A. J. Norton

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (173)493.44 Total impact

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    A. J. Norton · M. E. Lohr · B. Smalley · P. J. Wheatley · R. G. West
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    ABSTRACT: We searched the SuperWASP archive for objects displaying multiply periodic photometric variations. Specifically we sought evidence for eclipsing binary stars displaying a further non-harmonically related signal in their power spectra. The object SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 is identified as a relatively bright (V ~ 11.5) semi-detached eclipsing binary with a 5.104 d orbital period that displays coherent pulsations with a semi-amplitude of 65 mmag at a frequency of 13.45 per day. Follow-up radial velocity spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope confirmed the binary nature of the system. Using the phoebe code to model the radial velocity curve with the SuperWASP photometry allowed parameters of both stellar components to be determined. This yielded a primary (pulsating) star with a mass of 1.73 +/- 0.11 solar mass and a radius of 2.41 +/- 0.06 solar radii plus a Roche-lobe filling secondary star with a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.03 solar mass and a radius of 4.21 +/- 0.11 solar radii. 1SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 is therefore a bright delta Sct pulsator in a semi-detached eclipsing binary with one of the largest pulsation amplitudes of any such system known. The pulsation constant indicates that the mode is likely a first overtone radial pulsation.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    M. E. Lohr · A. J. Norton · S. G. Payne · R. G. West · P. J. Wheatley
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    ABSTRACT: Orbital period changes of binary stars may be caused by the presence of a third massive body in the system. Here we have searched the archive of the Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) project for evidence of period variations in 13927 eclipsing binary candidates. Sinusoidal period changes, strongly suggestive of third bodies, were detected in 2% of cases; however, linear period changes were observed in a further 22% of systems. We argue on distributional grounds that the majority of these apparently linear changes are likely to reflect longer-term sinusoidal period variations caused by third bodies, and thus estimate a higher-order multiplicity fraction of 24% for SuperWASP binaries, in good agreement with other recent figures for the fraction of triple systems amongst binary stars in general.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Our discovery of 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5 as a probable doubly eclipsing quadruple system containing a contact binary with P~0.23 d and a detached binary with P~1.31 d was announced in 2013. Subsequently Koo et al. confirmed the detached binary spectroscopically and identified a fifth set of static spectral lines at its location, corresponding to a further non-eclipsing component of the system. Here we present new spectroscopic and photometric observations, allowing confirmation of the contact binary and improved modelling of all four eclipsing components. The detached binary is found to contain components of masses 0.837(8) and 0.674(7) M_sol, with radii of 0.832(18) and 0.669(18) R_sol and effective temperatures of 5185(-20,+25) and 4325(-15,+20) K respectively, the contact system has masses 0.86(2) and 0.341(11) M_sol, radii of 0.79(4) and 0.52(5) R_sol respectively, and a common T_eff of 4700(50) K. The fifth star is of similar temperature and spectral type to the primaries in the two binaries. Long-term photometric observations indicate the presence of a spot on one component of the detached binary, moving at an apparent rate of approximately one rotation every two years. Both binaries have consistent system velocities around -11 to -12 km/s, which match the average radial velocity of the fifth star, consistent distance estimates for both subsystems of d=78(3) and d=73(4) pc are also found, and (with some further assumptions) of d=83(9) pc for the fifth star. These findings strongly support the claim that both binaries (and very probably all five stars) are gravitationally bound in a single system. The consistent angles of inclination found for the two binaries (88.2(3) and 86(4) degrees) may also indicate that they originally formed by fragmentation (~9-10 Gyr ago) from a single protostellar disk and subsequently remained in the same orbital plane.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of accreting white dwarfs. For a summary, we refer to the paper.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: PLATO 2.0 is a mission candidate for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). It addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, able to develop life? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes providing a wide field-of-view and a large photometric magnitude range. It targets bright stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for stars <=11mag to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2%, 4-10% and 10% for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The foreseen baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50% of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include Earth-like planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. ...
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental Astronomy
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    ABSTRACT: Period or amplitude variations in eclipsing binaries may reveal the presence of additional massive bodies in the system, such as circumbinary planets. Here, we have studied twelve previously-known eclipsing post-common-envelope binaries for evidence of such light curve variations, on the basis of multi-year observations in the SuperWASP archive. The results for HW Vir provided strong evidence for period changes consistent with those measured by previous studies, and help support a two-planet model for the system. ASAS J102322-3737.0 exhibited plausible evidence for a period increase not previously suggested; while NY Vir, QS Vir and NSVS 14256825 afforded less significant support for period change, providing some confirmation to earlier claims. In other cases, period change was not convincingly observed; for AA Dor and NSVS 07826147, previous findings of constant period were confirmed. This study allows us to present hundreds of new primary eclipse timings for these systems, and further demonstrates the value of wide-field high-cadence surveys like SuperWASP for the investigation of variable stars.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis ($\lambda$). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of $\lambda={8^{\circ}}^{+13}_{-12}$ and $\lambda={-2^{\circ}}^{+17}_{-19}$, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6250$K and therefore these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was carried out on archival SuperWASP data for both systems. A statistically significant stellar rotation period detection (above 99.9\% confidence) was identified for the WASP-32 system with $P_{\mathrm{rot}}=11.6 \pm 1.0 $ days. This rotation period is in agreement with the predicted stellar rotation period calculated from the stellar radius, $R_{\star}$, and $v \sin i$ if a stellar inclination of $i_{\star}=90^{\circ}$ is assumed. With the determined rotation period, the true 3D angle between the stellar rotation axis and the planetary orbit, $\psi$, was found to be $\psi=11^{\circ} \pm 14$. We conclude with a discussion on the alignment of systems around cool host stars with $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6150$K by calculating the tidal dissipation timescale. We find that systems with short tidal dissipation timescales are preferentially aligned and systems with long tidal dissipation timescales have a broad range of obliquities.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The results of a search for eclipsing Am star binaries using photometry from the SuperWASP survey are presented. The light curves of 1742 Am stars fainter than V = 8.0 were analysed for the presences of eclipses. A total of 70 stars were found to exhibit eclipses, with 66 having sufficient observations to enable orbital periods to be determined and 28 of which are newly identified eclipsing systems. Also presented are spectroscopic orbits for 5 of the systems. The number of systems and the period distribution is found to be consistent with that identified in previous radial velocity surveys of `classical' Am stars.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    M. E. Lohr · S. T. Hodgkin · A. J. Norton · U. C. Kolb
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    ABSTRACT: The two objects 1SWASP J150822.80-054236.9 and 1SWASP J160156.04+202821.6 were initially detected from their SuperWASP archived light curves as candidate eclipsing binaries with periods close to the short-period cut-off of the orbital period distribution of main sequence binaries, at ~0.2 d. Here, using INT spectroscopic data, we confirm them as double-lined spectroscopic and eclipsing binaries, in contact configuration. Following modelling of their visual light curves and radial velocity curves, we determine their component and system parameters to precisions between ~2 and 11%. The former system contains 1.07 and 0.55 M_sun components, with radii of 0.90 and 0.68 R_sun respectively; its primary exhibits pulsations with period 1/6 the orbital period of the system. The latter contains 0.86 and 0.57 M_sun components, with radii of 0.75 and 0.63R_sun respectively.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known $\delta$ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and in the low-frequency $\delta$ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The hard X-ray source IGR J11215-5952 is a peculiar transient, displaying very short X-ray outbursts every 165 days. We obtained high-resolution spectra of the optical counterpart, HD 306414, at different epochs, spanning a total of three months, before and around the 2007 February outburst with the combined aims of deriving its astrophysical parameters and searching for orbital modulation. We fit model atmospheres generated with the fastwind code to the spectrum. We also cross-correlated each individual spectrum to the best-fit model to derive radial velocities. From its spectral features, we classify HD 306414 as B0.5 Ia. From the model fit, we find Teff = 24 700 K and log g = 2.7, in good agreement with the morphological classification. Using the interstellar lines in its spectrum, we estimate a distance to HD 306414 d > 7 kpc. Assuming this distance, we derive R* = 40 Rsol and Mspect = 30 Msol (consistent, within errors, with Mevol = 38 Msol). Radial velocity changes are not dominated by the orbital motion, and we find an upper limit on the semi-amplitude for the optical component Kopt < 11 +- 6 km/s. Large variations in the depth and shape of photospheric lines suggest the presence of strong pulsations, which may be the main cause of the radial velocity changes. Very significant variations, uncorrelated with those of the photospheric lines are seen in the shape and position of the Halpha emission feature around the time of the X-ray outburst, but large excursions are also observed at other times. HD 306414 is a normal B0.5 Ia supergiant. Its radial velocity curve is dominated by an effect that is different from binary motion, and is most likely stellar pulsations. The data available suggest that the X-ray outbursts are caused by the close passage of the neutron star in a very eccentric orbit, perhaps leading to localised mass outflow. (abridged).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    M. E. Lohr · A. J. Norton · U. C. Kolb · D. R. S. Boyd
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    ABSTRACT: We report our investigation of 1SWASP J234401.81-212229.1, a variable with a 18461.6 s period. After identification in a 2011 search of the SuperWASP archive for main-sequence eclipsing binary candidates near the distribution's short-period limit of approx. 0.20 d, it was measured to be undergoing rapid period decrease in our earlier work, though later observations supported a cyclic variation in period length. Spectroscopic data obtained in 2012 with the Southern African Large Telescope did not, however, support the interpretation of the object as a normal eclipsing binary. Here, we consider three possible explanations consistent with the data: a single-star oblique rotator model in which variability results from stable cool spots on opposite magnetic poles; a two-star model in which the secondary is a brown dwarf; and a three-star model involving a low-mass eclipsing binary in a hierarchical triple system. We conclude that the latter is the most likely model.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of two transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-65b (M_pl = 1.55 +/- 0.16 M_J; R_pl = 1.11 +/- 0.06 R_J), and WASP-75b (M_pl = 1.07 +/- 0.05 M_J; R_pl = 1.27 +/- 0.05 R_J). They orbit their host star every 2.311, and 2.484 days, respectively. The planet host WASP-65 is a G6 star (T_eff = 5600 K, [Fe/H] = -0.07 +/- 0.07, age > 8 Gyr); WASP-75 is an F9 star (T_eff = 6100 K, [Fe/H] = 0.07 +/- 0.09, age of 3 Gyr). WASP-65b is one of the densest known exoplanets in the mass range 0.1 and 2.0 M_J (rho_pl = 1.13 +/- 0.08 rho_J), a mass range where a large fraction of planets are found to be inflated with respect to theoretical planet models. WASP-65b is one of only a handful of planets with masses of around 1.5 M_J, a mass regime surprisingly underrepresented among the currently known hot Jupiters. The radius of Jupiter-mass WASP-75b is slightly inflated (< 10%) as compared to theoretical planet models with no core, and has a density similar to that of Saturn (rho_pl = 0.52 +/- 0.06 rho_J).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Derived light curve characteristics including periods and period change measurements are presented here for 143 eclipsing binary candidates with periods close to the main sequence binary period distribution's lower limit of ~0.20d. The light curves were extracted from the archive of the SuperWASP project, which has taken high cadence (6-40min) observations of bright (~8-15Vmag) stars over almost the whole sky since 2003. RA and DEC are extracted from the SuperWASP identifiers, themselves based on USNO B-1.0 coordinates for corresponding point sources. (1 data file).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013
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    R. Farmer · U. Kolb · A. J. Norton
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    ABSTRACT: Using population synthesis tools we create a synthetic Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC) and subject it to the Kepler Stellar Classification Program (SCP) method for determining stellar parameters such as the effective temperature Teff and surface gravity g. We achieve a satisfactory match between the synthetic KIC and the real KIC in the log g versus log Teff diagram, while there is a significant difference between the actual physical stellar parameters and those derived by the SCP of the stars in the synthetic sample. We find a median difference ΔTeff = +500 K and ∼Δlog g = −0.2 dex for main-sequence (MS) stars, and ∼ΔTeff = +50 K and Δlog g = −0.5 dex for giants, although there is a large variation across parameter space. For a MS star the median difference in g would equate to a ∼3 per cent increase in stellar radius and a consequent ∼3 per cent overestimate of the radius for any transiting exoplanet. We find no significant difference between ΔTeff and Δlog g for single stars and the primary star in a binary system. We also re-created the Kepler target selection method and found that the binary fraction is unchanged by the target selection. Binaries are selected in similar proportions to single star systems; the fraction of MS dwarfs in the sample increases from about 75 to 80 per cent, and the giant star fraction decreases from 25 to 20 per cent.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Many transiting exoplanet surveys are now in operation, observing millions of stars and searching for the periodic signals that may indicate planets orbiting these objects. Aims: We have tested the performance of transit detection algorithms using real WASP data, avoiding the issue of generating the appropriate level of white and red noise in simulated lightcurves. We used a two-dimensional search method, the box-least-squares (BLS) algorithm, and two- and three-dimensional versions of the analysis of variance (AoV) method. Methods: After removing any potential transiting candidate or variable objects, transits were injected into each lightcurve. We performed Monte Carlo simulations, testing the recovery of injected signals in 99 lightcurves by each algorithm. Results: In the simulations using data from one season of WASP observations, it was determined that the BLS method should detect a total of 37% of planets and the 3D AoV 23%. Simulations to explore the effects of extending survey baseline or number of hours of observations per 24 h period, i.e. longitudinally spaced observatories, were also performed. They showed that increasing the coverage via an increase in baseline or in observational hours are equally good for maximising overall detections of transiting planets. The resulting algorithm performance was combined with actual WASP-South results to estimate that 0.08% and 0.30% of stars harbour very hot Jupiters and hot Jupiters respectively.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Observations from the Heliospheric Imagers (HI-1) on both the STEREO spacecraft have been analysed to search for bright low mass eclipsing binaries (EBs) and potential brown dwarf transits and to determine the radii of the companions. A total of nine EB candidates have been found, ranging in brightness from V = 6.59 to 11.3 mag, where the radius of the companion appears to be less than 0.4 R⊙, with a diverse range of host temperatures, from 4074 to 6925 K. Both components of one candidate, BD-07 3648, appear to be less than 0.4 R⊙ and this represents a particularly interesting system for further study. The shapes of the eclipses in some cases are not clear enough to be certain they are total and the corresponding radii found should therefore be considered as lower limits. The EBs reported in this paper have either been newly found by the present analysis or previously reported to be eclipsing by our earlier STEREO/HI-1 results. One of the new objects has subsequently been confirmed using archival SuperWASP data. This study was made possible by using an improved matched filter extraction algorithm, which is described in this paper.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Building on previous work, a new search of the SuperWASP archive was carried out to identify eclipsing binary systems near the short-period limit. 143 candidate objects were detected with orbital periods between 16000 and 20000 s, of which 97 are new discoveries. Period changes significant at 1 sigma or more were detected in 74 of these objects, and in 38 the changes were significant at 3 sigma or more. The significant period changes observed followed an approximately normal distribution with a half-width at half-maximum of ~0.1 s/yr. There was no apparent relationship between period length and magnitude or direction of period change. Amongst several interesting individual objects studied, 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5 is presented as a new doubly eclipsing quadruple system, consisting of a contact binary with a 19674.575 s period and an Algol-type binary with a 112799.109 s period, separated by 66.1 AU, being the sixth known system of this type.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present three newly discovered sub-Jupiter mass planets from the SuperWASP survey: WASP-54b is a heavily bloated planet of mass 0.636$^{+0.025}_{-0.024}$ \mj and radius 1.653$^{+0.090}_{-0.083}$ \rj. It orbits a F9 star, evolving off the main sequence, every 3.69 days. Our MCMC fit of the system yields a slightly eccentric orbit ($e=0.067^{+0.033}_{-0.025}$) for WASP-54b. We investigated further the veracity of our detection of the eccentric orbit for WASP-54b, and we find that it could be real. However, given the brightness of WASP-54 V=10.42 magnitudes, we encourage observations of a secondary eclipse to draw robust conclusions on both the orbital eccentricity and the thermal structure of the planet. WASP-56b and WASP-57b have masses of 0.571$^{+0.034}_{-0.035}$ \mj and $0.672^{+0.049}_{-0.046}$ \mj, respectively; and radii of $1.092^{+0.035}_{-0.033}$ \rj for WASP-56b and $0.916^{+0.017}_{-0.014}$ \rj for WASP-57b. They orbit main sequence stars of spectral type G6 every 4.67 and 2.84 days, respectively. WASP-56b and WASP-57b show no radius anomaly and a high density possibly implying a large core of heavy elements; possibly as high as $\sim$50 M$_{\oplus}$ in the case of WASP-57b. However, the composition of the deep interior of exoplanets remain still undetermined. Thus, more exoplanet discoveries such as the ones presented in this paper, are needed to understand and constrain giant planets' physical properties.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The LOFT mission concept is one of four candidates selected by ESA for the M3 launch opportunity as Medium Size missions of the Cosmic Vision programme. The launch window is currently planned for between 2022 and 2024. LOFT is designed to exploit the diagnostics of rapid X-ray flux and spectral variability that directly probe the motion of matter down to distances very close to black holes and neutron stars, as well as the physical state of ultra-dense matter. These primary science goals will be addressed by a payload composed of a Large Area Detector (LAD) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD is a collimated (<1 degree field of view) experiment operating in the energy range 2-50 keV, with a 10 m^2 peak effective area and an energy resolution of 260 eV at 6 keV. The WFM will operate in the same energy range as the LAD, enabling simultaneous monitoring of a few-steradian wide field of view, with an angular resolution of <5 arcmin. The LAD and WFM experiments will allow us to investigate variability from submillisecond QPO's to year-long transient outbursts. In this paper we report the current status of the project.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Experimental Astronomy

Publication Stats

3k Citations
493.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000-2014
    • Milton Keynes College
      Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1988-1992
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1989-1991
    • University of Southampton
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom