[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopetrosis, a genetic disease characterised by osteoclast failure, is classified into three forms: infantile malignant autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (IRO), and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO).
We studied 49 patients, 21 with ARO, one with IRO, and 27 with type II ADO (ADO II).
Most ARO patients bore known or novel (one case) ATP6i (TCIRG1) gene mutations. Six ADO II patients had no mutations in ClCN7, the only so far recognised gene implicated, suggesting involvement of yet unknown genes. Identical ClCN7 mutations produced differing phenotypes with variable degrees of severity. In ADO II, serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase was always elevated. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) was generally low, but osteocalcin was high, suggesting perturbed osteoblast differentiation or function. In contrast, BALP was high in ARO patients. Elevated osteoclast surface/bone surface was noted in biopsies from most ARO patients. Cases with high osteoclasts also showed increased osteoblast surface/bone surface. ARO osteoclasts were morphologically normal, with unaltered formation rates, intracellular pH handling, and response to acidification. Their resorption activity was greatly reduced, but not abolished. In control osteoclasts, all resorption activity was abolished by combined inhibition of proton pumping and sodium/proton antiport.
These findings provide a rationale for novel therapies targeting pH handling mechanisms in osteoclasts and their microenvironment.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Journal of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The CLCN7 gene is a strong candidate for regulation of BMD, because mutations in CLCN7 cause some forms of osteopetrosis, a disease characterized by impaired osteoclast function and increased BMD. In this study, we sought to determine whether common allelic variation within CLCN7 was associated with BMD in the normal population. Materials and Methods: We conducted mutation screening of the exons and intron-exon boundaries in CLCN7 by DNA sequencing in 50 normal subjects. We conducted an association study between common polymorphisms in CLCN7 and haplotypes defined by these polymorphisms and BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in a population-based cohort study of 1077 Scottish women 45-55 years of age. Results: We identified 24 polymorphisms, but most were rare and only 4 had allele frequencies of > 5%. These were a conservative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 (rs3751884), a 50-bp tandem repeat polymorphism within intron 8, and two SNPs within exon 15 (rs12926089 and rs12926669), of which one (rs12926669) predicts an amino acid change from valine to methionine at codon 418 (V418M). The exon 15 SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were both associated with femoral neck BMD (p = 0.001-0.003). None of the other polymorphisms were associated with BMD, and long-range haplotypes showed a much weaker association with BMD than the exon 15 SNPs. The V418M polymorphism was an independent predictor of femoral neck BMD on multiple regression analysis accounting for 1% of the variance in BMD at this site. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the V418M polymorphism of CLCN7 contributes to the genetic regulation of femoral neck BMD in women and adds to accumulating evidence that indicates that subtle polymorphic variation in genes that cause monogenic bone diseases also contribute to regulation of BMD in normal subjects.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human malignant infantile osteopetrosis (arOP) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder of bone metabolism. The TCIRG1 gene, encoding the a3 subunit of the vacuolar proton pump, which mediates the acidification of the bone/osteoclast interface, is responsible for more than one-half of the arOP patients. We performed genetic analysis of TCIRG1 in 55 arOP patients including 25 new cases and identified nine novel mutations. The two most frequent mutations, c.1674-1G>A (aberrant splicing: r.1674_1884del) and c.2005C>T (protein variation: p.Arg669X), found in 17 and 16 alleles, respectively, constituted 30% of all TCIRG1 abnormalities. They both originated in Northern Europe, p.Arg669X quite recently from West Flanders, Belgium. As substitutions in splicing regulatory sequences represented a large portion (40%; 44 alleles) of the TCIRG1 variations, we developed a functional splicing assay to distinguish between polymorphic variants and disease-causing mutations. Three intronic nucleotide substitutions flanking the splice sites (c.117+4A>T; c.1673+5G>A; and c.504-8G>A) were studied using hybrid minigenes and an abnormal processing of the transcripts was demonstrated in all cases. Cotransfection experiments with complementary U1 snRNAs performed in c.117+4A>T and c.1673+5G>A mutations showed that only in the first case was the defect at the 5' splice site corrected, indicating that mutations near the invariant GT donor sites are mechanistically different. These findings indicate the feasibility of the hybrid minigene approach to detect splicing defects, particularly in patients in whom the RNA is not available. In addition, the present results suggest that modified U1 snRNAs may represent a new therapeutic strategy for arOP patients with a U1 snRNP-dependent splicing defect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by atrophy of the intestine villi triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The association between celiac disease and low BMD has been recognized, but the mechanisms of disturbance are poorly understood. We show imbalance of cytokines relevant to bone metabolism in celiac patients' sera and the direct effect of these sera on in vitro bone cell activity.
Celiac disease is associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low BMD. We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in celiac patients could affect human bone cell activity in vitro.
We studied two groups of celiac patients--one on a gluten-free diet and another before the diet--both with decreased bone mass. Patients were investigated for bone turnover markers, and their sera were used for culturing bone cells from healthy donors and evaluate changes in cell activity.
The N-terminal telopeptide of procollagen type I and interleukin (IL)-6 were higher than normal in patients not on the gluten-free diet. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha/beta were normal in all patients. IL-12 was reduced in all patients, whereas IL-18 was reduced only in patients on the diet. The RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio was increased in patients not on the gluten-free diet. Persistently increased osteoclast numbers were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors on incubation with sera of patients not on the gluten-free diet versus control sera and sera from patients on the diet. In human osteoblasts from healthy individuals, IL-18 was reduced on incubation with sera from all patients, whereas OPG expression was lower when sera from patients not on the diet were used. Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, and nodule mineralization were increased in osteoblast cultures containing sera from all celiac patients, either on or not on the gluten-free diet.Conclusions: We conclude that bone loss in celiac disease might also be caused by a cytokine imbalance directly affecting osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast activity.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We employed potent and selective c-Src inhibitors to investigate the functional and molecular consequences of inhibited c-Src tyrosine kinase activity in osteoclasts. These pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives reduced osteoclast numbers and induced osteoclast disruption in vivo. In vitro, they inhibited resorption pit formation and osteoclastogenesis, impaired adhesion ability and actin ring organization, and induced programmed cell death in mature osteoclasts. The cell death receptor Fas and p53 were insensitive to c-Src modulation. The expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 was markedly reduced, but neither Bcl-2 nor Bcl-xL or Bax were modulated by c-Src inhibition. Caspase-9, and to a lesser extent caspase-3, but not caspase-8, were transiently cleaved (activated) by treatment with the c-Src inhibitors. c-Src inhibition stabilized p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), whereas the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway did not appear to be modulated by our compounds. Most interestingly, transient extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) dephosphorylation followed by sustained remarkable rephosphorylation overwhelming control levels was observed in response to c-Src inhibition. Blockade of ERK1/2 rephosphorylation by PD98059 reduced osteoclast nuclear disruption, suggesting the involvement of this pathway in apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that small pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives impair osteoclast function and induce cell damage suggestive of apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, with mechanisms presumably involving selective sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 16-year-old male patient with type II autosomal dominant benign osteopetrosis (ADO) was genotyped and found to harbor a novel mutation in exon 25 of the gene encoding for the osteoclast-specific chloride channel, CLCN7, inherited from the father, who was asymptomatic. The patient had normal biochemical findings and acid-base balance, except for increased serum levels of creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and the bone formation markers bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme, osteocalcin and N-terminal type I collagen telopeptide/creatinine ratio. Unusual generalized osteosclerosis was observed together with a canonical increase in vertebral and pelvis bone mass. An affected first grade cousin presented with normal biochemical findings and a milder osteosclerotic pattern of the pelvis. At the cellular level, cultured osteoclasts from the patient showed increased motility, with lamellipodia, membrane ruffling and motile pattern of podosome distribution, all of which could have contributed to functional impairment of bone resorption. The present report documents a novel mutation of the CLCN7 gene causing osteopetrosis in a radiologically
uncertain form of the diseases, with apparent incomplete penetrance.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Calcified Tissue International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclast activity is inhibited by elevated [Ca2+]o; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. We used the human osteoclast-like cells GCT23 to elucidate their cation-sensing properties. Cells responded to elevated [Ca2+]o with rapid concentration-dependent [Ca2+]i transients (EC50 = 7.8 mm, time to peak 44 +/- 4 sec) that were due to release from intracellular stores, followed by Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Ca2+ store depletion by thapsigargin, endothelin-1, or bradykinin activated calcium entry pathways. Cells responded similarly to Ni2+ and Cd2+ with albeit slower kinetics (EC50 <10 microm and <100 microm, times to peak 140 +/- 25 sec and 150 +/- 24 sec, respectively). The three cations stimulated inositol phosphate production (two-fold, p <.02) similar to bradykinin (2.5-fold, p <. 002), which activates a phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptor in GCT23 cells. The cells did not respond to 0.1-1 mM Gd3+ or neomycin B, indicating that the parathyroid calcium receptor (PCaR) is not functionally expressed. In confirmation, PCaR could not be detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in GCT23 cells and in mouse osteoclasts, and the calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 failed to produce the left shift of the concentration-response curve characteristic for PCaR. Our data demonstrate for the first time that cation sensing by osteoclast-like GCT23 cells is mediated by a PLC-coupled receptor that is not identical to PCaR.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal-recessive osteopetrosis is a severe genetic disease caused by osteoclast failure. Approximately 50% of the patients harbor mutations of the ATP6i gene, encoding for the osteoclast-specific a3 subunit of V-ATPase. We found inactivating ATP6i mutations in four patients, and three of these were novel. Patients shared macrocephaly, growth retardation and optic nerve alteration, osteosclerotic and endobone patterns, and high alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels. Bone biopsies revealed primary spongiosa lined with active osteoblasts and high numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive, a3 subunit-negative, morphologically unremarkable osteoclasts, some of which located in shallow Howship lacunae. Scarce hematopoietic cells and abundant fibrous tissue containing TRAP-positive putative osteoclast precursors were noted. In vitro osteoclasts were a3-negative, morphologically normal, with prominent clear zones and actin rings, and TRAP activity more elevated than in control patients. Podosomes, alphaVbeta3 receptor, c-Src, and PYK2 were unremarkable. Consistent with the finding in the bone biopsies, these cells excavated pits faintly stained with toluidine blue, indicating inefficient bone resorption. Bone marrow transplantation was successful in all patients, and posttransplant osteoclasts showed rescue of a3 subunit immunoreactivity.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that prevents bone loss. Although it is largely used for the treatment of osteoporosis, the mechanisms by which this compound modulates the activity of bone cells are still poorly understood. In this study we investigate whether raloxifene affects osteoclast and osteoblast activity in vitro. Bone marrow cultures were established from neonatal mice and treated with 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) (VitD(3), 10(-8) mol/L) to induce osteoclast generation. Similar to 17beta-estradiol, raloxifene significantly reduced the number of osteoclasts in a concentration-dependent manner, with maximal inhibition at 10(-11) mol/L (-48%). However, as for 17beta-estradiol, at a high concentration (10(-7) mol/L), the inhibitory effect of raloxifene was abolished. In a pit assay, raloxifene inhibited bone resorption. A maximal effect was observed at 10(-9) mol/L, and maintained at a high concentration, indicating that inhibition of osteoclast formation and inhibition of bone resorption may be due to activation of, at least in part, different pathways. Osteoblasts from neonatal mice calvariae were also exposed to raloxifene. In these cells, this compound induced a concentration-dependent increase of proliferation, which was blocked by the estrogen-receptor antagonist ICI 164,384. Raloxifene also increased the osteoblast-specific transcription factor Cbfa1/Runx2 and alpha2 procollagen type I chain mRNAs, with a pattern that only partially coincided with that of 17beta-estradiol. Consistent with decreased osteoclastogenesis, raloxifene inhibited the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 at a low concentration, but not at a high concentration, whereas 17beta-estradiol had similar effects on IL-6 and inhibited IL-1beta at both concentrations. Furthermore, both compounds were able to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced IL-1beta, but not IL-6, increase. In conclusion, these data show that raloxifene negatively modulates osteoclasts, and positively affects osteoblasts, suggesting not only an antiresorptive role, but also an osteoblast stimulatory role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A newborn girl with hemorrhagic purpura, suspected neonatal sepsis, and pale and dry skin was lethargic with remarkable hepatosplenomegaly, convergent strabismus, severe anemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity. Radiographs showed a generalized increase in bone density, small medullary cavities, sclerosis of the skull and vertebrae, transverse wavy stripes of sclerotic bone in the metaphyses, and bone-in-bone appearance in phalanges of hands and feet. On this basis, she was diagnosed with malignant infantile osteopetrosis. On the first day of life, the infant was given a blood transfusion and vitamin K (1 mg intravenously [iv]). Corticosteroid therapy was started with prednisone (2 mg/kg per day). She showed marked improvement of symptoms. On the 26th day and 42nd day of life, she received additional blood transfusions. On the 49th day, the patient was discharged and corticosteroid therapy was continued at a regimen of 5 mg/day. Subsequent blood sample analyses revealed normal values for age. At 1 year of life, a bone marrow sample showed normal white and red cell lineages. X-ray confirmed attenuation of the bone sclerosis; therefore, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was not implemented. At the age of 1.5 years, prednisone therapy was discontinued gradually and withdrawn before the age of 2 years. Subsequent follow-up showed normalization of all radiological and hematologic parameters. At present, the patient is 3 years old and appears healthy with apparently complete regression of the disease.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weightlessness induces bone loss in humans and animal models. We employed the NASA-approved Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor (RWV) to develop osteoblast-like cell cultures under microgravity and evaluate osteoblast phenotype and cell function. Rat osteoblast-like cell line (ROS.SMER#14) was grown in the RWV at a calculated gravity of 0.008g. For comparison, aliquots of cells were grown in conventional tissue culture dishes or in Non-Rotating Wall Vessels (N-RWV) maintained at unit gravity. In RWV, osteoblasts showed high levels of alkaline phosphatase expression and activity, and elevated expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4). In contrast, the expression of osteonectin, bone sialoprotein II and BMP-2 were unaltered compared to cells in conventional culture conditions. These observations are consistent with a marked osteoblast phenotype. However, we observed that in RWV osteoblasts showed reduced proliferation. Furthermore, DNA nucleosome-size fragmentation was revealed both morphologically, by in situ staining with the Thymine-Adenine binding dye bis-benzimide, and electrophoretically, by DNA laddering. Surprisingly, no p53, nor bcl-2/bax, nor caspase 8 pathways were activated by microgravity, therefore the intracellular cascade leading to programmed cell death remains to be elucidated. Finally, consistent with an osteoclast-stimulating effect by microgravity, osteoblasts cultured in RWV showed upregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA, and IL-6 proved to be active at stimulating osteoclast formation and resorbing activity in vitro. We conclude that under microgravity, reduced osteoblast life span and enhanced IL-6 expression may result in inefficient osteoblast- and increased osteoclast-activity, respectively, thus potentially contributing to bone loss in individuals subjected to weightlessness.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant melanomas metastasise to the bone and enhance osteoclast bone resorption. We demonstrated that a 48-h-B16 melanoma cell conditioned media (B16CM) induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures, without the requirement of B16 cell-bone marrow cell co-culture. B16 cells transcriptionally expressed detectable levels of TGFbeta1, IL-6, M-CSF, GM-CSF and TNFalpha mRNAs, albeit to a lower extent compared with levels in osteoblasts, and failed to express PTHrP, OPGL, OPG and IL-1beta. Interestingly, B16CM greatly upregulated IL-1beta, IL-6 and GM-CSF, and modestly enhanced TNFalpha and OPGL mRNA expression in osteoblasts, suggesting a potential indirect stimulation of osteoclastogenesis via the osteogenic lineage. B16CM barely upregulated c-Fos, but strongly and time-dependently enhanced c-Src expression in the total bone marrow cultures during osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, c-Src expression was enhanced in differentiated and purified osteoclast preparations to higher levels than in stromal cells. In conclusion, melanoma induces osteoclast generation with a paracrine mechanism independent of cell-cell contact, specifically upregulating c-Src in osteoclasts and cytokine expression in osteoblasts.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-src deletion in mice leads to osteopetrosis as a result of reduced bone resorption due to an alteration of the osteoclast. We
report that deletion/reduction of Src expression enhances osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, contributing to the
increase in bone mass. Bone histomorphometry showed that bone formation was increased in Src null compared with wild-type
mice. In vitro, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and nodule mineralization were increased in primary calvarial cells and
in SV40-immortalized osteoblasts from Src−/− relative to Src+/+ mice. Src-antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-src) reduced Src levels by ∼60% and caused a similar increase in ALP activity
and nodule mineralization in primary osteoblasts in vitro. Reduction in cell proliferation was observed in primary and immortalized
Src−/− osteoblasts and in normal osteoblasts incubated with the AS-src. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed upregulation
of ALP, Osf2/Cbfa1 transcription factor, PTH/PTHrP receptor, osteocalcin, and pro-alpha 2(I) collagen in Src-deficient osteoblasts.
The expression of the bone matrix protein osteopontin remained unchanged. Based on these results, we conclude that the reduction
of Src expression not only inhibits bone resorption, but also stimulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, suggesting
that the osteogenic cells may contribute to the development of the osteopetrotic phenotype in Src-deficient mice.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens modulate bone tissue turnover in both experimental animal models and postmenopausal women. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the perinatal period increases peak bone mass in female mice in adulthood. We investigated whether developmental DES exposure can influence bone mass by affecting osteoclastogenesis. Female mice were injected with 100 microg/kg body weight DES from days 9-16 of gestation or, alternatively, pups received neonatal injections of 2 microg of DES from days 1-5 of life. Animals were weaned at 21 days of age and effects of estrogen on bone cells were evaluated in adulthood. A significant increase in bone mass in female mice was already observed at 2 months, with a maximal effect in older animals. Bone sections from DES-treated animals showed a significant decrease in osteoclast number and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) enzymatic activity as compared with controls. To verify the importance of the estrogen surge at puberty in this event, a group of control and DES-treated mice were ovariectomized at 17 days to prevent puberty, and potential effect on osteoclastic cells was evaluated in adulthood. As expected, ovariectomy induced an increase of TRAP-positive cells. DES treatment blunted the ovariectomized-dependent increase of the total number of osteoclastic cells, suggesting a role of developmental DES exposure in the process of bone-cell imprinting. Our data indicate, for the first time, that transient changes in estrogen levels during development modulate bone turnover and osteoclastogenesis likely participating in bone-cell imprinting during early phases of bone development, and that this effect could be induced by direct alteration of bone microenvironment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat Sertoli cells in primary culture have been studied for their ability to respond to extracellular matrix macromolecules by increases of [Ca(2+)](i). We observed that cells seeded on glass coverslips, loaded with the intracellular Ca(2+) indicator fura-2, responded to laminin, but not to fibronectin, with an immediate [Ca(2+)](i) raise, with a peak followed by a prolonged plateau. [Ca(2+)](i) increases were dependent upon Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane and Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) pools. Ca(2+) influx was inhibited by extracellular Ca(2+) removal by EGTA, and by treatment with La(3+), or with the L-type voltage operated Ca(2+) channel blocker, nifedipine. Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) storing organelles, was inhibited by the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase blocker thapsigargin. Responses were mimicked by synthetic peptides carrying the Arg-Gly-Asp adhesion sequence, but not by the control Arg-Gly-Glu-containing peptide, in which aspartic acid was replaced by glutamic acid. Laminin-dependent [Ca(2+)](i) increases were down-regulated by the follicle-stimulating hormone. However, this occurred only when cells were not subjected to homotypic cell-cell contact, and responded to the hormone with a significant [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. These results indicate that laminin may regulate Sertoli cells by intracellular signals that perturb Ca(2+) homeostasis. This role may be related to an effect exerted by the seminiferous epithelium basement membrane on the regulation of spermatogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts from a patient affected by osteopetrosis were examined in vivo and in vitro. Iliac crest biopsy revealed an osteosclerotic pattern, with prominent numbers of osteoclasts noted for hypernuclearity and incomplete adherence to the bone surface. A population comprising tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive, multinucleated and mononuclear cells, and alkaline phosphatase-positive stromal fibroblasts was obtained in vitro from bone marrow. Mononuclear TRAP-positive precursors spontaneously fused in culture to form giant osteoclast-like cells. These cells expressed the osteoclast marker MMP-9 and calcitonin receptor, and lacked the macrophage marker, Fc receptor. Expression and distribution of c-src, c-fms, and CD68, and response to steroid hormones relevant to osteoclast differentiation and function were apparently normal, whereas cell retraction in response to calcitonin was impaired. TRAP-positive multinucleated cells did not form osteoclast-specific adhesion structures (clear zone, podosomes, or actin rings). Bone resorption rate was severely reduced in vitro. Focal adhesions and stress fibers were observed en lieu of podosomes and actin rings. Adhesion structures contained low levels of immunoreactive vitronectin receptor, most of this integrin being retained in cytoplasmic vesicles. These data provide the first characterization of abnormal differentiation and function of human osteopetrotic osteoclast-like cells.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research