[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New equipment facilitating the use of spontaneous ventilation with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) has become available in France since January 1996. This technique was applied in 38 patients with severe cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and persistent respiratory distress despite high flow classical oxygen therapy and standard treatment. After 1 hour of ventilation with a flow of 220 l/min of 100% oxygen with an average PEP of 7.7 cm H20, a significant improvement of clinical (heart and respiratory rate) and biological parameters (arterial gases) was observed. There were no side effects. Four patients died during the hospital period and only 1 was intubated. Spontaneous ventilation with PEP is a simple technique for coronary care units and, compared with conventional oxygen therapy, it rapidly improves arterial oxygenation, reduces respiratory work and improves conditions of cardiac load. Acute severe cardiogenic pulmonary oedema seems to be an indication of choice, especially in the elderly, where it may help avoid an often controversial intubation.
No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intubation and ventilatory assistance are often required in patients presenting severe hypoxemic respiratory distress, but may be contraindicated in elderly subjects due to an underlying condition. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and contribution of early assistance with spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation for elderly subjects admitted to an emergency unit for acute respiratory distress due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
In our emergency admission unit, all patients with life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory distress are initially assisted with noninvasive spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation using a standardized commercial device. We retrospectively analyzed the the files of all patients aged over 70 years who were treated with this standard protocol for cardiogenic pulmonary edema from April 1996 through September 1997.
During the study period, 36 patients aged over 70 years required ventilatory assistance according to the standard protocol. Intubation was not reasonable in most of the patients (n = 30). After 1 hour of ventilation, none of the patients developed clinical signs of life-threatening distress. Blood gases demonstrated improved oxygenation (AEPO2 = +184.9 +/- 105.4 mmHg; p < 0.000001). Thirty-two patients were considered to be cured (88.9%) and were discharged; the cardiovascular condition was fatal in 4 patients (11.1%).
The rapid improvement in clinical signs and blood gases as well as the final outcome suggests that early assistance with spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation is warranted at admission for elderly patients with respiratory distress due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Compared with a control group of hospitalized patients cared for during the preceding year and who were not treated with the standard protocol, we also demonstrated a clear improvement in mortality (11% versus 20%).
No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · La Presse Médicale