[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was cloned, and four mutant Stx1s were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis with PCR. The wild-type and mutant
Stx1s with amino acid replacements at positions 167 and 170 of the A subunit were purified by one-step affinity chromatography
with commercially available Globotriose Fractogel, and the mutant Stxs were used for the immunization of mice. The mutant
toxins were nontoxic to Vero cells in vitro and to mice in vivo and induced the immunoglobulin G antibody against the wild-type
Stx1, which neutralized the cytotoxicity of Stx1. The induced antibody titers depended on the mutation at position 170 of
the A subunit. The mice immunized with the mutant Stx1s were protected against a challenge of approximately 100 times the
50% lethal dose of the wild-type Stx1, suggesting that the mutant toxins are good candidates for toxoid vaccines for infection
by Stx1-producing E. coli.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2003 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum antibody titers against the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were compared between 9 periodontitis patients and 24 healthy persons. The IgG titers against the LPSs of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277(T) and W50 were clearly higher in the patients than in the healthy persons. However, IgM titers against the LPSs of P. gingivalis strains were relatively low, and no significant difference was observed between the patients and healthy persons. On the other hand, IgG and IgM titers against the LPS of Fusobacterium nucleatum JCM 8532(T) in some patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy persons, although the difference in IgG titers was not large compared to that of the LPS of P. gingivalis. These results suggest that the antibody measurement of patients' sera against the LPS of periodontal bacteria can be applied for the diagnosis of periodontitis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of slyA gene, originally found in Salmonella serovar Typhimurium as a regulatory gene for the expression of virulence genes, on a mouse virulence of S. serovar Choleraesuis was investigated by using an slyA-defective mutant. The defective mutant was constructed by the insertion of a kanamycin-resistance gene (aph) into the cloned slyA gene, and the homologous recombination with the intact slyA gene on the chromosome. The mutant strain showed the LD50 value for BALB/c mouse approximately 10(5) higher than that of the parent strain. The increase of the LD50 value was the same order as that shown by the mutation of the slyA gene of S. serovar Typhimurium, although LD50 of the wild-type strain of S. serovar Choleraesuis was 40-fold higher than that of S. serovar Typhimurium. The time course of infection observed in the mice organs also proved the clear difference of the virulence between the parent and the mutant strains. These results suggested that the slyA gene product functions as a virulence-associated regulator also in S. serovar Choleraesuis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O25 strains that produce heat-stable toxin (ST) have been recently isolated in Japan, and epidemiological study of this type of enterotoxigenic E. coli is required. In this study the heterogeneity of 16 ST-producing and non-producing strains of E. coli O25 was investigated. All eight ST-producing strains were shown to have STIb gene, and seven of them had similar profiles of plasmids, ladder-banding of LPS in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and chromosomal DNA digestions in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In contrast, ST-non-producing strains were more heterogeneous in all parameters examined. PFGE of the digested chromosomal DNA with several restriction enzymes was proved to be an effective procedure to compare the closely related strains of E. coli O25.
Preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OK-432 has been used clinically as a biological response modifier for cancer therapy. We investigated here the protective effects of OK-432 against endotoxic shock and infectious death caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis in mice and proposed a possible mechanism. Pretreatment of OK-432 reduced the lethality of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock in D-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized C3H/HeN mice. OK-432 did not affect the TNFalpha production in blood, but it did decrease the susceptibility to TNFalpha. Furthermore, an acceleration of LPS clearance from blood was detected. The pretreatment of OK-432 also decreased the lethality of mice in bacterial infection caused by P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis. The rapid decrease of the viable bacteria from the circulating blood and in spleen and liver in mice was observed in a manner similar to LPS clearance. These findings indicate that the protective effect of OK-432 against the endotoxemia and bacteremia may depend on an up-regulation of clearance of LPS and bacteria and the augmented resistance to TNFalpha.
Preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutants of Sphingomonaspaucimobilis defective in a part of the carbohydrate moiety of the glycosphingolipid (GSL) were constructed by transposon (Tn5)-insertional mutagenesis. Defective mutants were selected by ELISA using the antibody recognizing the tetrasaccharide-type GSL (GSL-4A) of S. paucimobilis. Eight defective mutants were selected from about 8,000 kanamycin-resistant strains, and seven of them were found to lack the terminal mannose of GSL-4A. The chemical structure of the mutant GSL was investigated, and proved that the rest of the structure was not changed by the mutation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The slyA gene, which has been implicated in the virulence of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and its survival in macrophages, is widely distributed among different Salmonella serovars. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the translational initiation region of the slyA gene from nine different serovars and found sequence differences in the previously proposed ATG initiation codon but not in a TTG triplet, another putative initiation codon in the slyA gene. Therefore, we determined the actual translational initiation site of the slyA gene by analyzing slyA genes with defined mutation in either the ATG or TTG sequences in an in vitro translation assay and a quantitative hemolytic assay in Escherichia coli. The replacement of TTG by TTC in the slyA gene significantly reduced both the amount of protein synthesized and the hemolytic activity of a transformed strain of E. coli, while replacement of ATG by ATC had no effect in these assays. In addition, the amino acid sequence analysis of the His-tagged SlyA protein showed that it was identical with the amino acid sequence deduced from the 5' end of the slyA gene with a TTG initiation codon. Our results suggest that TTG serves as the translational initiation codon for the slyA gene of Salmonella.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1999 · Microbiology and Immunology