A G Wangel

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland

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Publications (29)73.65 Total impact

  • Anders G. Wangel · Sirkka Kontiainen · Liisa Melamies · Teddy Weber
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    ABSTRACT: Because of our previous demonstration of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and their association, in this condition, with thyroid disease, we sought these antibodies in patients with suspected thyroid dysfunction using an enzyme immunoassay with human umbilical vein endothelial cells as the substrate. AECA were found in 5/120 (4.2%) patients with normal and 15/97 (15.4%) with abnormal thyroid function. The increased prevalence in the latter group was due to a highly significant association between the presence of AECA and raised levels of TSH. We conclude that a highly significant correlation exists between the levels of AECA and TSH, but not between those of AECA and fT4. Patients with hypothyroidism as defined by high levels of TSH have AECA significantly more often than patients with low or normal TSH (22.2% versus 2.8% and 5.8%).
    No preview · Article · Feb 1993 · Apmis
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    ABSTRACT: Increased capillary permeability is a central feature of the severe forms of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and occurs also, though less frequently, in nephropathia epidemica (NE), one of the milder forms of this syndrome, caused by Puumala virus. We therefore searched for antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with NE and in those with other presumed or serologically proven acute viral illnesses. By enzyme immunoassay, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as the substrate, IgG class AECA were detected significantly more frequently in patients with NE and with influenza A than in Red Cross blood donors. A lesser degree of reactivity could be shown with a human alveolar cell carcinoma line and with human and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Pretreatment of HUVEC with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not with IL-1 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), increased their ability to bind IgG of sera from patients with NE and acute febrile illnesses. We conclude that, although AECA can be demonstrated in NE, they occur also in other acute viral illnesses and, unless cytopathic by a mechanism not shared by the AECA of these other illnesses, are unlikely to be casually related to the capillary leak in HFRS.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1992 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of IgG class antibodies to endothelial cells (AECA) was studied in 136 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by an enzyme immunoassay using human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells. The patients were divided into four groups according to the time between diagnosis and study and their results were compared with those in control children and blood donors. AECA became progressively more frequent with the duration of diabetes, being 4% in diabetics tested within 2 weeks of diagnosis and reaching 34% after an average disease duration of 11.2 years. They were not more common in patients with neuropathy, retinopathy or nephropathy than in patients without these complications, but were associated with co-existing thyroid disease and IgA deficiency. The results suggest that in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus AECA are associated with co-existing autoimmune disorders but not with diabetic microvascular disease.
    Preview · Article · Jul 1992 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the role of endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of vasculitis affecting peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle, the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and major histocompatibility antigens (MHC) in different vasculitic syndromes were studied, and related to the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA). Increased expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in vasculitic lesions in nerve and muscle was shown, and this was associated with increased expression of MHC class I and II antigens. AECA were detected in low titre in only a minority of patients. The findings suggest that endothelial cells have a critical role in mediating the tissue injury in vasculitis affecting nerve and muscle and that the process is triggered by cellular and not antibody-mediated mechanism in the majority of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1992 · Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
  • U Tiikkainen · A Wangel · S L Appleton · D Arthur
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies directed to a co-factor associated with negatively charged phospholipids, such as cardiolipin, occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and possibly more often in those with venous or arterial thrombosis, thrombocytopenia or recurrent fetal loss. They are also found in patients without any of these manifestations and their biological effect, if any, might thus be related to their IgG subclass. To investigate this possibility, we determined anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against human IgG subclasses. A net absorbance of x +3 SD of the value of 30 blood donors was taken as the cut-off point. The specificity of the assay was verified through inhibition experiments using cardiolipin micelles. Thirty-three patients with SLE were studied, all of whom had been shown to have ACA by a point dilution screening assay. IgG1 ACA were found in 85% of the patients, and ACA of the IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses in 42%, 39% and 15%. There was a significant correlation between the presence of IgG3 ACA and of anti-DNA antibodies but none between subclass distribution and major clinical manifestations of SLE.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
  • A G Wangel · M Lorenzetti · T Pettersson
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    ABSTRACT: Polyclonal B cell activation occurred in 3 patients following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (i.v. Ig) for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The possibility that this may represent an anti-idiotype response and the hypothesis that prolonged remission of ITP may be induced by this mechanism are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1987 · European Journal Of Haematology
  • S Kontiainen · M Nuutinen · A Wangel
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    ABSTRACT: Suppressor factors induced in vitro, using purified human IgG and IgA myeloma proteins, were shown to efficiently suppress murine antibody production in vivo. The suppression was not isotype specific, viz. IgG and IgA suppressor factors suppressed the production of IgM and IgG antibody. Neither the suppressor factors (SF) nor the inducing proteins suppressed the proliferative responses to concanavalin A and purified protein derivative (PPD). The results are compared to the in vitro findings and discussed in the context of isotype regulation, hypogammaglobulinemia and immunotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1987 · Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. Section C, Immunology
  • A Wangel · S Kontiainen

    No preview · Article · Feb 1987 · Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
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    Anders Wangel

    Preview · Article · Feb 1987 · Acta medica Scandinavica
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    A G Wangel · K Kayhko · S Reitamo · I Jokinen
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    ABSTRACT: We have earlier isolated, to apparent homogeneity, a 27-28 kD human basic protein (UM) from the urine of a patient with myelomonocytic leukaemia. UM is a mitogen for resting human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML). We have now further defined the effect of UM on human PBML and their subpopulations in 6-day cultures. Cell proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine uptake and Ig production by the plaque forming cell (PFC) response. Whole PBML responded to UM with proliferation and an increase in PFC. The PFC response was at best equal to and frequently synergistic with that produced by pokeweed mitogen and occurred in the three major Ig classes. To test the effect of UM on subpopulations of PBML, adherent cells (AC) were isolated by plastic adherence and T and B enriched populations by rosetting with sheep red blood cells. The proliferative response of T cells needed the presence of AC whilst the effect on Ig production by B cells required both T cell help and the presence of AC. Human thymocytes also responded to UM by proliferation. The results show that, in addition to being a T cell mitogen, UM is also a T cell dependent polyclonal B cell activator.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 1986 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal human donors were cultured in Marbrook flasks in the presence of purified IgG or IgA myeloma proteins. The culture supernatants were tested for their ability to suppress pokeweed mitogen (PWM)- or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven Ig synthesis by normal PBMC. Two supernatants from PBMC cultured with IgG and one from PBMC cultured with IgA were tested and suppressed PWM-driven Ig synthesis as measured by a reverse haemolytic plaque assay and by quantitation of the Ig secreted into the culture medium of the PWM-driven cells. This suppression was not restricted to the Ig isotype of the 'inducing' myeloma protein, but was extended to IgG, IgA, and IgM. The suppressive effect could be absorbed out with human IgG.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1986 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: We have isolated the white cells from the bone marrow, spleen, and blood of a rat recipient of a bone marrow allograft and the inflammatory leukocytes from the recipient skin, lung, gut, and liver (the parenchymal target organs for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD)) and compared the number of immunoglobulin-synthesizing and releasing cells in these cell populations to corresponding compartments of a syngeneic graft recipient. Bone marrow transplantation was associated in the early phase with marked immunoglobulin production in the cells of bone marrow, spleen, and blood of the allograft recipient; as, however, a similar response occurred in the syngeneic graft recipient we conclude that this is related to reconstitution rather than to aGVHD. Later, during aGVHD, the number of immunoglobulin releasing cells decreased significantly in the spleen and bone marrow of the allografted animal. In clear contrast, in the liver--but not in skin, lung, or gut--very few immunoglobulin-releasing cells were observed in the syngeneic graft recipient, whereas in the allograft recipient a very strong and significantly higher immunoglobulin synthesis and release was seen coinciding with the inflammatory episode of aGVHD in the liver.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1986 · Transplantation
  • Anders Wangel

