[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Broiler breeder hens were used to determine the effect of drinking water containing a low concentration of a chemical mixture
(arsenic, 0.8 ppm; benzene, 1.3 ppm; cadmium, 5.1 ppm; lead, 6.7 ppm; and trichloroethylene, 0.65 ppm) and a high (10 times
greater than the low concentration of the chemical mixture) levels of the chemical mixture. These chemicals are present in
ground water near hazardous waste sites. Water consumption significantly decreased in chickens provided the high concentration
of the chemical mixture, whereas feed consumption was not affected in any treatment. There was a linear relationship between
increasing concentration of the chemical mixture in drinking water and decreasing body weight of hens. The low concentration
of the chemical mixture significantly decreased egg production and egg weight, and increased percentage embryonic mortality.
These results suggest that reproductive function in hens is sensitive to adverse effects of contaminated drinking water.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine possible interactions between drinking water contaminants and suboptimal nutritional status for performance and immune function in male broiler chickens. Experimental drinking water contained a mixture of arsenic, benzene, cadmium, lead, and trichloroethylene (TCE) at low concentrations (0.80, 1.3, 5.0, 6.7, and 0.65 ppm) and high concentrations (8.6, 13, 50, 67, and 6.5 ppm). These chemicals were selected because they are among the most common contaminants found in ground water near hazardous waste sites. The experimental diets included feed containing 50% added vitamins and minerals (V&M) and feed without added V&M. Increasing levels of drinking water contaminants and decreasing levels of V&M in diet resulted in significantly (P < or = 0.05) decreased water and feed intake, decreased weight gain, and suppression of natural, humoral, and cell-mediated immune response. In a paired-water study, feed consumption, body weight, and immune function were decreased in chickens provided low and high concentrations of the chemical mixture in drinking water compared with chickens given control drinking water equal to the volumes consumed by the chickens given the low and high concentration of mixture, respectively. A deficiency of dietary V&M caused increased sensitivity to adverse effects of drinking water contaminants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine and compare the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in red blood cells of cattle, horses, pigs, goats, dogs, rabbits, rats and mice. The highest GST activity was found in mouse red blood cells followed by that of rats, dogs, cattle, pigs, goats and horses with the lowest activity in rabbits. There were significant differences between the GST activities from these various species. The species differences in GST activities correlate with the reported variable responses of the different species to different toxicants since erythrocyte GST plays a significant role in the detoxification of circulating xenobiotics.
No preview · Article · Mar 1997 · Veterinary and human toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OA); its three natural analogs, ochratoxin C (OC), B (OB), and alpha (Oalpha); and its six synthetic analogs, the epimere of OA (d-OA), the ethylamide of OA (OE-OA), decarboxylated OA (DC-OA), O-methylated OA (OM-OA), lactone-opened OA (OP-OA), and the methyl ester of Oalpha (M-Oalpha) were assayed for their toxicities in prokaryotic (Bacillus brevis) and eukaryotic (HeLa cell) systems and in animals (mouse and rat). The LC50S (mM) for HeLa cells, were 0.005 (OA), 0.009 (OC), 0.163 (d-OA), 10.1 (OE-OA), 7.6 (DC-OA), 0.83 (OM-OA), 0.054 (OB), and 0.56 Oalpha). The minimum inhibitory doses (nmol/disc) for the growth of B. brevis (pH 6.5) were 8.7 (OA), 2.0 (OC), 5.5 (d-OA), 1.1 (OE-OA), 54 (OB), 390 (Oalpha), and 90 (M-Oalpha) while no inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed for OM-OA, DC-OA, and OP-OA at doses as high as 350 nmol/disc. The results indicate that the toxicities of OA were associated with its isocoumarin moiety but that neither the dissociation of the phenolic hydroxyl group nor the iron-chelating properties of OA were directly related to its toxicities. The lactone carbonyl group of OA, however, appears to be involved in OA toxicity as OP-OA is found in the bile of rats injected with OA and has similar toxicity to that of OA when administered intravenously to the rat. Overall, the structure-activity studies suggest that the toxicity of OA is attributable to its isocoumarin moiety and that the lactone carbonyl group may be involved in its toxicity.
No preview · Article · May 1996 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rats and chickens were given single oral doses of 50 mg chlorpyrifos/kg to compare toxic effects in these 2 species. Oral administration resulted in decreased cytochrome P-450 and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities and increased cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity in rats. On the contrary, there was increased cytochrome P-450 and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities in chickens. A significantly higher inhibition of serum cholinesterase (82%) was noted in rats than in chickens (55%). Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, a marker of hepatotoxicity, remained unchanged in both species, indicating the absence of hepatotoxicity. These studies project chlorpyrifos to be an inhibitor of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats and an inducer in chickens, and a non-hepatotoxic organophosphate insecticide in both species when given at the dosage of 50 mg/kg.
No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Veterinary and human toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Aflatoxin B1 (1.5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) was administered to rats, mice, quail and chickens to examine the comparative effect on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase and serum enzymes. 2. Administration of aflatoxin B1 to rats resulted in a significant decrease in microsomal cytochrome P-450, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase and liver glutathione content. However, no significant changes in these parameters were seen in mice. 3. Quail showed a significant decrease in the content of cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase. A similar treatment did not affect these biotransformation enzymes in chickens. 4. The activities of serum enzymes, sorbitol dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased significantly in rats and quail. Mice exhibited a significant increase in the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase, while chickens showed a significant increase only in alanine aminotransferase.
No preview · Article · Mar 1992 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology