[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Figure 1. CTNS depletion affects endogenous TFEB levels. (a) Representative immunoblot of transcription factor EB (TFEB) levels in total lysates from control CTNS+/+ and cystinotic CTNS-/- conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. Results were normalized for Actin levels (loading control). The histogram shows TFEB-Actin mean ratios expressed as fold change ±SD from 3 independent experiments, each in triplicate (n = 3; ***P < 0.001). (b) TFEB mRNA levels were analyzed in CTNS+/+, CTNS-/-, and conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells untreated or treated with 100 μM cysteamine (cys) for 24 hours by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase used as reference. Data are presented as mean fold change ±SD from 5 independent experiments, each in triplicate (n = 5; ***P < 0.001). (c) Representative immunoblots of TFEB, cystinosin, and actin levels in total cell lysates from human kidney-2 cells after 96 hours from transfection with nontargeting (CTRL) or CTNS small, interfering RNAs (CTNS knock down). The histogram shows the TFEB-actin mean ratio expressed as fold change ±SD from 3 independent experiments (n = 3; *P < 0.05). (d) TFEB mRNA and (e) CTNS mRNA levels were analyzed in CTRL and CTNS knocked down human kidney-2 cells. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used as reference. Data are presented as mean fold change ±SD from 3 independent experiments, each in triplicate (n = 3; *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001).
Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) is involved in the degradation of long-lived proteins. Deficits in the ALP result in protein aggregation, the generation of toxic protein species, and accumulation of dysfunctional organelles, which are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and prion disease. Decades of research have therefore focused on enhancing the ALP in neurodegenerative diseases. More recently, transcription factor EB (TFEB), a major regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, has emerged as a leading factor in addressing disease pathology. We review the regulation of the ALP and TFEB and their impact on neurodegenerative diseases. We also offer our perspective on the complex role of autophagy and TFEB in disease pathogenesis and its therapeutic implications through the examination of prion disease.
No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Trends in Neurosciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes.
For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy.
Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In the early 50s, Christian De Duve identified a new cellular structure, the lysosome, defined as the cell's suicide bag (de Duve, ). Sixty years later, it is clear that the lysosome greatly exceeded the expectations of its discoverer. Over 50 different types of lysosomal storage diseases have been identified, each due to the deficiency or malfunction of a specific lysosomal protein. In addition, an important role of the lysosome has been unveiled in several common human diseases, such as cancer, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, and infection. Recent studies have led to the identification of a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway and a lysosomal gene network that regulate cellular clearance and energy metabolism. These observations have opened a completely new field of research and changed our traditional view of the lysosome from a dead-end organelle to a control center of cell metabolism. An important challenge for the future will be to exploit these discoveries to identify modulators of lysosomal function that may be used to treat human diseases.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · EMBO Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: An evolutionary conserved gene network regulates the expression of genes involved in lysosome biogenesis, autophagy and lipid metabolism. In mammals, TFEB and other members of the MiTF-TFE family of transcription factors control this network. Here we report that the lysosomal-autophagy pathway is controlled by Mitf gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Mitf is the single MiTF-TFE family member in Drosophila and prior to this work was known only for its function in eye development. We show that Mitf regulates the expression of genes encoding V-ATPase subunits as well as many additional genes involved in the lysosomal-autophagy pathway. Reduction of Mitf function leads to abnormal lysosomes and impairs autophagosome fusion and lipid breakdown during the response to starvation. In contrast, elevated Mitf levels increase the number of lysosomes, autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and decrease the size of lipid droplets. Inhibition of Drosophila MTORC1 induces Mitf translocation to the nucleus, underscoring conserved regulatory mechanisms between Drosophila and mammalian systems. Furthermore, we show Mitf-mediated clearance of cytosolic and nuclear expanded ATXN1 (ataxin 1) in a cellular model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). This remarkable observation illustrates the potential of the lysosomal-autophagy system to prevent toxic protein aggregation