Andrew J Ullmann

Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (148)899.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an uncommon and problematic pulmonary disease, complicating many other respiratory disorders, thought to affect ∼240 000 people in Europe. The most common form of CPA is chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA), which untreated may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Less common manifestations include: Aspergillus nodule and single aspergilloma. All these entities are found in non-immunocompromised patients with prior or current lung disease. Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (formerly called chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis) is a more rapidly progressive infection (<3 months) usually found in moderately immunocompromised patients, which should be managed as invasive aspergillosis. Few clinical guidelines have been previously proposed for either diagnosis or management of CPA. A group of experts convened to develop clinical, radiological and microbiological guidelines. The diagnosis of CPA requires a combination of characteristics: one or more cavities with or without a fungal ball present or nodules on thoracic imaging, direct evidence of Aspergillus infection (microscopy or culture from biopsy) or an immunological response to Aspergillus spp. and exclusion of alternative diagnoses, all present for at least 3 months. Aspergillus antibody (precipitins) is elevated in over 90% of patients. Surgical excision of simple aspergilloma is recommended, if technically possible, and preferably via video-assisted thoracic surgery technique. Long-term oral antifungal therapy is recommended for CCPA to improve overall health status and respiratory symptoms, arrest haemoptysis and prevent progression. Careful monitoring of azole serum concentrations, drug interactions and possible toxicities is recommended. Haemoptysis may be controlled with tranexamic acid and bronchial artery embolisation, rarely surgical resection, and may be a sign of therapeutic failure and/or antifungal resistance. Patients with single Aspergillus nodules only need antifungal therapy if not fully resected, but if multiple they may benefit from antifungal treatment, and require careful follow-up.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Respiratory Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Isavuconazole is a novel triazole with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. The SECURE trial assessed efficacy and safety of isavuconazole versus voriconazole in patients with invasive mould disease. Methods: This was a phase 3, double-blind, global multicentre, comparative-group study. Patients with suspected invasive mould disease were randomised in a 1:1 ratio using an interactive voice-web response system, stratified by geographical region, allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation, and active malignant disease at baseline, to receive isavuconazonium sulfate 372 mg (prodrug; equivalent to 200 mg isavuconazole; intravenously three times a day on days 1 and 2, then either intravenously or orally once daily) or voriconazole (6 mg/kg intravenously twice daily on day 1, 4 mg/kg intravenously twice daily on day 2, then intravenously 4 mg/kg twice daily or orally 200 mg twice daily from day 3 onwards). We tested non-inferiority of the primary efficacy endpoint of all-cause mortality from first dose of study drug to day 42 in patients who received at least one dose of the study drug (intention-to-treat [ITT] population) using a 10% non-inferiority margin. Safety was assessed in patients who received the first dose of study drug. This study is registered with, number NCT00412893. Findings: 527 adult patients were randomly assigned (258 received study medication per group) between March 7, 2007, and March 28, 2013. All-cause mortality from first dose of study drug to day 42 for the ITT population was 19% with isavuconazole (48 patients) and 20% with voriconazole (52 patients), with an adjusted treatment difference of -1·0% (95% CI -7·8 to 5·7). Because the upper bound of the 95% CI (5·7%) did not exceed 10%, non-inferiority was shown. Most patients (247 [96%] receiving isavuconazole and 255 [98%] receiving voriconazole) had treatment-emergent adverse events (p=0·122); the most common were gastrointestinal disorders (174 [68%] vs 180 [69%]) and infections and infestations (152 [59%] vs 158 [61%]). Proportions of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events by system organ class were similar overall. However, isavuconazole-treated patients had a lower frequency of hepatobiliary disorders (23 [9%] vs 42 [16%]; p=0·016), eye disorders (39 [15%] vs 69 [27%]; p=0·002), and skin or subcutaneous tissue disorders (86 [33%] vs 110 [42%]; p=0·037). Drug-related adverse events were reported in 109 (42%) patients receiving isavuconazole and 155 (60%) receiving voriconazole (p<0·001). Interpretation: Isavuconazole was non-inferior to voriconazole for the primary treatment of suspected invasive mould disease. Isavuconazole was well tolerated compared with voriconazole, with fewer study-drug-related adverse events. Our results support the use of isavuconazole for the primary treatment of patients with invasive mould disease. Funding: Astellas Pharma Global Development, Basilea Pharmaceutica International.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Lancet
  • S. Wurster · V. Thielen · H. Einsele · J. Loeffler · A. Ullmann

    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Mycoses
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    ABSTRACT: In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Mycoses
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and, among other factors, this is due to a delay in diagnosis performed with conventional techniques. A prospective, multicentre study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Aspergillus DNA screening in the early diagnosis of IA. Patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy for acute leukaemia were enrolled for biomarker screening. Three centres applied the same protocol for in-house PCR, which was compliant with the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative recommendations, to guarantee the highest diagnostic standards. Two thousand one hundred and twenty-eight sera from 213 patients were investigated and stratified according to the revised European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria for invasive fungal disease. The incidence rates of probable and possible IA were 18% and 38%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR were superior in antifungal drug-naive patients, being 71.4%, 92.3%, and 62.5%, respectively. The last of these key performance indicators (PPV) was moderate in patients receiving primary prophylaxis, at 5.4%. Negative predictive values for both strategies applied were 100% with and 98.3% without antifungal mould prophylaxis. PCR has the potential to play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of Aspergillus infections in centres not applying primary antifungal mould prophylaxis.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
  • C. Decker · S. Wurster · H. Einsele · A. J. Ullmann · J. Loeffler

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Mycoses
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence of the criticality of the adaptive immune response for controlling invasive aspergillosis has been provided. This observation is supported by the fact that invasive aspergillosis, a grave complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, occurs long after myeloid reconstitution in patients with low T-cell engraftment and/or on immunosuppressants. Adoptive T-cell transfer might be beneficial, but idiosyncrasies of Aspergillus fumigatus and the anti-Aspergillus immune response render established selection technologies ineffective. We developed a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant protocol for preparation of A. fumigatus-specific CD4+ cells by sequentially depleting regulatory and cytotoxic T cells, activating A. fumigatus-specific T-helper cells with GMP-grade A. fumigatus lysate, and immuno-magnetically isolating them via the transiently up-regulated activation marker, CD137. In 13 full-scale runs, we demonstrate robustness and feasibility of the approach. From 2 × 10(9) peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we isolated 27 × 10(3)-318 × 10(3)Aspergillus-specific T-helper cells. Frequency among total T cells was increased, on average, by 200-fold. Specific studies indicate specificity and functionality: After non-specific in vitro expansion and re-stimulation with different antigens, we observed strong cytokine responses to A. fumigatus and some other fungi including Candida albicans, but none to unrelated antigens. Our technology isolates naturally occurring Aspergillus-specific T-helper cells within 2 days of identifying the clinical indication. Rapid adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells may be quite feasible; the clinical benefit remains to be demonstrated. A manufacturing license as an advanced-therapy medicinal product was received and a clinical trial in post-transplantation invasive aspergillosis patients approved. The product is dosed at 5 × 10E3/kg T cells (single intravenous injection), of which at least 10% must be A. fumigatus-specific. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Cytotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, triazole antifungal agent. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous isavuconazole prophylaxis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone chemotherapy and had pre-existing/expected neutropenia. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and 20 patients completed the study. Patients in the low-dose cohort (n = 11) received isavuconazole loading doses on day 1 (400/200/200 mg, 6 h apart) and day 2 (200/200 mg, 12 h apart), followed by once-daily maintenance dosing (200 mg) on days 3-28. Loading and maintenance doses were doubled in the high-dose cohort (n = 12). Mean (± standard deviation) plasma isavuconazole area under the concentration-time curves for the dosing period on day 7 were 60.1 ± 22.3 and 113.1 ± 19.6 μg⋅h/ml for patients in the low-dose and high-dose cohorts, respectively. Adverse events in five patients in the low-dose cohort and eight patients in the high-dose cohort were considered to be drug-related. Most were mild-moderate in severity and most common were headache and rash (n = 3 each). One patient in the high-dose cohort experienced a serious adverse event (unrelated to isavuconazole) and two patients each in the low-dose and high-dose cohorts discontinued the study due to adverse events. Of the 20 patients who completed the study, 18 were classified as a treatment success. In summary, the results of this analysis support the safety and tolerability of isavuconazole 200 mg and 400 mg once-daily as prophylaxis in immunosuppressed patients at high risk of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilms cause chronic infections in tissues or by developing on the surfaces of medical devices. Biofilm infections persist despite both antibiotic therapy and the innate and adaptive defence mechanisms of the patient. Biofilm infections are characterized by persisting and progressive pathology due primarily to the inflammatory response surrounding the biofilm. For this reason, many biofilm infections may be difficult to diagnose and treat efficiently. It is the purpose of the guideline to bring the current knowledge of biofilm diagnosis and therapy to the attention of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease specialists. Selected hallmark biofilm infections in tissues (e.g. cystic fibrosis with chronic lung infection, patients with chronic wound infections) or associated with devices (e.g. orthopaedic alloplastic devices, endotracheal tubes, intravenous catheters, indwelling urinary catheters, tissue fillers) are the main focus of the guideline, but experience gained from the biofilm infections included in the guideline may inspire similar work in other biofilm infections. The clinical and laboratory parameters for diagnosing biofilm infections are outlined based on the patient’s history, signs and symptoms, microscopic findings, culture-based or culture-independent diagnostic techniques and specific immune responses to identify microorganisms known to cause biofilm infections. First, recommendations are given for the collection of appropriate clinical samples, for reliable methods to specifically detect biofilms, for the evaluation of antibody responses to biofilms, for antibiotic susceptibility testing and for improvement of laboratory reports of biofilm findings in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Second, recommendations are given for the prevention and treatment of biofilm infections and for monitoring treatment effectiveness. Finally, suggestions for future research are given to improve diagnosis and treatment of biofilm infections.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
  • M Rau · W Heinz · A J Ullmann
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    ABSTRACT: History and admission findings: A 53-year-old male presents with progressive cough and subfebrile temperatures with a history of COPD and post one-year allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Examinations: No pathogenic agent was identified in virological and microbiological diagnostic testings of sputum. At bronchoscopy a half peanut was retrieved from the right main bronchus. Treatment and course: After recovery of the peanut the patient's symptoms immediately improved. Conclusions: Even in adults, with high risk of infectious pneumonia a foreign body aspiration should be considered if pulmonary symptoms worsen.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those with haematological malignancies and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Difficulties in diagnosing invasive fungal infections and subsequent delays in treatment initiation lead to unfavourable outcomes and emphasise the importance of prophylaxis. Since the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology in 2009, results of 14 additional clinical studies have been published comprising 2,899 patients and initiating this update. Key recommendations for adult patients are as follows: Posaconazole remains the drug of choice during remission-induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation with graft versus host disease (AI). In the pre-engraftment period of allogeneic transplantation, several antifungals are appropriate and can be recommended with equal strength: voriconazole (BI), micafungin (BI), fluconazole (BI) and posaconazole (BII). There is poor evidence regarding antifungal prophylaxis in the post-engraftment period of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation if no steroids for treatment of graft versus host disease are required. Aerosolised liposomal amphotericin B inhalation in conjunction with fluconazole can be used in patients with prolonged neutropenia (BII).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Annals of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: This was a phase 1B, dose-ranging, multicenter, pharmacokinetics, and safety study of cyclodextrin-based posaconazole intravenous (i.v.) solution administered through a central line to subjects at high risk for invasive fungal disease (part 1 of a 2-part study [phase 1B/3]). Initially, the safety and tolerability of single-dose posaconazole i.v. 200 mg (n = 10) were compared with those of a placebo (n = 11). Subsequently, 2 doses were evaluated, posaconazole i.v. 200 mg once daily (q.d.) (n = 21) and 300 mg q.d. (n = 24). The subjects received twice-daily (b.i.d.) posaconazole i.v. on day 1, followed by 13 days of posaconazole i.v. q.d., then 14 days of posaconazole oral suspension 400 mg b.i.d. The steady-state (day 14) exposure target (average concentration [areas under concentration-time curve {AUCs}/24 h, average concentrations at steady state {Cavgs}], of ≥500 to ≤2,500 ng/ml in ≥90% of the subjects) was achieved by 94% of the subjects for 200 mg posaconazole q.d. and by 95% of subjects for 300 mg posaconazole q.d. The desired exposure target (mean steady-state Cavg, ∼1,200 ng/ml) was 1,180 ng/ml in the 200-mg dosing cohort and was exceeded in the 300-mg dosing cohort (1,430 ng/ml). Posaconazole i.v. was well tolerated. Posaconazole i.v. 300 mg q.d. was selected for the phase 3 study segment. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT01075984.)
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    O.A. Cornely · M Cuenca-Estrella · J F Meis · A.J. Ullmann
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    ABSTRACT: This guideline is the second in the line of three for fungal diseases by ESCMID and other societies. The guideline tried to follow the AGREE criteria for the development of clinical guidelines. This guideline serves as a European and potentially world-wide recommendation for the diagnosis and management of rare and emerging fungi. They include mucormycosis, hyalohyphomycosis (Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium, etc.), phaeohyphomycosis (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Rhinocladiella, etc.), and emerging yeasts (Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula, etc.).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    M. Ruhnke · A. Groll · A. Ullmann · D.W. Denning

    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: The etiologic agents of many invasive fungal infections are saprobes and opportunistic pathogens. Some of these fungi are darkly pigmented due to melanin production and traditionally have been named 'dematiaceous'. The melanised fungi cause a wide array of clinical syndromes ranging from superficial to deep-seated infections. Diagnosis relies on histopathological examination of clinical specimens and of examination of cultures. Sequencing is recommended for accurate species identification, especially for unusual or newly described pathogens. In cases of mycetoma and chromoblastomycosis, pathognomonic histological findings are very useful and the Fontana-Masson stain, specific for melanin, usually confirms the diagnosis. There are no standardized therapies but voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole demonstrate the most consistent in vitro activity against this group of fungi. Oral itraconazole has been considered the drug of choice, given the extensive clinical experience with this drug. However, voriconazole may presumably be superior for central nervous system infections due to its ability to achieve good cerebrospinal fluid levels. Posaconazole is a well-tolerated alternative drug, backed by less clinical experience but with excellent salvage treatment results after failure of other antifungals. Amphotericin B has been useful as alternative therapy in some cases. Combination antifungal therapy is recommended for cerebral abscesses when surgery is not possible and for disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: This ESCMID and ECMM Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis. Only a few of the numerous recommendations can be summarised here. To diagnose mucormycosis, direct microscopy preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended. Pathogen identification to species level by molecular methods and susceptibility testing are strongly recommended to establish epidemiological knowledge. The recommendation for guiding treatment based on minimal inhibitory concentrations is supported only marginally. Imaging is strongly recommended to determine the extent of disease. To differentiate mucormycosis from aspergillosis in haematological malignancy and stem cell transplantation recipients, identification of the reversed halo sign on computed tomography is advised with moderate strength. For adults and children we strongly recommend surgical debridement in addition to immediate first-line antifungal treatment with liposomal or lipid-complex amphotericin B with a minimum dose of 5 mg/kg/d. Amphotericin B deoxycholate is better avoided due to severe side effects. For salvage treatment we strongly recommend posaconazole 4x200 mg/d. Reversal of predisposing conditions is strongly recommended, i.e. using granulocyte colony stimulating factor in haematologic patients with ongoing neutropaenia, controlling hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis in diabetic patients, and limiting glucocorticosteroids to the minimum dose required. We recommend against using deferasirox in haematological patients outside of clinical trials, and marginally support a recommendation for deferasirox in diabetic patients. Hyperbaric oxygen is supported with marginal strength only. Finally, we strongly recommend continuing treatment until complete response demonstrated on imaging and permanent reversal of predisposing factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: The Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO) here presents its updated recommendations for the treatment of documented fungal infections. Invasive fungal infections are a main cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy regimens. In recent years, new antifungal agents have been licensed, and agents already approved have been studied in new indications. The choice of the most appropriate antifungal treatment depends on the fungal species suspected or identified, the patient's risk factors (e.g., length and depth of neutropenia), and the expected side effects. This guideline reviews the clinical studies that served as a basis for the following recommendations. All recommendations including the levels of evidence are summarized in tables to give the reader rapid access to the information.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Annals of Hematology
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    S Leroux · A.J. Ullmann
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are life-threatening conditions that require rapid diagnostic and optimal management to mitigate their high morbidity and mortality rate. They are also associated with a high economic burden owing to the prolonged hospitalisation, need of intensive supportive care, and consumption of costly new antifungal therapy. To address these issues several international organisations proposed guidelines on the management of IFI. The consistency and reliability of these guidelines have rarely been assessed. This paper is a review from the differences between the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia (ECIL) and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and will focus on targeted treatment and diagnostic procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: The mortality associated with invasive fungal infections remains high with that involving rare yeast pathogens other than Candida being no exception. This is in part due to the severe underlying conditions typically predisposing patients to these health-care related infections (most often severe neutropaenia in patients with haematological malignancies), and in part due to the often challenging intrinsic susceptibility pattern of the pathogens that potentially leads to delayed appropriate antifungal treatment. A panel of experts of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG) and the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the diagnostic tests and procedures for detection and management of rare invasive yeast infections. The rare yeast pathogens were defined and limited to the following genus/species: Cryptococcus adeliensis, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus curvatus, Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (often published under the name Filobasidium uniguttulatum), Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia pachydermatis and Malassezia restricta, Pseudozyma spp., Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula minuta and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporobolomyces spp., Trichosporon asahii, Trichosporon asteroides, Trichosporon dermatis, Trichosporon inkin, Trichosporon jirovecii, Trichosporon loubieri, Trichosporon mucoides and Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans and ascomycetous ones: Geotrichum candidum, Kodamaea ohmeri, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (incl. S. boulardii) and Saprochaete capitatae (Magnusiomyces (Blastoschizomyces) capitatus formerly named Trichosporon capitatum or Geotrichum (Dipodascus) capitatum) and Saprochaete clavata. Recommendations about the microbiological investigation and detection of invasive infection were made and current knowledge on most appropriate antifungal and supportive treatment reviewed. In addition, remarks about antifungal susceptibility testing were made. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Publication Stats

6k Citations
899.87 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2012-2015
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002-2015
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • III. Department of Medicine
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2003-2009
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2006
    • Harper University Hospital
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2001
    • Stockholm University
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden