[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are indications that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may have an effect on the oral environment, which is reflected in the expression of salivary and gingival proteinases. According to our knowledge, no studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of AMI on the activities of two major tissue-destructive serine protease and microbial effectors, elastase and cathepsin G, produced by oral fluid polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). Therefore, we compared the activities of elastase and cathepsin G in saliva from patients with AMI and from systemically healthy subjects (non-AMI) with similar periodontal conditions.
A total of 92 patients (47 AMI and 28 non-AMI patients with gingivitis or periodontitis, and 17 systemically and periodontally healthy subjects as a control group) were recruited. Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and stimulated whole-saliva samples were collected. The patients with AMI were clinically examined within 3-4 d after admission to the coronary care unit. The activities of saliva neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G were measured after collection, at specific time-points during incubation (from baseline to 23 h) by specific synthetic peptide substrate assays.
The saliva of patients with AMI and periodontitis had a significant trend for the highest elastase activities among the study groups. Elastase and cathepsin G activities correlated significantly with each other in the AMI periodontitis group (r = 0.8, p < 0.01). In a logistic regression analysis, the level of salivary elastase activity associated significantly with periodontitis.
AMI may be reflected in PMN serine protease elastase activity in saliva, despite its strong association with periodontitis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Periodontal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontitis has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Systemic reactions associated with cardiovascular events may depend on characteristics of the subgingival microflora in periodontitis. Our objectives were to compare the numbers of cultivable bacteria, composition of subgingival microflora and clonal distribution of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) in two groups of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP), one with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI-GCP) and the other one without AMI (non-AMI-GCP).
In all, 150 dentate individuals were screened for suitability to this study. Subgingival bacterial samples were collected from 11 AMI-GCP and 11 non-AMI-GCP patients who had been selected using strict inclusion criteria in an attempt to exclude confounding factors and to increase comparability of periodontal conditions by matching for periodontal probing depths and attachment levels. Culture methods were used to determine the total viable counts and occurrence and proportions of six periodontal bacterial species and yeasts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect A. actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Intraspecies characterization of A. actinomycetemcomitans included serotyping and genotyping.
The mean proportions of P. gingivalis (P = 0.05) and Tannerella forsythensis (T. forsythensis) (P = 0.01) were significantly lower, but the numbers of Micromonas micros (M. micros) and A. actinomycetemcomitans were up to nine times higher and the mean total number of cultivable bacteria per sample higher (P <0.01) in AMI-GCP than in non-AMI-GCP.
The findings that no target subgingival species were overrepresented but the total bacterial number was higher in AMI-GCP than non-AMI-GCP patients may provide support to the hypothesis that elevated numbers of bacteria in close vicinity to sterile parenteral area present a risk for systemic health.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Well-known risk factors independently or combined participate in both myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to the acute thromboembolic events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary heart disease in patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic coronary heart disease.
A total of 120 patients, 60 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 60 with chronic coronary heart disease (CCHD) were included in this study. The patients in the AMI group (50 men and 10 women; mean age 53.8 +/- 9.5 years) were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Ege because of AMI. The CCHD patients group (42 men and 18 women; mean age 58.5 +/- 11.6 years) had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. All patients were clinically examined and completed a medical questionnaire. Missing teeth, restorations, probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), and fasting blood glucose level. Sample proportions were compared by chi square test, quantitative variables with Student t test. The relation of clinical parameters and conventional risk factors to AMI was assessed with logistic regression analysis.
The number of sites with PD > or = 4 mm, the percentage of sites exhibiting BOP, smoking status, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were statistically different between AMI and CCHD groups (P <0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the percentage of sites exhibiting BOP, the number of sites with PD > or = 4, the number of restorations, smoking status, and triglycerides levels were significantly associated with AMI (P <0.05).
The results of this study indicate that periodontal disease may be associated with acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the importance of periodontal health in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in a Turkish population. We propose that prospective randomized studies are needed to determine whether periodontal disease is a risk factor in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2000 · Journal of Periodontology