in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. We anticipate that the genetics of the Drosophila model and the absence of redundant MIT transcription factors will be exploited to investigate the regulation and function of the lysosomal-autophagy gene network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In AD, an imbalance between Aβ production and removal drives elevated brain Aβ levels and eventual amyloid plaque deposition. APP undergoes nonamyloidogenic processing via α-cleavage at the plasma membrane, amyloidogenic β- and γ-cleavage within endosomes to generate Aβ, or lysosomal degradation in neurons. Considering multiple reports implicating impaired lysosome function as a driver of increased amyloidogenic processing of APP, we explored the efficacy of targeting transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal pathways, to reduce Aβ levels. CMV promoter-driven TFEB, transduced via stereotactic hippocampal injections of adenoassociated virus particles in APP/PS1 mice, localized primarily to neuronal nuclei and upregulated lysosome biogenesis. This resulted in reduction of APP protein, the α and β C-terminal APP fragments (CTFs), and in the steady-state Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid. In aged mice, total Aβ levels and amyloid plaque load were selectively reduced in the TFEB-transduced hippocampi. TFEB transfection in N2a cells stably expressing APP695, stimulated lysosome biogenesis, reduced steady-state levels of APP and α- and β-CTFs, and attenuated Aβ generation by accelerating flux through the endosome-lysosome pathway. Cycloheximide chase assays revealed a shortening of APP half-life with exogenous TFEB expression, which was prevented by concomitant inhibition of lysosomal acidification. These data indicate that TFEB enhances flux through lysosomal degradative pathways to induce APP degradation and reduce Aβ generation. Activation of TFEB in neurons is an effective strategy to attenuate Aβ generation and attenuate amyloid plaque deposition in AD.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) regulates cell homeostasis and plays a crucial role in human diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and common neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the identification of DNA sequence variations in genes involved in this pathway and their association with human diseases would have a significant impact on health. To this aim, we developed Lysoplex, a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, which allowed us to obtain a uniform and accurate coding sequence coverage of a comprehensive set of 891 genes involved in lysosomal, endocytic, and autophagic pathways. Lysoplex was successfully validated on 14 different types of LSDs and then used to analyze 48 mutation-unknown patients with a clinical phenotype of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a genetically heterogeneous subtype of LSD. Lysoplex allowed us to identify pathogenic mutations in 67% of patients, most of whom had been unsuccessfully analyzed by several sequencing approaches. In addition, in 3 patients, we found potential disease-causing variants in novel NCL candidate genes. We then compared the variant detection power of Lysoplex with data derived from public whole exome sequencing (WES) efforts. On average, a 50% higher number of validated amino acid changes and truncating variations per gene were identified. Overall, we identified 61 truncating sequence variations and 488 missense variations with a high probability to cause loss of function in a total of 316 genes. Interestingly, some loss-of-function variations of genes involved in the ALP pathway were found in homozygosity in the normal population, suggesting that their role is not essential. Thus, Lysoplex provided a comprehensive catalog of sequence variants in ALP genes and allows the assessment of their relevance in cell biology as well as their contribution to human disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has indicated that the lysosome is able to act as a signaling organelle that senses nutrient availability and generates an adaptive response that is important for cellular homeostasis. We recently discovered another example of lysosomal signaling where lysosomal calcium release activates the master autophagy regulator TFEB via the phosphatase calcineurin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy is a major intracellular degradation process recognized to play a central role in cell survival and longevity. This multistep process is extensively regulated at several levels, including posttranslationally through the action of conserved longevity factors such as the nutrient sensor TOR. More recently, transcriptional regulation of autophagy genes has emerged as an important mechanism for ensuring the somatic maintenance and homeostasis necessary for a long life span. Autophagy is increased in many long-lived model organisms and contributes significantly to their longevity. In turn, conserved transcription factors, particularly the helix-loop-helix transcription factor TFEB and the forkhead transcription factor FOXO, control the expression of many autophagy-related genes and are important for life span extension. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the contribution of these transcription factors to macroautophagy regulation in the context of aging. We also review current research on epigenetic changes, such as histone modification by the deacetylase SIRT1, that influence autophagy-related gene expression and additionally affect aging. Understanding the molecular regulation of macroautophagy in relation to aging may offer new avenues for the treatment of age-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The view of the lysosome as the terminal end of cellular catabolic pathways has been challenged by recent studies showing a central role of this organelle in the control of cell function. Here we show that a lysosomal Ca(2+) signalling mechanism controls the activities of the phosphatase calcineurin and of its substrate TFEB, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Lysosomal Ca(2+) release through mucolipin 1 (MCOLN1) activates calcineurin, which binds and dephosphorylates TFEB, thus promoting its nuclear translocation. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin suppressed TFEB activity during starvation and physical exercise, while calcineurin overexpression and constitutive activation had the opposite effect. Induction of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis through TFEB required MCOLN1-mediated calcineurin activation. These data link lysosomal calcium signalling to both calcineurin regulation and autophagy induction and identify the lysosome as a hub for the signalling pathways that regulate cellular homeostasis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Lysosomal storage diseases are a group of rare, inborn, metabolic errors characterized by deficiencies in normal lysosomal function and by intralysosomal accumulation of undegraded substrates. The past 25 years have been characterized by remarkable progress in the treatment of these diseases and by the development of multiple therapeutic approaches. These approaches include strategies aimed at increasing the residual activity of a missing enzyme (enzyme replacement therapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pharmacological chaperone therapy and gene therapy) and approaches based on reducing the flux of substrates to lysosomes. As knowledge has improved about the pathophysiology of lysosomal storage diseases, novel targets for therapy have been identified, and innovative treatment approaches are being developed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Annual Review of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sulfatases are key enzymatic regulators of sulfate homeostasis with several biological functions including degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other macromolecules in lysosomes. In a severe lysosomal storage disorder, multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), global sulfatase activity is deficient due to mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 (SUMF1) gene, encoding the essential activator of all sulfatases. We identify a novel regulatory layer of sulfate metabolism mediated by a microRNA. miR-95 depletes SUMF1 protein levels and suppresses sulfatase activity, causing the disruption of proteoglycan catabolism and lysosomal function. This blocks autophagy-mediated degradation, causing cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagosomes and autophagic substrates. By targeting miR-95 in cells from MSD patients, we can effectively increase residual SUMF1 expression, allowing for reactivation of sulfatase activity and increased clearance of sulfated GAGs. The identification of this regulatory mechanism opens the opportunity for a unique therapeutic approach in MSD patients where the need for exogenous enzyme replacement is circumvented.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD; OMIM 272200) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the sulfatase modifying factor 1 gene, encoding the formyglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), and resulting in tissue accumulation of sulfatides, sulphated glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids and steroid sulfates. Less than 50 cases have been published so far. We report a new case of MSD presenting in the newborn period with hypotonia, apnoea, cyanosis and rolling eyes, hepato-splenomegaly and deafness. This patient was compound heterozygous for two so far undescribed SUMF1 mutations (c.191C¿>¿A; p.S64X and c.818A¿>¿G; p.D273G).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Italian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that has a fundamental role in the adaptation to fasting and primarily relies on the activity of the endolysosomal system, to which the autophagosome targets substrates for degradation. Recent studies have revealed that the lysosomal–autophagic pathway plays an important part in the early steps of lipid degradation. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional mechanisms underlying co-regulation between lysosome, autophagy, and other steps of lipid catabolism, including the activity of nutrient-sensitive transcription factors (TFs) and of members of the nuclear receptor family. In addition, we discuss how the lysosome acts as a metabolic sensor and orchestrates the transcriptional response to fasting.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Trends in Cell Biology