S. Wood

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Ньюпорт-Ньюс, Virginia, United States

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Publications (64)

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of \cma$= 70^\circ$. The longitudinal transfer \KLL, measured to be $0.645 \pm 0.059 \pm 0.048$, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is $\sim$3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2015 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interpretation of the signals detected by high precision experiments aimed at measuring neutrino oscillations requires an accurate description of the neutrino-nucleus cross sections. One of the key element of the analysis is the treatment of nuclear effects, which is one of the main sources of systematics for accelerator based experiments such as the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). A considerable effort is currently being made to develop theoretical models capable of providing a fully quantitative description of the neutrino-nucleus cross sections in the kinematical regime relevant to LBNE. The approach based on nuclear many-body theory and the spectral function formalism has proved very successful in explaining the available electron scattering data in a variety of kinematical conditions. The first step towards its application to the analysis of neutrino data is the derivation of the spectral functions of nuclei employed in neutrino detectors, in particular argon. We propose a measurement of the coincidence $(e,e^\prime p)$ cross section on argon. This data will provide the experimental input indispensable to construct the argon spectral function, thus paving the way for a reliable estimate of the neutrino cross sections. In addition, the analysis of the $(e,e^\prime p)$ data will help a number of theoretical developments, like the description of final-state interactions needed to isolate the initial-state contributions to the observed single-particle peaks, that is also needed for the interpretation of the signal detected in neutrino experiments.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2014
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured simultaneously the 4He(eep), 4He(eepp), and 4He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q^2=2 [GeV/c]2 and x_B>1, for a (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum in a region where the nucleon-nucleon force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. Neutron-proton pairs dominate the high-momentum tail of the nucleon momentum distributions, but their abundance is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ~500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum in the range we studied. Our data are compared with ab-initio calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in 4He.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2014
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Physics G Nuclear and Particle Physics
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    W Luo · E J Brash · R Gilman · [...] · L Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present new data for the polarization observables of the final state proton in the (1)H(γ,p)π(0) reaction. These data can be used to test predictions based on hadron helicity conservation and perturbative QCD. These data have both small statistical and systematic uncertainties and were obtained with beam energies between 1.8 and 5.6 GeV and for π(0) scattering angles larger than 75° in the center-of-mass frame. The data extend the polarization measurements database for neutral pion photoproduction up to E(γ)=5.6 GeV. The results show a nonzero induced polarization above the resonance region. The polarization transfer components vary rapidly with the photon energy and π(0) scattering angle in the center-of-mass frame. This indicates that hadron helicity conservation does not hold and that the perturbative QCD limit is still not reached in the energy regime of this experiment.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2012 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding energy of 7ΛHe has been obtained for the first time with reaction spectroscopy using the (e, e'K+) reaction at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. A comparison among the binding energies of the A = 7 T = l iso-triplet hypernuclei, 7ΛHe, 7ΛLi*and 7ΛBe, is made and possible charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the ΛN potential is discussed. For 7ΛHe and 7ΛBe, the shifts in binding energies are opposite to those predicted by a recent cluster model calculation, which assumes that the unexplained part of the binding energy difference between 4ΛH and 4ΛHe, is due to the CSB of the ΛN potential. Further examination of CSB in light hypernuclear systems is required both experimentally and theoretically.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
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    W. Luo · E. J. Brash · R. Gilman · [...] · L. Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present new data for the polarization observables of the final state proton in the $^{1}H(\vec{\gamma},\vec{p})\pi^{0}$ reaction. These data can be used to test predictions based on hadron helicity conservation (HHC) and perturbative QCD (pQCD). These data have both small statistical and systematic uncertainties, and were obtained with beam energies between 1.8 and 5.6 GeV and for $\pi^{0}$ scattering angles larger than 75$^{\circ}$ in center-of-mass (c.m.) frame. The data extend the polarization measurements data base for neutral pion photoproduction up to $E_{\gamma}=5.6 GeV$. The results show non-zero induced polarization above the resonance region. The polarization transfer components vary rapidly with the photon energy and $\pi^{0}$ scattering angle in c.m. frame. This indicates that HHC does not hold and that the pQCD limit is still not reached in the energy regime of this experiment.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2011 · Physical Review Letters
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    M Meziane · E J Brash · R Gilman · [...] · L Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, G(E)/G(M), obtained separately from cross section and polarization transfer measurements. One possible explanation for this difference is a two-photon-exchange contribution. In an effort to search for effects beyond the one-photon-exchange or Born approximation, we report measurements of polarization transfer observables in the elastic H(e[over →],e(')p[over →]) reaction for three different beam energies at a Q(2)=2.5  GeV(2), spanning a wide range of the kinematic parameter ε. The ratio R, which equals μ(p)G(E)/G(M) in the Born approximation, is found to be independent of ε at the 1.5% level. The ε dependence of the longitudinal polarization transfer component P(ℓ) shows an enhancement of (2.3±0.6)% relative to the Born approximation at large ε.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2011 · Physical Review Letters
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    M. Meziane · E. J. Brash · R Gilman · [...] · L Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, $G_{E}/G_{M}$, obtained separately from cross section and polarization transfer measurements. One possible explanation for this difference is a two-photon-exchange (TPEX) contribution. In an effort to search for effects beyond the one-photon-exchange or Born approximation, we report measurements of polarization transfer observables in the elastic $H(\vec{e},e'\vec{p})$ reaction for three different beam energies at a fixed squared momentum transfer $Q^2 = 2.5$ GeV$^2$, spanning a wide range of the virtual photon polarization parameter, $\epsilon$. From these measured polarization observables, we have obtained separately the ratio $R$, which equals $\mu_p G_{E}/G_{M}$ in the Born approximation, and the longitudinal polarization transfer component $P_\ell$, with statistical and systematic uncertainties of $\Delta R \approx \pm 0.01 \mbox{(stat)} \pm 0.013 \mbox{(syst)}$ and $\Delta P_\ell/P^{Born}_{\ell} \approx \pm 0.006 \mbox{(stat)}\pm 0.01 \mbox{(syst)}$. The ratio $R$ is found to be independent of $\epsilon$ at the 1.5% level, while the $\epsilon$ dependence of $P_\ell$ shows an enhancement of $(2.3 \pm 0.6) %$ relative to the Born approximation at large $\epsilon$.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2010 · Physical Review Letters
  • Y. Song · A. Margaryan · A. Acha · [...] · L. Yuan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first measurement of proton, pion, and kaon associated fission of Bi nuclei has been performed in a photon energy range 1. 45 < E γ < 1. 55 GeV. The fission probabilities are compared with an inclusive fission probabilities obtained with photons, protons and pions. The fission probability of Bi nuclei in coincidence with kaons is 0. 18 ± 0. 06 which is ∼3 times larger than the proton and pion associated fission probabilities and ∼2 times larger than inclusive ones. The kaon associated excess fission events are explained in terms of bound Λ residual states and their weak nonmesonic decays.
    Article · Oct 2010 · Physics of Atomic Nuclei
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have extracted QCD matrix elements from our data on doubly polarized inelastic scattering of electrons on nuclei. We find the higher twist matrix element (d) over tilde (2), which arises strictly from quark-gluon interactions, to be unambiguously nonzero. The data also reveal an isospin dependence of higher twist effects if we assume that the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is valid. The fundamental Bjorken sum rule obtained from the a(0) matrix element is satisfied at our low momentum transfer.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2010 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the most fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dynamics of the nucleon's quark constituents; indeed, recent proton data have attracted intense theoretical interest. In this Letter, we report new measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio using the recoil polarization method, at momentum transfers Q2=5.2, 6.7, and 8.5  GeV2. By extending the range of Q2 for which G(E)(p) is accurately determined by more than 50%, these measurements will provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure in the nonperturbative regime.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2010 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the most fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dynamics of the nucleon's quark constituents; indeed, recent proton data have attracted intense theoretical interest. In this letter, we report new measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio using the recoil polarization method, at momentum transfers Q2=5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2. By extending the range of Q2 for which GEp is accurately determined by more than 50%, these measurements will provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure in the non-perturbative regime.
    Full-text Article · May 2010 · Physical Review Letters
  • Y. Song · A. Margaryan · A. Acha · [...] · L. Yuan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first measurement of proton, pion, and kaon associated fission of Bi nuclei has been performed in a photon energy range 1. 45 < E γ < 1. 55 GeV. The fission probabilities are compared with an inclusive fission probabilities obtained with photons, protons and pions. The fission probability of Bi nuclei in coincidence with kaons is 0. 18 ± 0. 06 which is ∼3 times larger than the proton and pion associated fission probabilities and ∼2 times larger than inclusive ones. The kaon associated excess fission events are explained in terms of bound Λ residual states and their weak nonmesonic decays.
    Article · Jan 2010 · Physics of Atomic Nuclei
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kaon electroproduction reaction 1H(e,e′K+)Λ was studied as a function of the virtual-photon four-momentum, Q2, total energy, W, and momentum transfer, t, for different values of the virtual-photon polarization parameter. Data were taken at electron beam energies ranging from 3.40 to 5.75 GeV. The center of mass cross section was determined for twenty-one kinematics corresponding to Q2 of 1.90 and 2.35 GeV2, and the longitudinal, σL, and transverse, σT, cross sections were separated using the Rosenbluth technique at fixed W and t. The separated cross sections reveal a flat energy dependence at forward kaon angles not satisfactorily described by existing electroproduction models. Influence of the kaon pole on the cross sections was investigated by adopting an off-shell form factor in the Regge model, which better describes the observed energy dependence of σT and σL.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2009 · Physical Review C
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    R Subedi · R Shneor · P Monaghan · [...] · L Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2008 · Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypernuclear production by the (e,e′K+) reaction has unique advantages in hypernuclear spectroscopy of the S=−1 regime. The second-generation spectroscopy experiment on 12C, 7Li and 28Si targets has been recently carried out at JLab Hall C with a new experimental configuration (Tilt method) and also using a new high-resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS). The experiment is described and preliminary results are presented together with the empasis of significance of the (e,e′K+) reaction for Λ hypernuclear spectroscopy and its future prospects.
    Article · May 2008 · Nuclear Physics A
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    Full-text Article · Nov 2007 · Physical Review C
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    R Shneor · P Monaghan · R Subedi · [...] · L Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated simultaneously the 12C(e,e'p) and 12C(e,e'pp) reactions at Q2=2 (GeV/c)2, xB=1.2, and in an (e, e'p) missing-momentum range from 300 to 600 MeV/c. At these kinematics, with a missing momentum greater than the Fermi momentum of nucleons in a nucleus and far from the delta excitation, short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations are predicted to dominate the reaction. For (9.5+/-2)% of the 12C(e,e'p) events, a recoiling partner proton was observed back-to-back to the 12C(e,e'p) missing-momentum vector, an experimental signature of correlations.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2007 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaon electroproduction from light nuclei and hydrogen, using 1H, 2H, 3He, 4He, and Carbon targets has been measured at Jefferson Laboratory. The quasifree angular distributions of Lambda and Sigma hyperons were determined at Q^2= 0.35(GeV/c)^2 and W= 1.91GeV. Electroproduction on hydrogen was measured at the same kinematics for reference.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2007

Publication Stats

1k Citations

Institutions

  • 1998-2014
    • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
      • Division of Physics
      Ньюпорт-Ньюс, Virginia, United States
  • 2013
    • Temple University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003-2005
    • Tohoku University
      • Department of Physics
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi, Japan
  • 2004
    • Florida International University
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2001
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • Oregon State University
      Corvallis, Oregon, United States