    No preview · Article · Feb 1986 · Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
  • A.G. Wangel · H Arvilommi · I Jokinen
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    ABSTRACT: The anticonvulsant drug phenytoin, in less than cytotoxic concentrations, caused significant reductions in Ig secretion by unstimulated or EBV-stimulated normal MNC, as measured by PFC or secretion of Ig into the culture medium. Isotype-specific LBL varied in their sensitivity, the secretion of IgA (1 line) and IgG (3 lines) being reduced by phenytoin near therapeutic concentrations, whereas that of IgM (1 line) was resistant. Six-day exposure of MNC to phenytoin caused no selective depletion of or enrichment for B cells, monocytes or T cell subsets. The results suggest that the reduction in serum Ig levels reported in phenytoin-treated epileptic patients is, at least in part, due to a direct effect of the drug on the B lymphocyte. However, among EBV-activated normal MNC, those secreting IgA were no more sensitive to the drug than those secreting IgG or IgM, and other factors may, therefore, operate to cause the preferential reduction in serum IgA in phenytoin-treated patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1985 · Immunobiology
  • A.G. WANGEL · Eija Johansson · Annamari Ranki
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    ABSTRACT: We studied polyclonal B-cell activation in twenty-six patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). Spontaneous plaque-forming cells of the IgA class (IgA-SPFC) as determined by a reverse haemolytic plaque assay were significantly more common in patients with DLE than in fifty control subjects. The patients showed a positive correlation between IgA-SPFC and OKT4/8 ratios and also had a significantly higher mean OKT4/8 ratio. The two groups did not differ with regard to cells producing IgG or IgM or cells with OKT3, OKT4, OKT8 or OKMI markers. None of the three patients with DLE who had IgA-SPFC values which were above the mean (+2 s.d.) for the control subjects had positive tests for ANA or low serum C3 or C4, but two of the three also had increased IgG-SPFC values. The results indicate that polyclonal B-cell activation occurs in a small proportion of patients with DLE.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1984 · British Journal of Dermatology
  • A.G. Wangel · H.K. Poikonen · J Eskola
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    ABSTRACT: One fluid phase and two solid phase reverse haemolytic plaque (RHP) assays were used to quantitate plaque forming cells (PFC) in pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated and unstimulated cultures of mononuclear cells (MNC) from 18 normal donors. There was a close correlation between the results of the three assays and between each one and the number of cells containing cytoplasmic Ig (cIg). All three correctly identified donors with a low PWM response. The fluid phase assay was the most sensitive with PFC values in PWM stimulated cultures two to four times higher than with the solid phase assays.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1984 · Immunobiology
  • A G Wangel · A M Teppo · A Pollard · S Howarth
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies to three major antigens of the non-histone or saline-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) complex were sought by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CEP) in three groups of sera which gave different patterns in the immunofluorescence test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Precipitins, mainly anti RNP and anti SS-B, were found most commonly (61%) in 70 sera with a speckled ANA pattern but were less frequent (8%) in 61 sera with a homogeneous ANA pattern and exceptional (1%) in 72 sera which showed fibrillar ANA staining. Rim staining was an insensitive indicator of nDNA antibody. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA), specific for anti-SS-B was more sensitive than CEP and identified this antibody in 28 sera, compared with 18 for CEP.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1984 · Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
  • S Divakaran · A.G. Wangel
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    ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes may be separated into theophylline-sensitive (Tsens) and theophylline-resistant (Tres) fractions based on their loss or retention of ERFC-forming ability after incubation with 3 mM theophylline. It has been claimed that Tsens cells have a predominant suppressor function, whilst Tres cells have mainly helper activity. We have studied the sensitive and resistant fractions to ascertain their degree of homogeneity with regard to putative markers for helper and suppressor function. Incubation with theophylline caused no significant change in the expression of OKT3, OKT4, OKT8, and OKM1 antigens. Compared to Tsens, Tres contained significantly more cells expressing OKT4 or Leu 3A antigens and cells bearing Fc mu receptors or containing Gall bodies. The Tsens fraction was enriched for cells with Fc gamma receptors but not for cells expressing OKT8 or LEU 2A. The results suggest that the Tres fraction is enriched for cells with putative helper markers and that the Tsens fraction is enriched for cells with some suppressor markers but also contains a large number of cells of monocytic lineage. However, the two fractions are not homogeneous with respect to Fc receptor status, presence of Gall bodies or antigens defined by OKT or Leu antisera, hence the use of theophylline sensitivity as a means of estimating the sizes of the helper and suppressor populations does not seem advisable.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1984 · Immunobiology
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    A G Wangel · S Kontiainen
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes from normal human donors were cultured in Marbrook flasks in the presence of C-reactive protein (CRP), concanavalin A (Con A) or serum amyloid A protein low molecular weight component (SAAL) and the culture supernatants were tested for their ability to suppress the pokeweed mitogen (PWM) driven response of normal human lymphocytes. The supernatants from CRP and Con A stimulated lymphocytes, when added to cultures at initiation at a final concentration of 5%, suppressed the plaque forming cell (PFC) response in the three major immunoglobulin (Ig) classes. The suppressive effect could be removed by absorption of the culture supernatants with lentil lectin and with antisera to antigen specific helper and suppressor factors and could be recovered in the eluate. The results indicate that CRP stimulated cells exert their suppressive effect through a soluble mediator(s) which is similar to Con A generated suppressor factor(s) in respect to its time of action, its effect on the Ig classes M, G and A, its lack of cytoxicity and some structural aspects.
    Preview · Article · Sep 1983 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    A G Wangel · A Milton · J B Egan
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    ABSTRACT: A reverse haemolytic plaque assay using staphylococcal protein A coupled to sheep red blood cells was set up in Cunningham chambers. Using this method, the numbers of Ficoll-Hypaque isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) secreting IgG, IgA or IgM without preceding culture or mitogen stimulation were estimated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and control subjects. Seven patients with clinically inactive SLE at the time of the study had values similar to those of the control subjects. In contrast, eight patients who had clinically active SLE had markedly increased numbers of PBL secreting IgG, IgA and IgM. Control experiments confirmed that the plaques were due to Ig secretion by lymphoid cells rather than to immune complexes adsorbed onto Fc receptor bearing cells or to passively adsorbed Ig. The results confirm the expected polyclonal B cell activation in patients with SLE and serial measurements showed that clinical relapses occurred only when the numbers of immunoglobulin secreting cells were high. Experiments in three patients with active SLE using native DNA prepared from T2 bacteriophage as the 'developing antigen' suggest that PBL secreting nDNA antibody can also be demonstrated by this method.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1982 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology

Publication Stats

250 Citations
73.65 Total Impact Points


  • 1984-1993
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Bacteriology and Immunology
      • • Transplantation Laboratory
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
    • University of Turku
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 1975-1992
    • University of Adelaide
      • School of Medicine
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1974-1987
    • The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia