Bo Yu

Peking University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (48)109.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Der p 2, a major allergen derived from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens worldwide. Recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) is useful in clinical diagnosis and disease-specific immunotherapy. However, previous studies showed that Der p 2 can only be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as inclusion bodies, thus protein refolding is required to obtain functional products. Here we report a new method to produce biologically active Der p 2 protein in E. coli. N-terminal hexahistidine- and trigger factor (TF)-tagged Der p 2 was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and purified using a combination of chromatography processes. This procedure produced milligram-level high purity Der p 2 per liter of bacterial culture. Moreover, far-UV region circular dichroism (CD) analysis and serum specific IgE reactivity test demonstrated that the secondary structure and IgE reactivity properties of rDer p 2 produced in our study were almost identical to those of natural Der p 2 (nDer p 2). In conclusion, the method developed in this work provides a useful tool for the production of immunologically active recombinant Der p 2 for clinical applications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Protein Expression and Purification
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Impaired Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) function has been associated with the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, there are only few studies reporting on the TLR2-induced immunological responses of circulating leucocytes of AD patients. We thus investigated the expression and secretion of Th1, Th2 and Th17/22 cytokines triggered by TLR2 ligands in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AD patients. Expression of TLR2, 1, 6 and high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) were further investigated to evaluate the outcome of immune response in AD. Methods: Expression of TLR2, 1, 6 and FcεRI in PBMCs from AD patients and healthy individuals were measured by qPCR. Subsequent to stimulation with TLR2 ligands PGN and Pam3CSK4, expression and secretion of Th1, Th2 and Th17/22 cytokines were investigated by qPCR and ELISA. Results: The levels of TLR2, 1, 6 mRNA were not altered in both groups of subjects while that of FcεRI was increased in AD patients. Subsequent to the activation by TLR2 ligands, PBMCs from AD patients significantly released less IFN-γ, IL-17F and IL-22 than those from healthy controls while no detectable level of release was observed with the other cytokines. In contrast, significantly higher levels of mRNA expression for TNF-α, IL5, IL-17A and IL-22 were observed in TLR2 activated PBMCs of AD patients than those of healthy control. Conclusions: PBMCs from AD patients are defective in the secretion of Th1 and Th17/22 cytokines in response to TLR2 ligands. The inconsistent increased expression of the mRNA for the corresponding Th1 cytokines and the Th2 cytokines IL-5 suggested that there may be alterations of downstream signaling events in the cytokine release mechanisms of PBMCs that are associated with the development of AD.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was identified as an endogenous tissue protective agent against apoptosis in many cell types. The mechanism by which HGF protects primary endothelial cells (ECs) has not yet been completely elucidated. FOXO1 and FOXO3a, two members of the FOXO family, are the most abundant FOXO isoforms in mature endothelial cells. In this study, we aimed to explore whether FOXO1 and FOXO3a play similar roles in HGF-mediated protection against apoptosis in mature endothelial cells. Our result showed that HGF prevented ECs from oxidative-stress induced apoptosis in part by inducing the phosphorylation of FOXO proteins. FOXO1 and FOXO3a are equally important in this process by regulating the expression of Bim, PUMA, FasL and TRAIL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Cell Biology International
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic pathogen that can be treated with ganciclovir. Mutations in the UL97 gene of CMV render the virus ganciclovir resistance. These include H520Q and C603W mutations, against which we developed a novel genotyping assay for their identification.MethodsPCR reactions were performed to amplify fragments of the UL97 gene containing H520Q or C603W mutations. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) coupled with unlabeled DNA probes was employed to identify the shift in melting temperature of the probe–template complex, which reflexes the presence of point mutations.ResultsMelting point analysis performed on the dimeric DNA of PCR products of UL97 gene could not identify mutations in the gene. When coupled to unlabeled probes, point mutations in UL97 can be identified by analyzing the melting curve of probe–template complex. When WT and mutant UL97 DNAs were mixed together to mimic heterogeneous viral population in clinical samples, the genotyping assay is sensitive enough to detect H520Q and C603W mutants that constitute 10% of total DNA input.Conclusion Probe-based HRMA is effective in detecting H520Q and C603W mutations in the UL97 gene of CMV.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study, was to investigate the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by detecting changes of ER chaperone protein 78 and ER‑resident caspase 12 in the basolateral amygdala after exposure to single prolonged stress (SPS). The established rat model of PTSD was generated by exposure of the animals to SPS. The expression of glucose‑regulated protein 78 (GRP78) was examined by immunofluorescence, western blot and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR), and the expression of caspase 12 was examined by western blot and RT‑PCR. The morphological changes of the ER were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that GRP78 expression significantly increased when compared to that in the control group 1 day after SPS exposure (P<0.05). The expression of caspase 12 was also significantly upregulated after SPS exposure and peaked at 7 days following SPS (P<0.05). Morphological evaluation showed that a tumescent ER, ER vacuolization and degranulation of the ER were present following SPS. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that SPS induced GRP78 and caspase 12 upregulation and morphological changes of the ER in the amygdala, which may play important roles in the pathogenesis of PTSD rats.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to methylene blue-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Three U. urealyticum strains including the standard serotype 1 and 5, and a clinically collected strain were used in this study. Strains were first incubated in 96-well culture plates in the presence of methylene blue with decreasing concentrations (from 1 to 0.015625 mg mL(-1) ) for 20 or 60min, and then submitted to irradiation with a light-emitting diode laser with a power density of 100mW/cm(2) for 8, 17, 34 or 68min. Regrowth of the strains was performed soon after irradiation. A significant inactivation effect was observed after PACT. Longer incubation time induced more extensive inactivation of U. urealyticum. No difference in response to PACT was observed between the two biovars of U. urealyticum. It was concluded that PACT had a significant inactivation effect on U. urealyticum, and it might be a promising alternative treatment for resistant U. urealyticum infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Photochemistry and Photobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common encephalic malignant tumors. Due to a high recurrence rate and a lack of effective treatments, the average survival rate remains low. Temozolomide (TMZ), a class of alkylating agent, is widely used as a first-line therapeutic drug during the adjuvant treatment for GBM patients. However, most patients exhibit a palpable resistance to TMZ treatment. Additionally, the underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. In this study, glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were found to be closely associated with the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ. We also found that TMZ markedly induced xCT, the subunit of glutamate/cystine transporter system xc- expression, which together with the GSH synthesis was increased while the TMZ-inducible ROS level was decreased in GBM cells. In addition, the cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) acivity, a key enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway was enhanced by TMZ, which insured a cysteine supply and GSH synthesis in a compensatory manner when xCT was blocked. Thus, the individual inhibition of xCT by siRNA and a pharmacological inhibitor (sulfasalazine) only partially inhibited GSH synthesis and moderately enhanced the GBM cell sensitivity to TMZ. However, the TMZ‑induced cytotoxicity was markedly increased along with a marked decrease in GSH levels as result of co-treatment with erastin, which inhibited cysteine uptake from xCT transporter and suppressed CTH activity, leading to impaired transformation from methionine to cysteine. In conclusion, to GBM therapy with a drug combination of TMZ and erastin may be beneficial.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Oncology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic melanoma, the primary cause of skin cancer-related death, warrants new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that target the regulatory machinery at molecular level. The heterogeneity and complexity of melanoma result in the difficulty to find biomarkers and targets for early detection and treatment. Here, we investigated metastasis-associated proteins by comparing the proteomic profiles of primary cutaneous melanomas to their matched lymph node metastases, which minimizes heterogeneity among samples from different patients. Results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by proteomic analysis revealed eight differentially expressed proteins. Among them, seven proteins (α-enolase, cofilin-1, LDH, m-β-actin, Nm23, GRP78, and MDA-9) showed increased and one (annexin A2) showed decreased expression in metastatic lymph node tissues than in primary melanomas. MDA-9 and GRP78 were the most highly expressed proteins in lymph node metastases, which was validated by immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, exosomes from serum samples of metastatic melanoma patients contained higher levels of MDA-9 and GRP78 than those of patients without metastases, indicating the potential of MDA-9 and GRP78 to be biomarkers for early detection of metastasis. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown confirmed a functional role for MDA-9 and GRP78 to promote cell invasion in the A375 cells. Finally, we showed that GRP78 co-localized with MDA-9 in 293T cells. Taken together, our findings support MDA-9, co-expressed with GRP78, as a melanoma protein associated with lymph node metastasis. Investigating how MDA-9 and GRP78 interact to contribute to melanoma metastasis and disease progression could reveal new potential avenues of targeted therapy and/or useful biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Tumor Biology
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    Bo Yu · Lili Wen · Bing Xiao · Fang Han · Yuxiu Shi
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In our previous researches, we have found that apoptosis was induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rats. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis has been implicated in the development of several disorder diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum-related pathway is involved in single-prolonged stress (SPS) induced apoptosis in the mPFC of PTSD rats by examining the expression levels of ATF6 alpha (ATF6α), two important downstream molecular chaperones of ATF6α in the ER stress: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and ERP57, and apoptotic factors caspase 12, caspase 9, and caspase 3.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · BMC Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the blood brain barrier (BBB) change caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of acute brain injury after SAH. The SD rat model of SAH was firstly established by endovascular filament perforation technique. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), BBB permeability and ultrastructure of brain tissue at different time points after SAH were respectively observed by Doppler flowmetry, evans blue extravasation and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the expression changes of Claudin-5, Occludin, Zo-1 and Caveolin-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Furthermore, the expressions of Akt, P-Akt and Foxo1A were also measured by Western blot. The change of BBB permeability showed two peaks at 3 and 72 h after SAH, corresponding to the change of rCBF. The BBB tight junction opening can be observed after SAH, and the largest opening was occurred at 3 h and 72 h. There was no significant change in Caveolin-1, Claudin-5 and Akt expressions after SAH (P > 0.05), while Zo-1 and Occludin were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The expression of P-Akt was obviously reduced at 30 min and then increased at 1 and 24 h, while Foxo1A was up-regulated at 1 and 24 h after SAH (P < 0.05). Down-regulated Zo-1 and Occludin, as well as Akt/FOXO signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of tight junction opening and the BBB permeability in the early stage after SAH.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Metabolic Brain Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The HLA-B*58:01 allele is associated with allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (sCADR) in certain geographic regions, but the diversity of the correlation is large. In addition, the currently available HLA-B*58:01 testing methods are too laborious for use in routine clinical detection. The objective of this study was to develop a new, convenient method for the detection of HLA-B*58:01 and to investigate the association of HLA-B*58:01 with allopurinol-induced sCADR in a Han Chinese population. Methods: A new method combining sequence-specific primers (SSP) and TaqMan probe amplification was developed in this study and was used to detect the HLA-B*58:01 in 48 allopurinol-induced sCADR, 133 allopurinol-tolerant, and 280 healthy individuals. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were assessed by a commercial PCR-SSP HLA-B typing kit. The low limit of detection was detected by serial dilution of an HLA-B*58:01-positive DNA template. Results: The new method successfully identified HLA-B*58:01 in thousands of HLA-B alleles, and the results for 344 DNA samples were perfectly concordant with the results of the commercial PCR-SSP HLA-B kit. The analytical sensitivity is 100% and the specificity is over 99%. The low limit of detection of this assay is 100 pg DNA, which was 10 times more sensitive than the commercial PCR-SSP kit. HLA-B*58:01 was present in 93.8% of the patients with sCADR, 7.5% of the allopurinol-tolerant patients, and 12.1% of the healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-B*58:01 was significantly higher in the sCADR group than in the control group (p<0.0001). However, there was no significant difference between the allopurinol-tolerant and control groups (p=0.1547). Conclusions: HLA-B*58:01 has a strong association with allopurinol-induced sCADR in Han Chinese. The newly developed method is reliable for HLA-B*58:01 detection prior to allopurinol therapy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Owing to the mounting evidence of serum lipid changes in atherosclerosis, there has been increasing interest in developing new methods for analyzing atherogenic lipoprotein profiles. The separation of lipoprotein and lipoprotein subclasses has been demonstrated using a microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) system [1]. In contrast to this previous study, the present report demonstrates that sdLDL peak efficiencies can be improved dramatically by adding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the sample. Moreover, NBD C6-ceramide was identified as a satisfactory dye for specific labeling and quantitation of individual serum lipoproteins. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with ultracentrifuge separated small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL). A high correlation was observed between these two methods for sdLDL-cholesterol. Lipid levels were investigated between atherosclerotic patients and healthy controls. The variation of serum atherogenic lipoprotein profiles for atherosclerotic patients pre- and post-treatment was assessed by microchip CE. This method has the potential for the rapid and sensitive detection of different lipoprotein classes as well as their subclasses and is therefore suitable for routine clinical applications. Microchip-based atherogenic lipoprotein profile assays will greatly improve the analysis of risk factors in atherosclerosis and will provide useful information for monitoring the effect of therapies on atherosclerotic disease.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Successfully developing new products is critical to an entrepreneurial firm's continued success. Based on the resource management model, this study aims to answer the key research question: how entrepreneurial firms leverage network competence and technological capability to enhance their new product development (NPD) performance in a turbulent environment. Using data collected from 134 entrepreneurial firms in China, we investigate the performance effects of network competence and technological capability, and the moderating effects of technological turbulence and market turbu-lence. Our findings show that network competence has a positive impact on NPD performance and technological capability plays a mediating role between network competence and NPD performance. Technological turbulence enhances the perfor-mance effects of network competence and technological capability; market turbulence advances the performance effect of network competence, but fails to exert significant
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Asia Pacific Journal of Management
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the spatial structure of creativity research can let us clearly understand the specific distribution of research paradigms, thus contributing to better discover other topics we need to study. We picked out 163 top keywords from 4,575 papers on creativity research in the Web of Science Database during the period of 1992–2011, and drawn the keywords network and it spatial structure of major research topics and paradigms by employing K-core of SNA, Co-word analysis, and MDS and the functions of software UCINET 6.0 and NetDraw. The analysis results show that there are five main topics on creativity research: practice applications of creativity, pathology and physiology of creativity, individual-level creativity, organizational-level creativity, and the basic theories and methodologies of creativity, and the regular spatial structure.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Quality and Quantity
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    ABSTRACT: It has been supposed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have neuroprotective effects on brain damage after brain ischemia in animal experiments. Little is known regarding GTPs' protective effects against the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischemic stroke. We investigated the effects of GTPs on the expression of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1, and the corresponding cellular mechanisms involved in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. GTPs (400 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered by intragastric gavage twice a day for 30 days prior to MCAO. At different time points, the expression of claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, and PKCalpha signaling pathway in microvessel fragments of cerebral ischemic tissue were evaluated. GTPs reduced BBB permeability at 60 min and 120 min after ischemia as compared with the vehicle group. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that GTPs could reverse the opening of tight junction (TJ) barrier at 60 min and 120 min after MACO. The decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 in microvessel fragments of cerebral ischemic tissue were significantly prevented by treatment with GTPs at the same time points after ischemia in rats. Furthermore, GTPs could attenuate the increase in the expression levels of PKCalpha mRNA and protein caused by cerebral ischemia. These results demonstrate that GTPs may act as a potential neuroprotective agent against BBB damage at the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia through the regulation of TJ and PKCalpha signaling.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: HSV-1-based vectors have been widely used to achieve targeted delivery of genes into the nervous system. In the current study, we aim to use shRNA-containing HSV-1-based gene delivery system for the therapy of HSV-2 infection. Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and scored daily for 100 days for the severity of vaginal disease. HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 was applied intravaginally daily between 8 to 14 days after HSV-2 challenge. Delivery of HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 had no effect on the onset of disease and acute virus shedding in animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in both the cumulative recurrent lesion days and the number of days with recurrent disease. Around half of the animals in the HSV-2 shRNA group did not develop recurrent disease 100 days post HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 particles are effective in reducing the recurrence of genital herpes caused by HSV-2.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of virological methods
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    Lihua Tang · Wei Zhang · Bing Su · Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic melanoma, the primary cause of skin cancer-related death, warrants new therapeutic approaches that target the regulatory machinery at molecular level. While long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are dysregulated in a number of cancer types, limited data are available on the expression and function of lncRNAs in melanoma metastasis. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the role of 6 metastasis-related lncRNAs in pairs of primary melanoma and matched lymph node metastatic tissues. Among the tested lncRNAs, HOTAIR was the most highly expressed in lymph node metastasis. The role of HOTAIR in melanoma cell motility and invasion was further evaluated by knocking down HOTAIR with siRNAs. Knockdown of HOTAIR resulted in the reduction of motility and invasion of human melanoma cell line A375, as assessed by wound healing assay and Matrigel-based invasion assay. siHOTAIR also suppressed the degradation of gelatin matrix, suggesting that HOTAIR promotes gelatinase activity. Together, our study shows that HOTAIR is overexpressed in metastatic tissue, which is associated with the ability of HOTAIR to promote melanoma cell motility and invasion. These data indicate that lncRNAs may be involved in the metastasis of melanoma and provide support for further evaluation of lncRNAs in melanoma.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Reestablishment of functional networks after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proffered as one of the goals of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation therapeutics. Gap junctions provide essential means for direct cellular communication by transferring small molecules and ions, which may provide insights into the interplay between grafted NSCs and host cells. Thirty-six adult male Wister rats were used in this study. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of brain injury has been performed. Seventy-two hours after CCI injury, animals were randomly assigned to two groups: PBS- and NSC- transplanted group. NSCs-transplanted group received delivery of the NSCs suspension to the cortex below the injury cavity in the ipsilateral hemisphere. At 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-transplantation, we investigated the expression patterns of gap junction-associated connexin 43 (Cx43) in the transplant site and the border of CCI by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR. Our findings showed that Cx43 staining was significantly greater in the transplant site and the border of CCI in the NSCs-transplanted rats compared to the control rats at different time points (p < 0.01 at 1 week, p < 0.05 at 2 and 4 weeks). Significantly higher gene and protein expression of Cx43 was found in NSCs-transplanted rats compared to the control rats in the period of 4 weeks post-transplantation (p < 0.01), and remained at a higher level until 2 weeks with or without NSC transplantation. It is proposed that gap junction-associated Cx43 might participate in NSCs' beneficial effects via gap-junctional coupling by which grafted NSCs integrate into host neural tissue following transplantation after TBI.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Archives of Medical Science
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    Jianghong Wu · Xin Liao · Bo Yu · Bing Su
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    ABSTRACT: New strategies for the treatment of advanced melanoma are urgently required. The RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway and c-Src are deregulated in the majority of malignant melanomas, suggesting that they may interact functionally and are involved in the development and progression of the malignancy. Preclinical studies have demonstrated variable inhibition of melanoma cell growth by dasatinib in vitro. Src may act through different downstream signaling pathways. In the present study, we demonstrate that dasatinib induces changes in cell morphology, characterized by an arborized and contracted appearance, and accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation in primary melanoma cells. This morphological change is demonstrated to be associated with the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated ERK1/2. Together, these results indicate that Src may promote cell proliferation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway in melanoma oncogenesis.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Oncology letters
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of chronic renal failure. Recently, Euonymus alatus showed therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes and its chronic complications. In this study, effects of Euonymus alatus and its mechanism in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy were investigated. Diabetic nephropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by uninephrectomy plus streptozotocin (STZ) administration. Euonymus alatus and irbesartan, as a positive control, were lavaged to these rats for 12 weeks. Our data showed that Euonymus alatus was efficient in lowering HbA1c, improving blood lipids, decreasing 24 h urine protein and protecting kidney function. Pathological studies found kidney damage, including extracellular matrix expansion and glomerulosclerosis, were improved by Euonymus alatus treatment. Further investigation found that the herb had a role in downregulating the expression of transform growth factor β(1). In conclusion, Euonymus alatus has a protective role in diabetic nephropathy, which may be related to its downregulation of transform growth factor β(1) expression.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

Publication Stats

377 Citations
109.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2015
    • Peking University
      • Department of Chemical Biology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2014
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • Harbin Institute of Technology
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2011-2014
    • China Medical University (PRC)
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
    • Liaoning Medical University
      Liaonan, Jiangxi Sheng, China
    • Texas Biomedical Research Institute
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2011-2012
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2010
    • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong