Anthony T Moore

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (286)

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    Lucía Rivera Sánchez · Julius T. Oatts · Jacque L. Duncan · [...] · Anthony T. Moore
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the ocular findings in a patient with fucosidosis, a rare inborn lysosomal storage disease.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2016
  • Louise M. Downs · Andrew R. Webster · Anthony T. Moore · [...] · Cathryn S. Mellersh
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SLC4A3 has been shown to cause retinal degeneration in a genetically engineered knockout mouse, and in a naturally occurring form of canine progressive retinal atrophy considered to be the equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa in humans (RP). This study was undertaken to investigate if SLC4A3 coding variants were implicated in human retinal degeneration. SLC4A3 exons were amplified and sequenced in 200 patients with autosomal recessive retinal degeneration who had no known molecular diagnosis for their condition, which included 197 unrelated individuals with suspected RP and three individuals with other forms of retinal disease. Three rare variants were identified that were predicted to be potentially pathogenic, however each variant was heterozygous in a single patient and therefore not considered disease-causing in isolation. Of these three variants, SNP-3 was the rarest, with an allele frequency of 7.06x10−5 (>46,000 exomes from the ExAC database). In conclusion, no compound heterozygous or homozygous potentially pathogenic variants were identified that would account for recessive RP or retinal degeneration in this cohort, however the possibility remains that the rare variants identified could be acting with as yet undiscovered mutations in introns or regulatory regions. SLC4A3 remains an excellent candidate gene for human retinal degeneration, and with the advent of whole exome and whole genome sequencing of cohorts of molecularly unsolved patients with syndromic and non-syndromic forms of retinal degeneration, SLC4A3 may yet be implicated in human disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12952-016-0054-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Article · Dec 2016 · Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background DMBT1 is a gene that shows extensive copy number variation (CNV) that alters the number of bacteria-binding domains in the protein and has been shown to activate the complement pathway. It lies next to the ARMS2/HTRA1 genes in a region of chromosome 10q26, where single nucleotide variants have been strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the commonest cause of blindness in Western populations. Complement activation is thought to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of this condition. We sought to investigate whether DMBT1 CNV plays any role in the susceptibility to AMD. Methods We analysed long-range linkage disequilibrium of DMBT1 CNV1 and CNV2 with flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using our previously published CNV and HapMap Phase 3 SNP data in the CEPH Europeans from Utah (CEU). We then typed a large cohort of 860 AMD patients and 419 examined age-matched controls for copy number at DMBT1 CNV1 and CNV2 and combined these data with copy numbers from a further 480 unexamined controls. Results We found weak linkage disequilibrium between DMBT1 CNV1 and CNV2 with the SNPs rs1474526 and rs714816 in the HTRA1/ARMS2 region. By directly analysing copy number variation, we found no evidence of association of CNV1 or CNV2 with AMD. Conclusions We have shown that copy number variation at DMBT1 does not affect risk of developing age-related macular degeneration and can therefore be ruled out from future studies investigating the association of structural variation at 10q26 with AMD.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Medical Genetics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anterior segment dysgeneses (ASDs) comprise a spectrum of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye. Here, we describe three unrelated families affected by a previously unclassified form of ASD. Shared ocular manifestations include bilateral iris hypoplasia, ectopia lentis, corectopia, ectropion uveae, and cataracts. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing identified mutations in CPAMD8 (C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 8) as the cause of recessive ASD in all three families. A homozygous missense mutation in the evolutionarily conserved alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) domain of CPAMD8, c.4351T>C (p. Ser1451Pro), was identified in family 1. In family 2, compound heterozygous frameshift, c.2352_2353insC (p.Arg785Glnfs∗23), and splice-site, c.4549-1G>A, mutations were identified. Two affected siblings in the third family were compound heterozygous for splice-site mutations c.700+1G>T and c.4002+1G>A. CPAMD8 splice-site mutations caused aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in vivo or in vitro. Intriguingly, our phylogenetic analysis revealed rodent lineage-specific CPAMD8 deletion, precluding a developmental expression study in mice. We therefore investigated the spatiotemporal expression of CPAMD8 in the developing human eye. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed CPAMD8 expression in the lens, iris, cornea, and retina early in development, including strong expression in the distal tips of the retinal neuroepithelium that form the iris and ciliary body, thus correlating CPAMD8 expression with the affected tissues. Our study delineates a unique form of recessive ASD and defines a role for CPAMD8, a protein of unknown function, in anterior segment development, implying another pathway for the pathogenicity of ASD.
    Full-text available · Article · Nov 2016 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE. To determine the effect of 15 individual ABCA4 mutations on disease severity. METHODS. Eighty-two patients harboring 15 distinct ABCA4 mutations in trans with null (hemizygous), 10 homozygous, and 20 nullizygous patients were recruited. Age of onset was determined from medical histories. Electroretinography (ERG) responses were classified into three groups (normal; cone dysfunction; cone and rod dysfunction). The dark-adapted brightflash (DA 10.0) a-wave amplitudes and the light-adapted flicker ERG (LA 3.0 30 Hz) amplitudes were plotted against age and compared with the nullizygous patients. Fundus autofluorescence imaging (FAF) was assessed when available. RESULTS. Patients hemizygous for p.G1961E and p.R2030Q had normal ERGs. Patients harboring p.R24H, p.R212C, p.G863A/delG, p.R1108C, p.P1380L, p.L2027F, and c.5714+5G>A had abnormal ERGs (ERG group 2 or 3) at older ages, in most cases with significantly higher amplitudes than nullizygous patients. Mutations p.L541P+A1038V, p.E1022K, p.C1490Y, p.E1087K, p.T1526M, and p.C2150Y were associated with abnormal ERGs (group 2 or 3) and amplitudes comparable to those of nullizygous patients. The majority of patients, including those harboring p.G1961E, had foveal atrophy; while both patients harboring p.R2030Q had foveal sparing. Most patients harboring intermediate and null-like mutations displayed FAF abnormalities extending beyond the vascular arcades. CONCLUSIONS. In the hemizygous state, 2/15 ABCA4 alleles retain preserved peripheral retinal function; 7/15 are associated with either preserved or only mildly abnormal retinal function, worse in older patients; 6/15 behave like null mutations. These data help characterize the degree of dysfunction conferred by specific mutant ABCA4 proteins in the human retina. © 2016, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Nov 2016 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy. RP is genetically heterogeneous and the genes identified to date encode proteins involved in a wide range of functional pathways, including photoreceptor development, phototransduction, the retinoid cycle, cilia, and outer segment development. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in Receptor Expression Enhancer Protein 6 (REEP6) in seven individuals with autosomal-recessive RP from five unrelated families. REEP6 is a member of the REEP/Yop1 family of proteins that influence the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum but is relatively unstudied. The six variants identified include three frameshift variants, two missense variants, and a genomic rearrangement that disrupts exon 1. Human 3D organoid optic cups were used to investigate REEP6 expression and confirmed the expression of a retina-specific isoform REEP6.1, which is specifically affected by one of the frameshift mutations. Expression of the two missense variants (c.383C>T [p.Pro128Leu] and c.404T>C [p.Leu135Pro]) and the REEP6.1 frameshift mutant in cultured cells suggest that these changes destabilize the protein. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing was used to produce Reep6 knock-in mice with the p.Leu135Pro RP-associated variant identified in one RP-affected individual. The homozygous knock-in mice mimic the clinical phenotypes of RP, including progressive photoreceptor degeneration and dysfunction of the rod photoreceptors. Therefore, our study implicates REEP6 in retinal homeostasis and highlights a pathway previously uncharacterized in retinal dystrophy.
    Full-text available · Article · Nov 2016 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the presenting features and functional outcomes in a series of patients with choroidal neovascular membrane complicating BEST1-related retinopathy (Best disease and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy). Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive cases at a tertiary care eye hospital. Patients were identified retrospectively over an 11-year period. Records were reviewed to extract demographic as well as functional and anatomical outcome data. Results: Fourteen eyes of 12 patients were identified (11 Best disease and 1 autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy). Median follow-up was 2.8 years (range 0.8-6). The median age at choroidal neovascular membrane discovery was 15.5 years (range 6-72). Choroidal neovascular membranes were active early in the disease course before vitelliruption. Seven eyes were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab, 7 eyes were monitored by observation alone. On average, patients required a single treatment (median = 1, range 1-10). The median gain in visual acuity was greater in the treated versus the observed group-0.46 versus 0.17 decimalized units of Snellen acuity, respectively (P < 0.05 Mann-Whitney U test). Although a significant reduction in central macular thickness was evident in both groups, 150 μm (treated) and 104 μm (observed), active treatment was not associated with greater thinning than observation (P > 0.05 Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion: There is a high rate of spontaneous recovery of BEST1-related choroidal neovascular membrane, and overall the authors observed a gain in visual acuity associated with a reduction in central macular thickness. Active treatment, here with intravitreal bevacizumab, is associated with better functional outcomes than observation alone.
    Article · Oct 2016 · Retina
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) is a rare, early-onset retinal dystrophy characterised by distinct bands of circumferential pigmentary degeneration in the peripheral retina and developmental eye defects. ADVIRC is caused by mutations in the Bestrophin1 (BEST1) gene, which encodes a transmembrane protein thought to function as an ion channel in the basolateral membrane of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Previous studies suggest that the distinct ADVIRC phenotype results from alternative splicing of BEST1 pre-mRNA. Here, we have used induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to investigate the effects of an ADVIRC associated BEST1 mutation (c.704T?>?C, p.V235A) in patient-derived iPSC-RPE. We found no evidence of alternate splicing of the BEST1 transcript in ADVIRC iPSC-RPE, however in patient-derived iPSC-RPE, BEST1 was expressed at the basolateral membrane and the apical membrane. During human eye development we show that BEST1 is expressed more abundantly in peripheral RPE compared to central RPE and is also expressed in cells of the developing retina. These results suggest that higher levels of mislocalised BEST1 expression in the periphery, from an early developmental stage, could provide a mechanism that leads to the distinct clinical phenotype observed in ADVIRC patients.
    Full-text available · Article · Sep 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    File available · Data · Sep 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Mutation of RGR, encoding retinal G-protein coupled receptor was originally reported in association with retinal dystrophy in 1999. A single convincing recessive variant segregated perfectly in one family of five affected and two unaffected siblings. At least one further individual, homozygous for the same variant has since been reported. The aim of this report was to reevaluate the findings in consideration of data from a whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of a large cohort of retinal dystrophy families. Methods: Whole genome sequencing was performed on 599 unrelated probands with inherited retinal disease. Detailed phenotyping was performed, including clinical evaluation, electroretinography, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging (FAF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results: Overall we confirmed that affected individuals from six unrelated families were homozygous for both the reported RGR p.Ser66Arg variant and a nearby frameshifting deletion in CDHR1 (p.Ile841Serfs119*). All had generalized rod and cone dysfunction with severe macular involvement. An additional proband was heterozygous for the same CDHR1/RGR haplotype but also carried a second null CDHR1 mutation on a different haplotype. A comparison of the clinical presentation of the probands reported here with other CDHR1-related retinopathy patients shows the phenotypes to be similar in presentation, severity, and rod/cone involvement. Conclusions: These data suggest that the recessive retinal disorder previously reported to be due to homozygous mutation in RGR is, at least in part, due to variants in CDHR1 and that the true consequences of RGR knock-out on human retinal structure and function are yet to be determined.
    Article · Sep 2016 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We describe the phenotypes associated with nullizigosity and nine splicing mutations in the ABCA4 gene. Methods: The study included 19 patients with biallelic null mutations (Group A, nullizygous), 27 with splicing mutations in the homozygous state or in trans with a null mutation (Group B), and 20 with p.G1961E in trans with a null mutation (Group C, control). Ages at onset and visual acuities were determined from medical histories. Area of decreased autofluorescence within a 30° × 30° fundus autofluorescence (FAF) image was measured with the Region Finder (N = 58). Full-field electroretinography (ERG) was performed incorporating the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standard (N = 40). Results: For groups A to C, the median ages of onset were 6, 8, and 17, respectively. Kaplan Meier survival analysis estimated that 50% of patients reached visual acuity below 20/400 at the ages of 29, 48, and 66 years, respectively. The area of reduced FAF was estimated to increase by 1.5, 1.2, and 0.03 mm2 per year, respectively, and cone-rod dystrophy was present in 10/12, 13/15, and 0/13 of cases, respectively. Splicing mutation c.5714+5G>A was associated with a significantly milder phenotype in comparison with nullizygous patients for all parameters. Conclusions: Nullizygosity for ABCA4 is associated with early onset cone-rod dysfunction with rapid progression shown by enlargement of central atrophy on FAF, decline of ERG amplitudes with age, and a high risk of reaching legal blindness by the fourth decade. Most studied splicing mutations were associated with a similarly severe phenotype. Estimated rates of progression may facilitate further genotype-phenotype correlations and inform the design of treatment trials.
    Article · Sep 2016 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • Kamron N. Khan · Farrah Islam · Anthony T. Moore · Michel Michaelides
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To review the functional and anatomic characteristics of choroideremia in the pediatric population, aiming to describe the earliest features of the disease and to identify biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression. Design: Retrospective case series. Participants: Children diagnosed with choroideremia at a single institution. Methods: Patients were identified using an electronic patient record system. Case notes and retinal imaging (color fundus photography [CFP], spectral-domain [SD] optical coherence tomography [OCT], and fundus autofluorescence [FAF]) then were reviewed. The results of genetic testing also were recorded. Main outcome measures: Presenting symptoms, visual acuity, fundus changes (CFP, SD OCT, FAF), and CHM sequencing results. Results: Twenty-nine patients were identified with a mean age at referral of 9 years (range, 3-16 years). CHM mutations were identified in 15 of 19 patients tested. Nyctalopia was the predominant symptom (66%). Five of 29 patients were asymptomatic at presentation. At the final follow-up visit (mean age, 16 years; range, 7-26 years), most maintained excellent visual acuity (mean, 0.98±0.13 decimalized Snellen acuity). The first sign of retinopathy was widespread pigment clumping at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This later evolved to chorioretinal atrophy, most marked in the mid-peripheral retina. Peripapillary atrophy also was an early feature and was progressive in nature. Three different zones of FAF change were visible. Persistence of the inner retinal layers, detected by SD OCT, was visible at presentation in 15 of 27 patients. Subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased with age, whereas central retinal thickness increased over a similar interval. Four patients in whom visual acuity decreased over the follow-up period recorded a reduction in central retinal thickness. Conclusions: Progressive structural changes occur at a time when central visual function is maintained. Pigmentary changes at the level of the RPE occur early in the disease course. Peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy, central retinal thickness, and subfoveal choroidal thickness are likely to be valuable in monitoring disease progression and should be considered as potential biomarkers in future therapeutic trials.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Ophthalmology
  • Sarah Hull · Aeesha N. J. Malik · Gavin Arno · [...] · Anthony T. Moore
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance A multiorgan syndromic disorder characterized by sideroblastic anemia, immunodeficiency, periodic fever, and developmental delay with an uncharacterized retinal dystrophy is caused by TRNT1. This report of a family with a homozygous mutation in TRNT1 expands the ocular phenotype to include cataract and inner retinal dysfunction and details a mild systemic phenotype. Observations A consanguineous family with 3 affected children was investigated. Key clinical features comprised hypogammaglobulinemia, short stature with microcephaly, cataract, and inner retinal dysfunction without sideroblastic anemia or developmental delay. Two siblings had poor balance and 1 sibling had sensorineural hearing loss. The oldest sibling had primary ovarian failure diagnosed at age 14.5 years. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant in TRNT1, c.295C>T (p.Arg99Trp) in all 3 patients. The sibling with hearing loss also harbored a homozygous mutation in GJB2, c.71G>A (p.Trp24*), which is an established cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusions and Relevance This family expands the ocular and systemic phenotypes associated with mutations in TRNT1, demonstrating phenotypic variability and highlighting the need for ophthalmic review of these patients.
    Article · Jul 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance Congenital hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) is a rare disorder presenting in childhood and adolescence with central visual disturbance and sparse scalp hair. Reported retinal imaging is lacking, and whether the condition is progressive remains unclear. Objective To investigate a series of patients with HJMD due to biallelic mutations in CDH3 and thereby characterize the disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants Ten patients from 10 families underwent detailed clinical assessment, including serial retinal imaging and electrophysiologic evaluation, at Moorfields Eye Hospital, St James’s University Hospital, and Calderdale Royal Infirmary. Patients ranged in age from 3 to 17 years at onset and 5 to 57 years at last assessment. The molecular genetic investigation included bidirectional Sanger sequencing of all exons and intron-exon boundaries of CDH3 and whole-exome sequencing in 2 patients. The study was conducted from June 5, 2013, to January 15, 2016, with final follow-up completed on December 15, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of clinical assessment and molecular genetic testing. Results All 10 patients (7 male and 3 female) presented with central visual disturbance in childhood and had lifelong sparse scalp hair with normal facial hair. Fundus examination revealed chorioretinal atrophy of the posterior pole contiguous with the disc in all but 1 patient that was associated with marked loss of autofluorescence on fundus autofluorescence imaging. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated variable degrees of atrophy of the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid, with outer retinal tubulations frequently observed. One patient had mild disruption of the inner segment ellipsoid band on OCT and additional mild digit abnormalities. Electrophysiologic evaluation in 5 patients demonstrated macular dysfunction with additional mild, generalized retinal dysfunction in 2 patients. Eight patients had more than 1 evaluation; of these, 5 patients showed deterioration of visual acuity over time, 1 patient remained stable, and 2 patients had severe visual loss at presentation that precluded assessment of visual deterioration. The area of atrophy did not progress with time, but retinal thickness decreased on OCT. Electrophysiologic evaluation in 1 patient found deterioration of macular function after 13 years of follow-up, but the mild, generalized photoreceptor dysfunction remained stable. Biallelic mutations were identified in all patients, including 6 novel mutations. Conclusions and Relevance These results suggest that CDH3-related disease is characterized by a childhood-onset, progressive chorioretinal atrophy confined to the posterior pole. The disease is readily distinguished from other juvenile macular dystrophies by the universally thin and sparse scalp hair. Patients may have additional limb abnormalities.
    Article · Jul 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report describes a patient with a retinal vascular complex that most likely represents a developmental abnormality of the retinal vasculature, consistent with the role of von Hippel-Lindau disease in retinal vascular development. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare, dominantly inherited, multisystem cancer syndrome.1 The most common ocular manifestation of VHL is multiple retinal capillary hemangioblastomas.2 It is also rarely seen with abnormal flat retinal vascular proliferation associated with fibrovascular tissue.3 We describe a patient with a retinal vascular complex that most likely represents a developmental abnormality of the retinal vasculature, consistent with the role of VHL disease in retinal vascular development. To our knowledge, this association has not been previously reported.
    Full-text available · Article · Jun 2016 · Jama Ophthalmology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose To present a detailed phenotypic and molecular study of two families with autosomal dominant RPE65-related retinal dystrophy. Methods Five patients from two families were ascertained from the retinal clinics of a tertiary referral center. Phenotyping included retinal imaging and electrophysiological testing. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing of exon 13 of RPE65 and its intron–exon boundaries was performed on all reported patients and segregation confirmed in available relatives. The main outcome measures were the results of an ophthalmic examination and investigation and molecular genetic analysis. Results Four affected patients from two families presented with nyctalopia and central visual disturbance in adulthood progressing to severe visual loss by the fifth to eighth decades. The patients had extensive chorioretinal atrophy with a relatively preserved anterior retina. In the second family, one patient had bilateral, vitelliform-like foveal lesions consistent with adult onset vitelliform macular dystrophy and no peripheral retinal changes. These unrelated families were both heterozygous for c.1430A>G (p.Asp477Gly). One unaffected family member also tested positive for this mutation but had good vision at age 80 years. Conclusions Autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy resembling choroideremia can arise from a heterozygous mutation in RPE65. It may manifest with mild disease or be non-penetrant. Awareness of these unusual presentations can facilitate targeted molecular investigation.
    Article · Jun 2016 · Molecular vision
  • Julius T. Oatts · Sarah Hull · Michel Michaelides · [...] · Anthony T. Moore
    Article · Jun 2016 · Ophthalmic Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe a series of patients with molecularly confirmed mutation in BEST1 causing Best Disease but with unilateral clinical manifestation. Design: Retrospective observational case series. Methods: Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Patients: Five patients (ten eyes) with uniocular manifestation of BEST1 mutation causing Best Disease were ascertained retrospectively from the clinical and genetic databases. Main outcome measures: Patients had full ophthalmological examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and detailed electrophysiological assessment. Genetic testing was performed. Results: All cases had a clinical appearance typical and consistent with Best Disease at various stages except that the presentation was unilateral. The reduced electro-oculogram light rise was bilateral and in the context of normal electroretinograms therefore indicates generalised dysfunction at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions: Mutation in BEST1 has variable penetrance and expressivity, and can be uniocular. The clinical and electrophysiological features described assist targeted mutational screening and alert to the potential diagnosis even when there is an atypical unilateral presentation.
    Article · Jun 2016 · American Journal of Ophthalmology
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    File available · Data · May 2016
  • Sarah Hull · Gavin Arno · Cristy A. Ku · [...] · Anthony T. Moore
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance Knobloch syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disorder classically characterized by high myopia, retinal detachment, and occipital encephalocele, but it is now known to have an increasingly variable phenotype. There is a lack of reported electrophysiologic data, and some key clinical features have yet to be described. Objective To expand on current clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular genetic findings in Knobloch syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants Twelve patients from 7 families underwent full ophthalmic examination and retinal imaging. Further investigations included electroretinography and neuroradiologic imaging. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing of COL18A1 was performed with segregation on available relatives. The study was conducted from July 4, 2013, to October 5, 2015. Data analysis was performed from May 20, 2014, to November 3, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of ophthalmic and neuroradiologic assessment and sequence analysis of COL18A1. Results Of the 12 patients (6 males; mean age at last review, 16 years [range, 2-38 years]), all had high myopia in at least 1 eye and severely reduced vision. A sibling pair had unilateral high myopia in their right eyes and near emmetropia in their left eyes from infancy. Anterior segment abnormalities included absent iris crypts, iris transillumination, lens subluxation, and cataract. Two patients with iris transillumination had glaucoma. Fundus characteristics included abnormal collapsed vitreous, macular atrophy, and a tesselated fundus. Five patients had previous retinal detachment. Electroretinography revealed a cone-rod pattern of dysfunction in 8 patients, was severely reduced or undetectable in 2 patients, and demonstrated cone-rod dysfunction in 1 eye with undetectable responses in the other eye in 2 patients. Radiologic imaging demonstrated occipital encephalocele or meningocele in 3 patients, occipital skull defects in 4 patients, minor occipital changes in 2 patients, and no abnormalities in 2 patients. Cutaneous scalp changes were present in 5 patients. Systemic associations were identified in 8 patients, including learning difficulties, epilepsy, and congenital renal abnormalities. Biallelic mutations including 2 likely novel mutations in COL18A1, were identified in 6 families that were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance with a single mutation identified in a family with 2 affected children. Conclusions and Relevance This report describes new features in patients with Knobloch syndrome, including pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma as well as cone-rod dysfunction on electroretinography. Two patients had normal neuroradiologic findings, emphasizing that some affected individuals have isolated ocular disease. Awareness of the ocular phenotype may aid early diagnosis, appropriate genetic counseling, and monitoring for potential complications.
    Article · May 2016

Publication Stats

7k Citations


  • 2000-2007
    • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Medical Retina
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002-2004
    • University College London
      • Institute of Ophthalmology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Leeds
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993-1994
    • Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom