[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characteristics of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are the occlusion or stenosis of multiple vessel sites caused mainly by atherosclerosis and chronic lower limb ischemia. To identify PAD susceptible loci, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 785 cases and 3,383 controls in a Japanese population using 431,666 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). After staged analyses including a total of 3,164 cases and 20,134 controls, we identified 3 novel PAD susceptibility loci at IPO5/RAP2A, EDNRA and HDAC9 with genome wide significance (combined P = 6.8 x 10-14, 5.3 x 10-9 and 8.8 x 10-8, respectively). Fine-mapping at the IPO5/RAP2A locus revealed that rs9584669 conferred risk of PAD. Luciferase assay showed that the risk allele at this locus reduced expression levels of IPO5. To our knowledge, these are the first genetic risk factors for PAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the incidence of synchronous abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and malignancies is increasing, there has been no clear consensus in the surgical treatment of such patients. The focus on surgical treatments with minimal invasiveness, such as endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for AAA and laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer, has increased; however, the clinical applicability of combination treatment with EVAR and laparoscopic colectomy has not been established. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with AAA, advanced sigmoid colon cancer, and coronary artery stenosis. Because the patient also had chronic renal failure with nephrotic syndrome, among several other comorbidities, surgery was considered to be associated with high risks in this patent. Sequential treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention, EVAR, and laparoscopic colectomy were successfully performed. Staged treatment of EVAR followed by laparoscopic colectomy may be a promising strategy for high-risk patients with AAA associated with malignancy.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
The viscoelastic properties of the artery are known to be altered in patients with vascular diseases. However, few studies have evaluated the viscoelasticity of the vascular wall in humans. We sought to investigate the degree of viscoelastic deterioration of the carotid artery and assess its clinical implications.
Between January 2011 and June 2013, patients in whom the toe-brachial index was measured at the vascular laboratory were included in this single-institute retrospective observational study. I(＊), a parameter of viscoelastic deterioration, was computed using a non-invasive ultrasonic Doppler effect sensor on the carotid artery. I(＊) is a non-dimensional value, and I(＊)>0 is considered abnormal. Other patient characteristics were identified and tested for correlations with I(＊).
The study included 383 patients. The mean I(＊) value was 0.13 ± 0.22 with a normal distribution. Factors that increased the I(＊) value were a female sex (0.18 ± 0.23 vs. 0.10 ± 0.21, P<0.001), age ≥ 60 (0.14 ± 0.22 vs. 0.06 ± 0.23, P<0.05) and systolic blood pressure of >140 (0.15 ± 0.22 vs. 0.10 ± 0.22, P<0.05). I(＊) abnormality was a significant risk factor for coronary artery disease (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.00-4.80, P<0.05) in a univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, I(＊) abnormality was also found to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.21-30.1, P<0.05).
I(＊) may reflect the degree of atherosclerotic changes in the arterial wall and could possibly be used to predict coronary artery disease.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Despite improvements in therapeutic modalities, the treatment of arterial aneurysms complicating Behçet's disease (BD) is still challenging. This study examined the long-term prognosis after surgery for arterial aneurysms in BD.
This study included 9 patients with BD (8 men and 1 woman) who underwent surgery for arterial aneurysms between 1989 and 2008. The outcomes after the surgical intervention were assessed, including procedure-related complications and survival.
The initial surgical procedures were performed for aortic or iliac aneurysms in 5 patients and for lower-extremity aneurysms in 4 patients. There was no operative mortality. The mean follow-up period was 135±69 months, ranging from 53 to 259 months. Patients with aortic or iliac aneurysms underwent graft interposition with Dacron prostheses. Their postoperative courses were uneventful, and all patients were alive during the follow-up with no procedure-related complications. Those treated for lower-extremity aneurysms tended to show perioperative and postoperative complications, including aneurysmal degeneration of the autogenous vein graft in 2 patients. One patient who initially underwent surgery for a popliteal artery aneurysm died due to the rupture of a dissecting aortic aneurysm after serial surgical interventions for multiple aneurysms. Concomitant aortic or iliac aneurysms in 2 patients were followed up without any change in size under medical treatment using colchicine and corticosteroids.
Although we cannot draw a firm conclusion because of the small number of cases in the present series, graft interposition can lead to a favorable prognosis in BD patients with aortic or iliac aneurysms, whereas surgical treatment of BD-related lower-extremity aneurysms is frequently associated with short- and long-term postoperative complications. Immunosuppressive therapy might possibly improve treatment outcomes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To evaluate the outcomes of surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Patients and methods
From 2004 to 2010, 184 patients with 213 critically ischaemic limbs caused by arteriosclerosis were admitted to The University of Tokyo Hospital. The outcomes of primarily surgical revascularization-based treatments were retrospectively compared in patients with ESRD (ESRD group: 79 patients, 101 limbs) and without ESRD (non-ESRD group: 105 patients, 112 limbs) during the same period.
Arterial reconstruction was performed on 56 limbs in 46 patients in the ESRD group and 78 limbs in 73 patients in the non-ESRD group (55% vs. 70%; p = .03). Major amputation was performed in 6 of 48 limbs with patent grafts in the ESRD group because of uncontrolled infection or progression of necrosis. The limb salvage rate after arterial reconstruction was significantly lower in the ESRD group than in the non-ESRD group (p = .0019). The postoperative survival rate was lower in the ESRD group than in the non-ESRD group, although this difference was not significant (p = .052). Associated cardiovascular disease and systemic infection were the most frequent causes of death in the ESRD group. There was no significant difference in graft patency between the two groups after distal bypass surgery; however, the limb salvage rate was significantly lower in the ESRD group than in the non-ESRD group (p = .03).
Critical limb ischemia associated with ESRD has a poor prognosis. Infection control is particularly important for achievement of good treatment outcomes.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The effect of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) among young and middle-aged adults can be significant, but no previous study has examined the prognosis and the associated health care cost of the disease in this population. We evaluated the clinical and economic burden of PAD in patients from a large claims database to clarify the effect of the disease on a relatively young working Japanese population.
Patients aged ≥45 and ≤64 years with first PAD diagnosis between 2005 and 2011 comprised the PAD cohort (n = 362); an age- and sex-matched non-PAD comparison cohort (n = 362) was also identified. Rates of cardiovascular events/interventions, health care utilization, and costs were compared.
The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 52.8 (5.6) years and 40.8% were women. Baseline Charlson comorbidity index was significantly higher in the PAD cohort than in the non-PAD cohort (1.90 [2.19] vs 1.16 [1.99]; P < 0.001). The PAD cohort had significantly higher first-year event rates than did the non-PAD cohort for myocardial infarction (2.2% vs 0.2%; P = 0.019) and ischemic stroke (4.1% vs 0.5%; P = 0.001). Health care utilization was significantly greater for the PAD cohort for all parameters assessed (number of hospitalization, inpatient days, and outpatient visits) in the first year (all, P < 0.001). Total annual costs for health care were significantly higher in the PAD cohort than in the non-PAD cohort in the first year (P < 0.001). Among patients with diabetes, patients with PAD (n = 98) had significantly greater first-year event rates (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary artery bypass surgery, peripheral arterial revascularization, percutaneous coronary intervention, and limb amputation; all, P < 0.001), significantly greater number of clinic visits (P = 0.023), and total cost burden than did patients without PAD (n = 63).
Even in a relatively young working Japanese population, PAD is associated with substantial clinical and economic burden.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Clinical Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Renal insufficiency is the most frequent complication of surgeries that involve suprarenal aortic cross-clamping. Although some studies have assessed the risk of intraoperative renal ischemia by comparing juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and infrarenal AAAs, a critical limitation is the difference in these patients' clinical backgrounds and aneurysmal features. The present study evaluated the effect of suprarenal aortic clamping by comparing a juxtarenal AAA group with a subgroup of infrarenal AAAs (ie, short and/or large neck). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among patients who underwent open surgery for AAA, the 2 types of AAA were selected and compared: juxtarenal AAA (JR group: n=35) and infrarenal AAA with short (<15 mm) and/or large (>28 mm) aneurysmal neck that only required infrarenal aortic clamping (SL group: n=26). Postoperative renal function was evaluated using the RIFLE classification. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and intraoperative variables. There were no adverse events leading directly to in-hospital mortality in either group. The rate of postoperative renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease ≥-25%) was not significantly different between groups.
The outcomes of the 2 groups were similar, indicating that intraoperative renal ischemia with no specific intraoperative protection would not adversely affect postoperative outcomes.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Circulation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exclusion of the accessory renal arteries (ARAs) is required during endovascular aneurysm repair if they arise from the sealing zone or aneurysm sac. Here, we report a case of successful endovascular treatment for a common iliac artery aneurysm located close to the aortic bifurcation and associated with nephrotic syndrome in a 51-year-old man. The bilateral ARAs were successfully preserved using kissing stent grafts. During surgery, the proximal ends of endografts inserted from the bilateral femoral arteries were adjusted so that they met at the same level in the aorta, and simultaneous balloon dilatation was performed. This method can be a useful treatment option for common iliac aneurysms in cases with large ARAs.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this exploratory study, we used ultrasound speckle-tracking methods, originally used for analyzing cardiac wall motion, to evaluate aortic wall motion.
We compared 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients with 10 healthy volunteers (diameter, 48 mm vs. 15 mm). Motion pictures of the axial view of the aneurysm using ultrasonography were analyzed. Circumferential strain and strain rate at 6 equally divided segments of the aorta were semiautomatically calculated. We termed 'peak' strain and strain rate as the maximum of strain and strain rate in a cardiac cycle for each segment. We also evaluated the coefficient of variation of peak strain rate for the six segments.
In the aneurysm and control groups, the mean values of peak strain along the 6 segments were 1.5% ± 0.6% vs. 4.7% ± 1.6% (p <0.0001), respectively. The coefficient of variation of the peak strain rate was higher in the AAA group (0.74 ± 0.20) than in the control group (0.56 ± 0.12; p <0.05).
Aortic wall compliance decreased in the more atherosclerotic AAA group. The higher relative dispersion of strain rates in the AAA group is indicative of the inhomogeneous movement of the aortic wall.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Annals of Vascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transvenous placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is commonly performed in selected patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, filter placement is sometimes associated with serious complications. A common complication is asymptomatic perforation of the IVC and penetration of adjacent organs by the filter. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old man whose prophylactic IVC filter penetrated the aorta. The patient was closely followed without surgical intervention for more than a year, and no additional complications were observed.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Annals of Vascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 2001 to 2012, arterial reconstruction was performed in 306 out of 497 limbs (62%) with critical limb ischemia. The reasons for non-vascularization include high operative risk (36%), extended necrosis or infection (20%), and technical issues (15%). Cumulative patency and limb salvage in collagen disease were significantly worse compared to arteriosclerosis obliterans. Cumulative limb salvage, amputation free survival (AFS), and major adverse limb event and perioperative death (MALE + POD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were significantly worse compared to patients without ESRD, but not significant with regards to graft patency. Our finding suggests that aggressive arterial reconstruction provides satisfactory long-term results in critical limb ischemia so long as case selection for revascularization is properly made. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2014; 54: 5-11.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic aneurysms are sometimes accompanied with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The definitive treatment of DIC is removal of underlying disease; surgical repair for the aortic aneurysms. Heparin, anticoagulant and other antifibrinolytic agents have been administered preoperatively to alleviate DIC whose bleeding tendency could cause high mortality and morbidity; however, their effectiveness was indeterminate. An 84-year-old man was presented with abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by DIC and underwent aneurysmectomy. After having confirmed that combined use of heparin and gabexate mesilate was ineffective, we used recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM), which has been reported to be more effective and safer than the heparin, for a week preoperatively, and demonstrated dramatic improvement of DIC. RhsTM should be a novel powerful therapeutic option for aneurysm-induced DIC.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary iliac venous aneurysm is an extremely rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary external iliac venous aneurysm containing an intraluminal thrombus that caused pulmonary thromboembolism in a 22-year-old woman. The aneurysm and pulmonary emboli were detected during examination for sudden onset of dyspnea. After receiving anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy, the patient underwent aneurysm resection. We devised venoplasty using a dual-row saphenous vein patch to cover the large defect of the vessel wall. Primary iliac venous aneurysms associated with pulmonary thromboembolism are uncommon and surgical repair is made difficult by the fragility of the affected vessel. We reviewed the clinical features of this unusual entity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
In Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Concensus (TASC) II, patients at risk for critical limb ischemia (CLI) without symptoms are termed "chronic subclinical ische mia," but research are still lacking. The objective was to find out whether clinically asymptomatic contralateral limbs at the time of treatment for ipsilateral CLI could be regarded as "chronic subclinical ischemia".
Ninety-six patients with CLI who had no symptoms in the contralateral limb were retrospectively reviewed. The symptoms of the contralateral limb after initial intervention for the ipsilateral limb were surveyed. Risk factors for developing CLI and tissue loss were then analyzed.
Five patients (5.2%) became claudicants, 37 patients (38.5%) had symptoms of CLI, and 14 (14.6%) experienced tissue loss during the follow-up period. The overall CLI-free rates at 12, 36, and 60 months were 79.2%, 55.2%, and 45.8%, respectively, while the tissue loss-free rates at 12, 36, and 60 months were 91.3%, 78.8%, and 78.8%, respectively. Risk factor for developing CLI on the contralateral limb was having skin perfusion pressure (SPP) <40 mmHg at the surgery for ipsilateral limb. The presence of SPP <40 mmHg and end stage renal failure with hemodialysis resulted in a significantly high probability of tissue loss.
Patients with CLI with an asymptomatic contralateral limb with an SPP value <40 mmHg are at a high risk of developing CLI and tissue loss during the follow-up period. Information on the contralateral limb at initial surgery may help to speculate the fate of the asymptomatic contralateral limb.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular revascularization has recently been established as a less invasive treatment method for chronic mesenteric ischemia. However, intestinal necrosis caused by distal embolization following this procedure has not been emphasized.
The present report describes a 59-year-old man who was treated with endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. After the procedure, he was diagnosed with intestinal necrosis caused by distal embolization. Despite emergent bowel resection, he died on postoperative day 109.
Although endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia is less invasive and may be suitable for high-risk patients, attention should be paid to avoid embolic complications that can cause intestinal infarction possibly leading to a fatal condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have improved in the 2 decades since the emergence of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, EVAR is considered a contraindication for shaggy aorta because of the high risk of shower embolization. Recently, statins have been implicated in preventing embolization in patients with shaggy aorta via its pleiotropic effects, including atheroma reduction and coronary artery stabilization. We selected pitavastatin, a statin with potent effects, discovered and developed by a Japanese company because it has shown excellent pleiotropic effects on atheromatous arteries in the Japanese population. A randomized comparison study of dose-dependent effects of pitavastatin in patients with AAA with massive atheromatous aortic thrombus (PROCEDURE study) has begun. PROCEDURE has an enrollment goal of up to 80 patients with AAA with massive aortic atheroma (excluding intrasac atheroma), randomly allocated into 2 groups receiving pitavastatin at a dose of 1 or 4 mg/day. The endpoints of the PROCEDURE study include change in atheroma volume, major adverse events related to shower embolization after aneurysm repair, and lipid-lowering effects. When complete, results of the PROCEDURE study should provide objective evidence to use statins preoperatively for AAA with massive aortic atheroma.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Annals of Vascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A true pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (PDAA) is a rare disease, and has some unique characteristics: a high rupture risk and a strong correlation with celiac trunk stenotic lesions (CTSL). We showed here that our treatment strategy for PDAA.
Seven consecutive patients with PDAA at our institution from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 7 patients, five were male and two were female, with a mean age of 55 ± 9.7 years. Three aneurysms were diagnosed incidentally, and the remaining four ruptured. The locations of the aneurysm were the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (ASPDA) in 3 patients and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) in four. CTSL found 3 patients in the IPDA.
Of four ruptured patients, emergency catheter coil embolization was performed in three, and a simple ligation was performed in one. Three patients with non-ruptured aneurysms in the IPDA with a CTSL underwent direct aneurysm resection with arterial reconstruction. Six patients were successfully treated without complications or the appearance of new aneurysms during the follow-up period.
The treatment strategy for PDAA should be selected by the site of the aneurysm, the patients' condition, and the anatomical situation. A hybrid treatment could be considered a beneficial option for a CTSL.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Annals of Vascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative examination for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occasionally reveals an abnormal decrease in coagulation factors and thrombocytopenia, fulfilling the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Treatment of the underlying disorder is indispensable for alleviating DIC. We report an uncommon case of a patient with AAA and DIC who showed prolonged thrombocytopenia despite successful treatment of AAA and temporary recovery of coagulation factors. A 70-year-old man presented with AAA and shaggy aorta accompanied by DIC and underwent aneurysmectomy. Combined preoperative use of nafamostat mesilate and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin was effective in controlling DIC. Although recovery of coagulation factors was observed after surgery, the thrombocytopenia continued throughout the postoperative course and was refractory to platelet transfusion. Because HPA antibody and PA-IgG were present, a trial administration of
-globulin was performed; this resulted in rapid improvement of thrombocytopenia. Although DIC recurred again 2 weeks thereafter, coagulation factors subsequently recovered without any medication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analysed surgically treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with massive atheroma in the aneurysmal neck and compared the outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgery (OS) to determine an appropriate strategy for massive neck atheroma cases.
A retrospective study was performed in 326 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR and in 247 patients who underwent OS. We defined massive neck atheromas if the following characteristics were observed: (1) thickness ≥ 5 mm; (2) the circumference of the infrarenal aorta ≥ 75%; and (3) length ≥ 5 mm. Twenty-eight patients (8.5%) in the EVAR group and 22 (8.9%) in the OS group met these criteria. We modified the previously published reporting standards on the basis of the selection of systemic and embolisation-related complications.
Patients in the EVAR group had less intra-operative blood loss, shorter operation time, and shorter hospital stays after the operation (P < 0.01). No perioperative deaths were observed in either group. Major complications were categorised as early (in-hospital) or late (outpatient, within 6 months). Five and three patients in the OS and EVAR groups had early complications, but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, 7 patients in the EVAR group had late complications, compared to no patients in the OS group (P = 0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly higher survival rate in the OS group (P = 0.011). Two of the 4 patients with suprarenal clamping developed major complications. Mild eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients in the EVAR group. Proteinuria occurred or worsened in 5 EVAR patients and 1 OS patient.
Compared to OS patients, EVAR patients with massive neck atheroma tend to develop late-phase complications possibly related to cholesterol crystal embolisation. The clinical features of massive neck atheroma patients receiving EVAR should be carefully monitored even after hospital discharge.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery