C André

Institut Jacques Monod, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (54)458.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is specifically associated to a t(15; 17) translocation which fuses a gene encoding a nuclear receptor for retinoic acid, RARalpha, to a previously unknown gene PML. The PML protein is localized in the nucleus on a specific domain of unknown function (PML nuclear bodies, NB) previously detected with autoimmune sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These bodies are nuclear matrix-associated and all of their identified components (PML, Sp100, and NDP52) are sharply upregulated by interferons. We show that autoantibodies against both PML and Sp100 are usually associated in sera with multiple nuclear dot anti-nuclear antibodies and demonstrate that PML is an autoantigen, not only in PBC, but also in other autoimmune diseases. In APL, the PML/RARalpha fusion interferes with both the retinoic acid (RA) response and PML localization on nuclear bodies, but the respective contribution of each defect to leukemogenesis is unclear. RA induces the terminal differentiation of APL blasts, yielding to complete remissions, and corrects the localization of NB antigens. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) also induces remissions in APL, seemingly through induction of apoptosis. We show that in APL, As2O3 leads to the rapid reformation of PML bodies. Thus, both agents correct the defect in NB antigen localization, stressing the role of nuclear bodies in the pathogenesis of APL.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is specifically associated to a t(15; 17) translocation which fuses a gene encoding a nuclear receptor for retinoic acid, RARα, to a previously unknown gene PML. The PML protein is localized in the nucleus on a specific domain of unknown function (PML nuclear bodies, NB) previously detected with autoimmune sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These bodies are nuclear matrix-associated and all of their identified components (PML, Sp100, and NDP52) are sharply upregulated by interferons. We show that autoantibodies against both PML and Sp100 are usually associated in sera with multiple nuclear dot anti-nuclear antibodies and demonstrate that PML is an autoantigen, not only in PBC, but also in other autoimmune diseases. In APL, the PML/RARα fusion interferes with both the retinoic acid (RA) response and PML localization on nuclear bodies, but the respective contribution of each defect to leukemogenesis is unclear. RA induces the terminal differentiation of APL blasts, yielding to complete remissions, and corrects the localization of NB antigens. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) also induces remissions in APL, seemingly through induction of apoptosis. We show that in APL, As2O3leads to the rapid reformation of PML bodies. Thus, both agents correct the defect in NB antigen localization, stressing the role of nuclear bodies in the pathogenesis of APL.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: In cycling cells, the rDNAs are expressed from telophase to the end of G2 phase. The early resumption of rDNA transcription at telophase raises the question of the fate of the rDNA transcription machinery during mitosis. At the beginning of mitosis, rDNA transcription is arrested, and the rDNAs are clustered in specific chromosomal sites, the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR). In human cells, we demonstrate that the rDNA transcription machinery, as defined in vitro, is colocalized in some NORs and absent from others whatever the mitotic phase: RNA polymerase I and the RNA polymerase I transcription factors, upstream binding factor and promoter selectivity factor (as verified for TATA-binding protein and TATA-binding protein-associated factor for RNA polymerase I [110]), were colocalized in the same NORs. The RNA polymerase I complex was localized using two different antibodies recognizing the two largest subunits or only the third largest subunit, respectively. These two antibodies immunoprecipitated the RNA polymerase I complex in interphase cells as well as in mitotic cells. These results clearly indicated that the RNA polymerase I complex remained assembled during mitosis. In addition, RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors varied in the same proportions in the positive NORs, suggesting stoichiometric association of these components. The fact that the rDNA transcription machinery is not equally distributed among NORs most likely reflects the implication of the different NORs during the subsequent interphase. Indeed, we demonstrate that only positive NORs exhibit transcription activity at telophase and that the level of transcription activity is related to the amount of rDNA transcription machinery present in the NOR. We propose that assembly of rDNA transcription machinery preceding mitosis determines expression of the rDNAs at the beginning of the next cell cycle. Consequently, the association of rDNAs with the rDNA transcription machinery defines the "active" NORs and the level of activity at the transition telophase/interphase.
    Full-text · Article · May 1996 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine, using a serotyping assay, whether the occurrence of extrahepatic immunologic disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis C is dependent on hepatitis C virus serotype. Prospective study. Liver unit and virology laboratory of a university hospital. 59 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C virus serotype was determined using a recently developed immunoenzymatic assay that detects antibodies directed to serotype-specific immunodominant epitopes. Cryoglobulin, rheumatoid factor, and numerous antitissue antibodies were sought. Biopsies of labial salivary glands were done in 49 of the 59 patients. Prevalence was 59% for serotype 1, 10% for serotype 2, 12% for serotype 3, and 3% for mixed infection. Fifteen percent of patients could not be serotyped. Cryoglobulinemia was found in 36% of patients and rheumatoid factor was found in the serum of 71%. At least one antitissue antibody was found in the serum of 41% of patients; salivary gland biopsy showed lymphocytic capillaritis in 49% of patients. These immunologic abnormalities were seen in patients infected with any of the three serotypes, and prevalences of the abnormalities did not differ significantly among patients infected with different serotypes. We confirm that the prevalence of extrahepatic immunologic abnormalities is high in patients with chronic hepatitis C. These abnormalities may occur in patients infected with any of the three major hepatitis C virus serotypes now present in developed countries.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Annals of internal medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, our group has shown that a 3-month course of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg/monthly) followed by 6 months of intramuscular immunoglobulins (IMIG, 16.5%, 0.35 ml/kg every 15 days) was able to slow or to stop the decline in the glomerular filtration rate, to reduce proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and the histological index of activity on renal biopsy in patients with severe forms of IgA nephropathy (IGAN) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). The aim of this open prospective trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose immunoglobulin therapy in moderate IGAN and HSP with permanent proteinuria. Fourteen patients with moderate IGAN [idiopathic IGAN: n = 11; chronic idiopathic HSP: n = 3] and permanent albuminuria were treated with polyvalent IMIG (16.5%) for 9 months (0.35 ml/kg once a week for 1 month, followed by 0.35 ml/kg every 15 days for a further 8 months). Eligibility criteria in the study were Lee histological stage I, II or III, albuminuria between 300 and 2,000 mg/day and a glomerular filtration rate > 70 ml/min/1.73 m2. IMIG were well tolerated and only 1 patient withdrew from the trial. No viral, renal or immunological side effects were observed. IMIG induced a significant decrease in albuminuria as well as in the histological activity index in the 11 cases in which a follow-up biopsy was performed. There was also a decrease in serum IgA, serum beta 2-microglobulin and IgA immune complex levels, and an increase in serum IgG1 levels. Twelve of the 13 evaluable patients improved during treatment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Nephron
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, our group has shown that a 3-month course of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg/monthly) followed by 6 months of intramuscular immunoglobulins (IMIG, 16.5%, 0.35 ml/kg every 15 days) was able to slow or to stop the decline in the glomerular filtration rate, to reduce proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and the histological index of activity on renal biopsy in patients with severe forms of IgA nephropathy (IGAN) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). The aim of this open prospective trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose immunoglobulin therapy in moderate IGAN and HSP with permanent proteinuria. Fourteen patients with moderate IGAN [idiopathic IGAN: n= 11; chronic idiopathic HSP: n = 3] and permanent albuminuria were treated with polyvalent IMIG (16.5%) for 9 months (0.35 ml/kg once a week for 1 month, followed by 0.35 ml/kg every 15 days for a further 8 months). Eligibility criteria in the study were Lee histological stage I, II or III, albuminuria between 300 and 2,000 mg/ day and a glomerular filtration rate > 70 ml/min/1.73 m2. IMIG were well tolerated and only 1 patient withdrew from the trial. No viral, renal or immunological side effects were observed. IMIG induced a significant decrease in albuminuria as well as in the histological activity index in the 11 cases in which a follow-up biopsy was performed. There was also a decrease in serum IgA, serum β2-microglobulin and IgA immune complex levels, and an increase in serum IgG1 levels. Twelve of the 13 evaluable patients improved during treatment. Systemic symptoms disappeared after 2 months of starting IMIG in the 3 HSP patients. IMIG therapy for IGAN only appeared to be suspensive, since its withdrawal was followed by relapse. We conclude that IMIG may be an effective immunomodulatory treatment of IGAN and HSP, although prospective controlled trials are required to confirm these preliminary results.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Nephron

  • No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · Journal of Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if polyvalent IgG is promising therapy for severe IgG nephropathy. Open prospective cohort study. Referral nephrology unit. 11 adult patients with severe IgA nephropathy (9 who had idiopathic disease and 2 who had Henoch-Schönlein purpura) and indicators of poor prognosis. Patients were given high-dose immunoglobulins (2 g/kg each month) for 3 successive months, followed by intramuscular immunoglobulins (preparation content, 16.5%; 0.35 mL/kg every 15 days) for another 6 months. Histologic changes were analyzed by comparing pre- and post-therapy renal biopsy specimens blindly, using an activity index (14-point scale), a sclerosis index (10-point scale), and a semiquantitative immunofluorescence test of immune deposits. Proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia, enzymuria, and global renal function (creatinine and polyfructosan clearances) were evaluated before and after intervention. Proteinuria (median level before intervention, 5.20 g/d; median level after intervention, 2.25 g/d), hematuria, and leukocyturia decreased substantially. The decrease in glomerular filtration rate was greatly slowed or stopped (median rate of decline in glomerular filtration before, -3.78 mL/min per month; after, 0 mL/min per month). The histologic index of activity (median index before, 5; after, 2) and the staining intensity of glomerular IgA and C3 deposits also decreased. Immunoglobulin therapy was well tolerated. Immunoglobulin therapy may be effective in treating severe IgA nephropathy and protecting renal function. However, prospective controlled trials must confirm these preliminary results.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Annals of internal medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis may be associated with various immunological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine prospectively the prevalence of the clinical, biochemical and pathological immunological abnormalities in a series of 61 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C, compared with those in 61 age- and sex-matched control subjects without markers of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections and with those in 61 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The following investigations were systematically performed before any treatment: detection of serum cryoglobulinemia and rheumatoid factor, detection of a large variety of serum anti-tissue antibodies, biopsy of labial salivary glands, ophthalmological examination, dosage of thyroid-stimulating hormone and in vivo capillary microscopy. Cryoglobulinemia was found in 36% of the hepatitis C virus patients, four of whom had dermatological and/or neurological manifestations of vasculitis, and rheumatoid factor was present in 70%. Serum anti-tissue antibodies were detected in 41% of cases, mostly antinuclear and anti-smooth muscle antibodies. Liver-kidney microsomal and antithyroid antibodies were rare. Salivary gland lesions were found in 49% of the patients: all had lymphocytic capillaritis, sometimes associated with lymphocytic sialadenitis resembling that of Sjögren's syndrome, but without features of sicca syndrome and Ro/SSA antibodies. Five percent of the patients had lichen planus. The prevalences of cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor and anti-tissue antibodies were significantly higher than those in the control group and patients with chronic hepatitis B.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: An increased prevalence of chronic liver disease has been reported in patients with lichen planus (LP). We report six cases of LP associated with chronic active hepatitis and actively replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV). We studied six patients (three men and three women; mean age, 61 years; age range, 47 to 70 years) with various forms (cutaneous and/or mucosal) of LP and abnormal liver test results. Four patients had severe mucosal lesions. Cutaneous and mucosal lesions had a long-term evolution. Liver disease was discovered 2 to 6 years before LP in three cases and was diagnosed at the same time as LP in the three other cases. Liver biopsy performed in five patients showed chronic active hepatitis without cirrhosis in all five cases. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in all cases by second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay. Hepatitis C virus RNA was evidenced by means of polymerase chain reaction in the serum samples from the six patients, proving active viral replication. Lichen planus may be associated with HCV-related chronic active hepatitis. As interferon treatment may induce viral inactivation in some patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, a search for HCV infection should be systematically performed in patients with chronic LP.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Archives of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Design: An increased prevalence of chronic liver disease has been reported in patients with lichen planus (LP). We report six cases of LP associated with chronic active hepatitis and actively replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV). Results: We studied six patients (three men and three women; mean age, 61 years; age range, 47 to 70 years) with various forms (cutaneous and/or mucosal) of LP and abnormal liver test results. Four patients had severe mucosal lesions. Cutaneous and mucosal lesions bad a long-term evolution. Liver disease was discovered 2 to 6 years before LP in three cases and was diagnosed at the same time as LP in the three other cases. Liver biopsy performed in five patients showed chronic active hepatitis without cirrhosis in all five cases. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in all cases by second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay. Hepatitis C virus RNA was evidenced by means of polymerase chain reaction in the serum samples from the six patients, proving active viral replication. Conclusions: Lichen planus may be associated with HCV-related chronic active hepatitis. As interferon treatment may induce viral inactivation in some patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, a search for HCV infection should be systematically performed in patients with chronic LP.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1994 · Archives of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies directed against nucleoli that recognized a doublet of 97-94 kDa in HeLa nuclear protein extracts were identified. The two polypeptides bound equal amounts of antibody, and each was recognized by antibodies affinity purified using the other polypeptide. These antigens were localized in the secondary constriction of PtK1 cells, i.e. the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) where ribosomal genes accumulate. They were observed in human cells in the same sites as the NOR-silver-stained proteins. The molecular mass of the antigens, their characteristics in Western blotting and their localization in nucleoli and NORs during mitosis are consistent with them being RNA polymerase I transcriptional factor, UBF. This identification was confirmed on Western blotted proteins by their identical labelling patterns, using these autoantibodies and an anti-mUBF antibody that had been previously described. We obtained definitive evidence that these autoantibodies recognize UBF by the strong positive labelling of purified hUBF (1 to 4 ng). During interphase, these autoantibodies directed against UBF labelled in a folded filament pattern as small beads that may correspond to individual transcriptional units. In electron microscopy, the antibodies were observed in the dense fibrillar component (DFC) of the nucleoli and at the periphery of the fibrillar centers (FCs). At the end of G2 phase, transcription inactivation was concomitant with the gathering of UBF at mitotic NORs. UBF was not equally distributed between NORs in human cells: some NORs scored negative (2 to 4) and the intensity of labelling of positive NORs (6 to 8) differed. In confocal microscopy, 3-dimensional analysis of mitosis indicated that UBF remained associated with NORs during all mitotic stages and that there was equal partition of UBF between the daughter cells. The relationship between proteins associated with the NORs and ribosomal gene transcription is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1993 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce anti-liver-kidney microsomal-1 (LKM1) antibody positive chronic active hepatitis, simulating type 2 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. The cases of five patients presenting with features of type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and extrahepatic autoimmune manifestations, in whom immunosuppressive treatment had no effect on liver disease are presented. In these patients, HCV infection could be shown by the presence in serum of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction. These cases suggest the following: (a) chronic HCV infection can mimic type 1, as well as type 2, autoimmune chronic active hepatitis; (b) HCV infection might be systematically sought in patients presenting with features of type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, with special care in patients who are unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1993 · Gut
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple nuclear dots antinuclear antibodies display a specific immunofluorescence pattern on HEp-2 cells. They have been reported to be strongly associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, especially when sicca syndrome was present. To determine whether multiple nuclear dots antinuclear antibodies are specific for primary biliary cirrhosis, we studied the clinical, biochemical, immunological and morphological features of 38 patients between December 1983 and September 1990 who had serum multiple nuclear dots antinuclear antibodies detected in an immunology laboratory of a large medical center. Sufficient information was reliable in 36 patients; the group included 31 women and 5 men (mean age = 57.6 +/- 14.5, range = 30 to 87). Fifteen patients (42%) had primary biliary cirrhosis, 5 patients (14%) had type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, 4 patients (11%) had liver disease of unknown cause and 12 patients (33%) had various immunological disorders but no liver disease. Two of the patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (13%) had clinical sicca syndrome. Our study demonstrates the following: (a) serum multiple nuclear dots antinuclear antibodies are not specific for liver disease because they can be observed in one third of patients with various immunological disorders without liver involvement, and (b) serum multiple nuclear dots antinuclear antibodies are not specific for PBC because they can also be observed in type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Our results also suggest that patent sicca syndrome is abnormally present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and multiple nuclear dots antinuclear antibodies.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1992 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting techniques, we have identified monoclonal IgM lambda from two patients that are specific for lamins A and C and lamin B, respectively. Lamins A, B, and C are peripheral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope with structural similarities to cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins. When studied by indirect immunofluorescence on rat tissues, the serum containing anti-lamin B IgM stained smooth and striated muscles in addition to nuclear envelopes. Lamin B antibodies affinity purified from this serum were able to label muscle cells, suggesting that lamin B shares an epitope(s) with an unidentified muscular component(s). Since in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay there was no reactivity with a panel of proteins which are frequent targets of "natural" antibodies, these monoclonal IgM appear to belong to the rare category of IgM that possess a restricted specificity.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1992 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the perichromosomal architecture established during mitosis. Entry into mitosis brings about a dramatic reorganization of both nuclear and cytoplasmic structures in preparation for cell division. While the nuclear envelope breaks down, nuclear proteins are redistributed during chromosome condensation. Some of these proteins are found around the chromosomes, but little is known concerning their nature and function. Ten autoimmune sera were used to study the microenvironment of chromosomes and, in particular, the chromosome periphery. They were selected for their anti-nucleolar specificity and were found to recognize three nucleolar proteins that coat the chromosomes during mitosis. The distribution of these antigens was followed through the cell cycle by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The antigens dispersed very early during prophase and simultaneously with the chromosome condensation suggesting a correlation between these two processes. The antigens have apparent molecular weights of 53, 66, and 103 kDa on SDS-PAGE migration. Elution of the antibodies and immunopurification showed that they are RNA-associated proteins. The coimmunoprecipitating RNA moiety involved in these RNPs appeared to be U3, but the antigens are not related to the fibrillarin family. Therefore, small nucleolar RNPs follow the same distribution during mitosis as that described for small nuclear RNPs. Possible functions for these antigens are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1992 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease is a disabling complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors. Only a few series of patients have been reported and the dermatologic features have never been extensively described. The purpose of the study was to describe clinical and biologic features of chronic sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease and to compare them with scleroderma. We reviewed 196 patients grafted between April 1973 and July 1987 with survival times sufficient to be at risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Seven had the sclerodermatous form. Most patients had disseminated sclerosis of the trunk and the proximal portions of the limbs. In two cases, atrophy of the skin was predominant, corresponding with a severe clinical evolution. Periorbital pigmentation was observed as an initial manifestation in three cases. Visceral manifestations resembled those observed in scleroderma but histologic and immunologic studies demonstrated clear differences. Response to therapy was variable. Chronic sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease may realize two different patterns. Major atrophy is associated with a more severe progression.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1992 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Blister formation in skin graft donor or recipient sites is uncommon. We describe a 49-year-old female patient with bullae in sites of grafts used in the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis. Generalized loss of skin developed 3 weeks after she had ingested phenobarbital. Sixty days after the beginning of the toxic epidermal necrolysis, the reepidermization was only 80% and skin grafts were placed on lower-extremity and abdominal wounds using the first healed sites as donor sites. Several bullae and erosions were noted on grafted areas 3 weeks later. Skin biopsy specimens revealed separation at the dermoepidermal junction, and no autoantibodies were detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the blister was formed through the basal keratinocytes and that the dermoepidermal junction, including hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils, was normal. Immunofluorescence mapping was performed using polyclonal antibodies from the serum of patients with bullous pemphigold and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and monoclonal antibodies against GB3 antigen and collagen type VII. All but the bullous pemphigold serum gave positive results; only faint and focal staining of the dermoepidermal junction was observed with bullous pemphigold serum. These findings are the same as those encountered in hereditary epidermolysis bullosa simplex. A biopsy performed 1 year later in the same site as the first one revealed that bullous pemphigold antigen was normally expressed. Keratinocytes autografted in the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis may become transiently, functionally abnormal because of the alteration of recipient sites.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Archives of Dermatology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie

Publication Stats

2k Citations
458.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990-1996
    • Institut Jacques Monod
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991-1994
    • Hôpital Henri Mondor (Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor)
      • • Service de Néphrologie
      • • Service de Dermatologie
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1985
    • Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne - Université Paris 12
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France