanghai women, whereas the opposite was true for IGF-1 (-36.8%).
Taking into account the current understanding of the plausible biological role of the examined endocrine factors, those likely to be involved in the intrauterine origin of breast cancer are SHBG and IGF-2, with higher cord blood levels among Chinese, and IGF-1, with higher cord blood levels among Caucasian women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer incidence and birth weight are higher among Caucasian than Asian women, and birth size has been positively associated with breast cancer risk. Pregnancy hormone levels, however, have been generally lower in Caucasian than Asian women. We studied components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in cord blood from 92 singleton babies born in Boston, USA, and 110 born in Shanghai, China, in 1994-1995. Cord blood IGF-1 was significantly higher among Caucasian compared with Chinese babies (P<10(-6)). The opposite was noted for IGF-2 (P approximately 10(-4)). IGF-1 was significantly positively associated with birth weight and birth length in Boston, but not Shanghai. In contrast, stronger positive, though statistically non-significant, associations of IGF-2 with birth size were only evident in Shanghai. The associations of birth weight and birth length were positive and significant in taller women (for IGF-1 in Boston P approximately 0.003 and 0.03, respectively; for IGF-2 in Shanghai P approximately 0.05 and approximately 0.04, respectively), among whom maternal anthropometry does not exercise strong constraints in foetal growth. The documentation of higher cord blood levels of IGF-1, a principal growth hormone that does not cross the placenta, among Caucasian than in Asian newborns is concordant with breast cancer incidence in these populations.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a number of tools have been developed to measure 'quality of life' in patients with malignant glioma, there remains no completely satisfactory technique that incorporates a quality of life measure into survival analysis. We propose that a patient's ability to maintain independent activity offers a way to accomplish this goal.
An independent living score (ILS) is generated by awarding points on a monthly basis based on Karnofsky score and weighing the score based on the particular month of the clinical course. The ILS has a large range for any given survival, and can discriminate important treatment effects to which standard survival analyses are completely insensitive. Using this score and several variations, we were able to retrospectively analyze a patient cohort to assess what correlated with ILS.
We found a strong correlation with survival of all the measures tested. Interestingly, we found that patients for whom a total resection was performed and those who were most intensively treated had significantly higher ILS values, suggesting that not only did more aggressive treatment improve survival but that it did not simply increase survival at the expense of the time a patient remained independent.
Since the general course for patients with malignant glioma is one of increasing disability and loss of independence, we feel that these measures can serve as a way to distinguish between those therapies that increase survival at the expense of quality of life versus those that do not. Consideration should be given to incorporating these measures into prospective trials.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a population-based case-control study in Yangzhong, China, we investigated the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 and susceptibility to gastric cancer and its premalignant lesion, chronic gastritis. The possible gene-gene interactions between GSTP1 polymorphisms and GSTM1, GSTT1 genes were explored.
Epidemiologic data were collected by standard questionnaire from 133 gastric cancer cases, 166 chronic gastritis cases, and 433 cancer-free population controls. Blood samples for Helicobacter pylori and molecular marker assays were collected from 84 gastric cancer cases, 146 chronic gastritis, and 429 population controls. GSTP1 polymorphisms were determined by the PCR-RFLP method and H. pylori infection was measured by the ELISA method. Associations between certain GSTP1 genotypes and both gastric cancer and chronic gastritis were assessed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from logistic regression.
The distributions of three GSTP1 genotypes, Ile/Ile, Ile/Val, and Val/Val, were similar in gastric cancer cases, chronic gastritis, and controls. After adjusting for age, gender, education, body mass index, pack-year of smoking, alcohol drinking, H. pylori infection, salt and fruit intakes, the adjusted ORs of Val/Val were 1.3 (95% CI: 0.1-11.2) for gastric cancer and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.2-4.8) for chronic gastritis. Combining the Val alleles (Val/Val and Ile/Val) into one group, no association was observed between GSTP1 and both gastric cancer and chronic gastritis. In addition, the allelism at the GSTP1 locus did not increase gastric cancer and chronic gastritis risks associated with the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypes.
Our data suggest that the GSTP1 genotype seems not to be associated with the risk of gastric cancer and chronic gastritis in a high-risk Chinese population.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Cancer Causes and Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer among women, while the evidence for men is considered weaker. We conducted a quantitative summary analysis to evaluate the existing evidence that obesity increases the risk of renal cell cancer both among men and women. We identified all studies examining body weight in relation to kidney cancer, available in MEDLINE from 1966 to 1998. The quantitative summary analysis was limited to studies assessing obesity as body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2)), or equivalent. The risk estimates and the confidence intervals were extracted from the individual studies, and a mixed effect weighted regression model was used. We identified 22 unique studies on each sex, and the quantitative analysis included 14 studies on men and women, respectively. The summary relative risk estimate was 1.07 (95% CI 1.05-1.09) per unit of increase in BMI (corresponding to 3 kg body weight increase for a subject of average height). We found no evidence of effect modification by sex. Our quantitative summary shows that increased BMI is equally strongly associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer among men and women.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2001 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore possible associations between the reproductive history amongst women and the risk of parathyroid adenoma (PA).
Two nationwide Swedish registries. The Fertility Register included data on more than 3.4 million livebirths between 1943 and 1992 amongst Swedish females born 1925-72. The Cancer Register encompasses more than 1800 women with a diagnosis of PA 1960 until 1992.
All women resident in Sweden 1960-92.
Cases were all 1800 women born 1925-72 reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry with a histopathological diagnosis of PA. Five controls were selected at random for each case by matching for the month and year of birth. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks of PA.
High parity (four or more live births) was associated with an increased risk of PA. Amongst women with a diagnosis of PA before menopause (i.e. the age of 50 years) there was an increased risk of PA with younger age at first childbirth. Nulliparous women were at increased risk for PA before menopause, and at decreased risk after menopause.
There is an association between childbearing and the risk of PA, which has not previously been demonstrated, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain to be determined.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2001 · Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has important autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine roles in the promotion of growth. Alterations of the IGF system have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies, but the relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is unclear. To address this issue, we used an immunoradiometric assay to quantify IGF-1 levels in serum samples in a hospital-based, case-control study in Greece. The study subjects were all men and included 53 patients with HCC positive for hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus infections, 20 virus-negative HCC patients, 25 virus-negative patients with metastatic liver cancer (MLC), and 111 virus-negative control subjects. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression, using IGF-1 as the dependent variable. The mean value of IGF-1 was 65.9 ng/ml among virus-positive HCC patients, 79.5 ng/ml among virus-negative HCC patients, 110.8 ng/ml among patients with MLC, and 174.7 ng/ml among hospital controls. After controlling for the degree of liver damage, as assessed by prothrombin time and serum albumin level, the reduction in IGF-1 level among HCC patients was found to be more than could be attributed to liver damage alone. This finding may have both diagnostic and pathophysiological implications.
No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet appears to be a major determinant in the incidence of prostate cancer. In a case-control study conducted in Athens, Greece, we found that dairy products, butter and seed oils were positively associated with risk of prostate cancer, whereas cooked and raw tomatoes were inversely associated. We utilized the data from this study to calculate the population attributable fractions under alternative assumptions of feasible dietary changes. For each subject, a dietary score was calculated and categorized into approximately quintiles, representing increasing levels of prostate cancer risk as a function of the intake of the five discriminatory food groups or items. Population attributable fractions in terms of this dietary score were calculated taking into account multivariate adjustment. We observed that, if all individuals were shifted to the baseline category, the incidence of prostate cancer in this study population would be reduced by 41% (95% confidence interval 23-59%). However, if all individuals were shifted to the adjacent lower risk quintile, the expected incidence reduction would be a more modest 19%. The incidence of prostate cancer in Greece could be reduced by about two-fifths if the population increased the consumption of tomatoes and reduced the intake of dairy products, and substituted olive oil for other added lipids.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · European Journal of Cancer Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umbilical cord blood transplantation is considered an alternative to traditional bone marrow transplantation for patients who do not have matched sibling donors. In this study, we examined the effects of ex vivo treatment of human cord blood cells with cytokine mixtures and assessed the ability of treated cells to engraft in NOD-scid mice. We incubated the cord blood with a four-factor cytokine mixture of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-11 and stem cell factor, or with a two-factor cytokine mixture of thrombopoietin and flt-3. Incubation of cord blood for 48 h with either cytokine mixture did not affect progenitor cell number or proliferative potential as measured by the high proliferative potential (HPP) assay. Cytokine-treated cord blood injected into irradiated NOD-scid mice resulted in multilineage human engraftment. Overall, incubation with cytokines resulted in variable levels of engraftment with different cord blood samples. Incubation of cord blood with the four-factor cytokine mixture resulted in increased survival of irradiated NOD-scid recipients. These results demonstrate that short-term ex vivo treatment of human progenitor cells gives variable results on in vivo multipotential capabilities.
No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This large population-based nested case-control study investigated the importance of perinatal characteristics as risk factors for prostate cancer in later life in a cohort of men who were born between 1889 and 1941 in Stockholm, Sweden. Eight hundred and thirty-four prostate cancer cases over 18 years of age and of singleton birth were identified from the cohort between 1958 and 1994. For each case, singleton males born live to the first four mothers admitted after the case's mother were selected as potential controls; 1880 eligible controls were included in the study. For each study subject, we obtained data on mother's parity, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia before delivery, age at delivery, and socioeconomic status, as well as child's birth length and weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from logistic regression analyses. We found no statistically significant differences between cases and controls with respect to maternal age, socioeconomic status, or parity. Birth weight, birth length, and placental weight were also not significantly related to prostate cancer risk. Pregnancy toxemia (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.07-1.45) and longer gestation age were associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer; the OR estimate was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99) for each 1-week prolongation of the duration of gestation. Our results suggest that birth size indicators are not important risk factors for prostate cancer in later life. In addition, our data on gestation age indicate that the late in utero environment may be as important as the early in utero environment in the modulation of prostate cancer risk in offspring.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a 4-year period from January 1995 to December 1998, blood samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 333 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as from 360 controls who were hospitalized for eye, ear, nose, throat or orthopedic conditions in Athens, Greece. Coded sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by third-generation enzyme immunoassays, and information on smoking habits and beverage consumption was obtained. We found a significant dose-response, positive association between smoking and HCC risk [>/= 2 packs per day, odds ratio (OR)=2.5]. This association was stronger in individuals without chronic infection with either HBV or HCV (>/= 2 packs per day, OR=2.8). Consumption of alcoholic beverages above a threshold of 40 glasses per week increased the risk of HCC (OR=1.9). We also found evidence of a strong, statistically significant and apparently super-multiplicative effect of heavy smoking and heavy drinking in the development of HCC (OR for both exposures=9.6). This interaction was particularly evident among individuals without either HBsAg or anti-HCV (OR for both exposures=10.9). Coffee intake was not positively associated with HCC risk, but the reverse could not be excluded for the subgroup of chronically infected individuals. In conclusion, tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased risk of HCC, especially when these 2 exposures occur together.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and heterogeneity of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in a cohort of female sex workers in Dakar (Senegal) were determined by using endocervical-swab-based PCR DNA amplification assays. The overall prevalence of cervical chlamydial infection was 28.5% (206 of 722), and most of these infections were asymptomatic. An increased number of sexual partners was significantly associated with infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.77), while the presence of a yeast infection was negatively associated with chlamydial infection (AOR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.83). Six different C. trachomatis genotypes were identified based on phylogenetic analysis of the omp1 gene sequences. Interestingly, genotype E predominated (47.6%) and was not associated with visible signs of cervical inflammation compared to non-E genotypes (P < 0.05). Overall, the high rate of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection by genotype E may suggest genotype-specific properties that confer a transmission advantage in this high risk population.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether tea consumption and intake of other beverages increases bladder cancer risk.
A case-control study was conducted in Kaohsiung, Taiwan between August 1996 and June 1997. Index patients studied were consecutive patients with histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed bladder cancer in two major hospitals. For each patient, 4 controls were selected from patients with non-neoplastic and nonurologic diseases undergoing surgical operations in the same hospital and individually matched by sex, age, and date of admission. Using a structured questionnaire, a trained interviewer interviewed 40 patients and 160 controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for ethnicity, family history, and smoking status and matching variables were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
Tea consumption overall was associated with increased bladder cancer risk (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.34 to 8.05). Compared with non-tea drinkers, the odds ratios of bladder cancer for oolong tea drinkers was 3.00 (95% CI 1.20 to 7.47); for non-oolong tea drinkers (black and/or other green tea), it was 14.86 (95% CI 2.13 to 103.83). The risk was greater among those who began to drink tea before age 40 (OR 9.50, 95% CI 2.39 to 37.75) and those who had been drinking tea for more than 30 years (OR 17.75, 95% CI 3.00 to 105.17). Coffee, tap water, and alcohol consumption were associated with a slightly increased risk, and both soy juice and rice juice consumption were associated with reduced risk; none of these odds ratio estimates were statistically significant, however.
Our results suggest that tea consumption is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the nutritional etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by conducting a case-control study in Athens, Greece. Despite the high morbidity and substantial human suffering produced by BPH, little research has been undertaken concerning the nutritional etiology of this disease.
The study sample consisted of 184 patients with histologically confirmed BPH and 246 control patients without clinical evidence of prostate disease. All patients and controls were permanent residents of the greater Athens area. The data were modeled through unconditional logistic regression.
Among the food groups, fruits were inversely related to BPH risk, with a logistic regression-derived odds ratio of 0.79 per quintile increase and 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.93. Increased consumption of both butter and margarine was positively associated with BPH risk, and a marginally significant positive association was also evident for seed oils. No overall association was found with respect to consumption of olive oil. In analyses evaluating the role of nutrients rather than foods, zinc, an element selectively concentrated in the prostate gland, was significantly positively associated with BPH risk.
Our study provides evidence that, among added lipids, butter and margarine may increase the risk of BPH, and fruit intake may reduce this risk. Dietary zinc may play an important role in the etiology of BPH.