Arend van Zon

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (13)77.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve development results from multiple cellular interactions between axons, Schwann cells and the surrounding mesenchymal tissue. The delayed axonal sorting and hypomyelination throughout the peripheral nervous system of claw paw (clp) mutant mice suggest that the clp gene product is critical for these interactions. Here we identify the clp mutation as a 225-bp insertion in the Lgi4 gene. Lgi4 encodes a secreted and glycosylated leucine-rich repeat protein and is expressed in Schwann cells. The clp mutation affects Lgi4 mRNA splicing, resulting in a mutant protein that is retained in the cell. Additionally, siRNA-mediated downregulation of Lgi4 in wild-type neuron-Schwann cell cocultures inhibits myelination, whereas exogenous Lgi4 restores myelination in clp/clp cultures. Thus, the abnormalities observed in clp mice are attributable to the loss of Lgi4 function, and they identify Lgi4 as a new component of Schwann cell signaling pathway(s) that controls axon segregation and myelin formation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Nature Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults are ribonucleoproteins that may function in intracellular transport processes. We investigated the intracellular distribution and dynamics of vaults in non-small cell lung cancer cells in which vaults are labeled with the green fluorescent protein. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that vaults are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; a small fraction is found in close proximity to microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated these results showing co-precipitation of MVP and β-tubulin. Using quantitative fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrated that vault mobility over longer distances in part depends on intact microtubules; vaults moving slower when microtubules are depolymerized by nocodazole. Biochemical fractionation indicated a small fraction of MVP associated with the nucleus, however, no GFP-tagged vaults could be observed inside the nucleus. We observed an accumulation of vaults at the nuclear envelope upon treatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport using a fluorescent substrate containing a classical NLS and NES expressed in MVP+/+ and MVP−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated no differences in nuclear import/export kinetics, suggesting no role for vaults in these processes. We hypothesize that a subset of vaults moves directionally via microtubules, possibly towards the nucleus.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: The remarkable high affinity (Kd approximately 10(-15) M) of avidin/streptavidin for biotin has been extensively exploited in purification methodologies. Recently a small peptide sequence (Avi-tag) has been defined that can be specifically and efficiently biotinylated by the bacterial BirA biotin ligase. Fusion of this small peptide sequence to a protein of interest and co-expression with the BirA gene in mammalian cells allowed purification of the biotinylated protein together with its associated proteins and other molecules. Ideally, one would like to apply these technologies to purify tagged proteins directly from mouse tissues. To make this approach feasible for a large variety of proteins we developed a mouse strain that expresses the BirA gene ubiquitously by inserting it in the ROSA26 locus. We demonstrate that the BirA protein is indeed expressed in all tissues tested. In order to demonstrate functionality we show that it biotinylates the transgene-encoded Avi-tagged Gata1 and Oct6 transcription factors in erythroid cells of the foetal liver and Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve respectively. Therefore, this mouse can be crossed to any transgenic mouse to obtain efficient biotinylation of an Avi-tagged protein for the purpose of protein (complex) purification.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Transgenic Research
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults may contribute to multidrug resistance by transporting drugs away from their subcellular targets. To study the involvement of vaults in the extrusion of anthracyclines from the nucleus, we investigated the handling of daunorubicin by drug-sensitive and drug-resistant non-small lung cancer cells, including a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged major vault protein (MVP)-overexpressing transfectant (SW1573/MVP-GFP). Cells were exposed to 1 microm daunorubicin for 60 min, after which the cells were allowed to efflux the accumulated drug. No significant differences in daunorubicin efflux kinetics were observed between the sensitive SW1573 and SW1573/MVP-GFP transfectant, whereas the drug-resistant SW1573/2R120 cells clearly demonstrated an increased efflux rate. It was noted that the redistribution of daunorubicin from the nucleus into distinct vesicular structures in the cytoplasm was not accompanied by changes in the intracellular localization of vaults. Similar experiments were performed using mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from wild-type and MVP knockout mice, which were previously shown to be devoid of vault particles. Both cell lines showed comparable drug efflux rates, and the intracellular distribution of daunorubicin in time was identical. Reintroduction of a human MVP tagged with GFP in the MVP(-/-) cells results in the formation of vault particles but did not give rise an altered daunorubicin handling compared with MVP(-/-) cells expressing GFP. Our results indicate that vaults are not directly involved in the sequestration of anthracyclines in vesicles nor in their efflux from the nucleus.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults are barrel-shaped cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that are composed of a major vault protein (MVP), two minor vault proteins [telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP)] and small untranslated RNA molecules. Not all expressed TEP1 and VPARP in cells is bound to vaults. TEP1 is known to associate with the telomerase complex, whereas VPARP is also present in the nuclear matrix and in cytoplasmic clusters (VPARP-rods). We examined the subcellular localization and the dynamics of the vault complex in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line expressing MVP tagged with green fluorescent protein. Using quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) it was shown that vaults move temperature independently by diffusion. However, incubation at room temperature (21 degrees C) resulted in the formation of distinct tube-like structures in the cytoplasm. Raising the temperature could reverse this process. When the vault-tubes were formed, there were fewer or no VPARP-rods present in the cytoplasm, suggesting an incorporation of the VPARP into the vault-tubes. MVP molecules have to interact with each other via their coiled-coil domain in order to form vault-tubes. Furthermore, the stability of microtubules influenced the efficiency of vault-tube formation at 21 degrees C. The dynamics and structure of the tubes were examined using confocal microscopy. Our data indicate a direct and dynamic relationship between vaults and VPARP, providing further clues to unravel the function of vaults.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles found in the cytoplasm of eucaryotic cells. The 13 MDa particles are composed of multiple copies of three proteins: an M(r) 100 000 major vault protein (MVP) and two minor vault proteins of M(r) 193 000 (vault poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase) and M(r) 240 000 (telomerase-associated protein 1), as well as small untranslated RNA molecules of approximately 100 bases. Although the existence of vaults was first reported in the mid-1980s no function has yet been attributed to this organelle. The notion that vaults might play a role in drug resistance was suggested by the molecular identification of the lung resistance-related (LRP) protein as the human MVP. MVP/LRP was found to be overexpressed in many chemoresistant cancer cell lines and primary tumor samples of different histogenetic origin. Several, but not all, clinico-pathological studies showed that MVP expression at diagnosis was an independent adverse prognostic factor for response to chemotherapy. The hollow barrel-shaped structure of the vault complex and its subcellular localization indicate a function in intracellular transport. It was therefore postulated that vaults contributed to drug resistance by transporting drugs away from their intracellular targets and/or the sequestration of drugs. Here, we review the current knowledge on the vault complex and critically discuss the evidence that links vaults to drug resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Oncogene
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells. They are composed of multiple copies of a M r 100,000 major vault protein and two minor vault proteins of M r 193,000 and 240,000, as well as small untranslated RNAs of 86–141 bases. The vault components are arranged into a highly characteristic hollow barrel-like structure of 35 × 65 nm in size. Vaults are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm where they may associate with cytoskeletal elements. A small fraction of vaults are found to be associated with the nucleus. As of yet, the precise cellular function of the vault complex is unknown. However, their distinct morphology and intracellular distribution suggest a role in intracellular transport processes. Here we review the current knowledge on the vault complex, its structure, components and possible functions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human DCs. To further investigate the role of vaults in DCs, we examined the effects of disruption of the major vault protein (MVP/LRP) on the development and antigen-presenting capacity of DCs, using our MVP/LRP knockout mouse model. Mononuclear bone marrow cells were isolated from wild-type and knockout mice and stimulated to differentiate to DCs. Like human DCs, the wild-type murine DC cultures strongly expressed MVP/LRP. Nevertheless, the MVP/LRP-deficient DCs developed normally and showed similar expression levels of several DC surface markers. No differences were observed in in vitro studies on the antigen uptake and presenting capacities of the wild-type and MVP/LRP knockout DCs. Moreover, immunization of the MVP/LRP-deficient mice with several T-cell antigens led to responses similar to those observed in the wild-type mice, indicating that the in vivo DC migration and antigen-presentation capacities are intact. Moreover, no differences were observed in the induction of the T cell-dependent humoral responses and orally induced peripheral T-cell tolerance. In conclusion, vaults are not required for primary DC functions. Their abundance in DCs may, however, still reflect basic roles in myeloid cell proliferation and DC development.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The chicken anemia virus-derived protein Apoptin induces apoptosis specifically in human tumor and transformed cells and not in normal, untransformed cells. The cell killing activity correlates with a predominantly nuclear localization of Apoptin in tumor cells, whereas in normal cells, it is detected mainly in cytoplasmic structures. To explore the role of nuclear localization for Apoptin-induced cell death in tumor cells, we employed a mutagenesis strategy. First, we demonstrated that the C terminus of Apoptin contains a bipartite-type nuclear localization signal. Strikingly, further investigation showed that Apoptin contains two different domains that induce apoptosis independently, and for both domains, we found a strong correlation between localization and killing activity. Using inhibitors, we ruled out the involvement of de novo gene transcription and translation and further showed that Apoptin itself does not have any significant transcriptional repression activity, suggesting that Apoptin exerts its effects in the nucleus by some other method. To determine whether nuclear localization is sufficient to enable Apoptin to kill normal, untransformed cells, we expressed full-length Apoptin fused to a heterologous nuclear localization signal in these cells. However, despite its nuclear localization, no apoptosis was induced, which suggests that nuclear localization per se is not sufficient for Apoptin to become active. These studies increase our understanding of the molecular pathway of Apoptin and may also shed light on the mechanism of cellular transformation.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a distinct structure and a high degree of conservation between species. Although no function has been assigned to the complex yet, there is some evidence for a role of vaults in multidrug resistance. To confirm a direct relation between vaults and multidrug resistance, and to investigate other possible functions of vaults, we have generated a major vault protein (MVP/lung resistance-related protein) knockout mouse model. The MVP(-/-) mice are viable, healthy, and show no obvious abnormalities. We investigated the sensitivity of MVP(-/-) embryonic stem cells and bone marrow cells derived from the MVP-deficient mice to various cytostatic agents with different mechanisms of action. Neither the MVP(-/-) embryonic stem cells nor the MVP(-/-) bone marrow cells showed an increased sensitivity to any of the drugs examined, as compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, the activities of the ABC-transporters P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and breast cancer resistance protein were unaltered on MVP deletion in these cells. In addition, MVP wild-type and deficient mice were treated with the anthracycline doxorubicin. Both groups of mice responded similarly to the doxorubicin treatment. Our results suggest that MVP/vaults are not directly involved in the resistance to cytostatic agents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults are ribonucleoproteins of unknown function, consisting of three different proteins and multiple copies of small untranslated RNA molecules. One of the protein subunits has been identified as TEP1, a protein that is also associated with the telomerase complex. Another protein appears to contain a functional PARP domain and is hence called VPARP. The third protein, major vault protein (MVP), is believed to make up 70% of the total mass of the vault complex and to be responsible for the typical barrel-shaped structure of vaults. We have isolated the murine MVP cDNA and compared the amino acid sequence with MVP from other species. Over 90% of sequence identity was found between mouse, human and rat, and a considerable degree of identity between mouse and MVPs from lower eukaryotes. We also found that the genomic structure of the murine MVP gene closely resembles the organization of the human MVP gene, both consisting of 15 exons of which most have exactly the same size. Finally we have isolated a genomic region upstream (and partially overlapping) the first untranslated exon, that displayed promoter activity in a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, we showed that the sequences from the first exon together with the 5'-end of the first intron enhance the promoter activity, implying the presence of essential promoter elements in this region. Alignment of the murine promoter region with the homologous sequences of the human gene revealed an identity of 58%. The apparent presence of conserved promoter elements suggests a similar regulation of human and murine MVP expression.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2002 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: Vaults consist of multiple copies of three proteins (MVP, VPARP, and TEP1) and several untranslated RNAs. The function of vaults is unknown but the typical and evolutionary conserved structure indicates a role in intracellular transport. Although all vault components have been identified and characterized, not much is known about vault protein assembly. In this study we identified and analyzed structural domains involved in vault assembly with emphasis on protein–protein interactions. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we demonstrate within MVP an intramolecular binding site and show that MVP molecules interact with each other via their coiled coil domain. We show that purified MVP is able to bind calcium, most likely at calcium-binding EF-hands. No interactions could be detected between TEP1 and other vault proteins. However, the N-terminal half of MVP binds to a specific domain in the C-terminus of VPARP. Furthermore, VPARP contains amino acid stretches mediating intramolecular binding.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Human vaults are intracellular ribonucleoprotein particles believed to be involved in multidrug resistance. The complex consists of a major vault protein (MVP), two minor vault proteins (VPARP and TEP1), and several small untranslated RNA molecules. Three human vault RNA genes (HVG1-3) have been described, and a fourth was found in a homology search (HVG4). In the literature only the association of hvg1 with vaults was shown in vivo. However, in a yeast three-hybrid screen the association of hvg1, hvg2, and hvg4 with TEP1 was demonstrated. In this study we investigated the expression and vault association of different vault RNAs in a variety of cell lines, including pairs of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells. HVG1-3 are expressed in all cell lines examined, however, none of the cell lines expressed HVG4. This probably is a consequence of the absence of essential external polymerase III promoter elements. The bulk of the vault RNA associated with vaults was hvg1. Interestingly, an increased amount of hvg3 was bound to vaults isolated from multidrug-resistant cell lines. Our findings suggest that vaults bind the RNA molecules with different affinities in different situations. The ratio in which the vault RNAs are associated with vaults might be of functional importance.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Stats

604 Citations
77.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2006
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Hematology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2001-2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Hematology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands