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    ABSTRACT: In Algeria, the incidence of hematologic malignancies has been difficult to estimate for many years. Today, many hematological centers, including 14 university hospitals, have been developed in the entire north and have useful epidemiological data pertinent to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We studied the incidence of AML and its subtypes, age distribution, geographic distribution and trends in the rate of diagnosis over the last 5 years in Algeria. Secondary goals were to study trends of referral of AML cases from various regions to specific centers to assess the needs for health infrastructure and change of current practices. Retrospective analysis of nationwide survey of all adult cases of AML (>16 years) diagnosed between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. A survey form was distributed to all departments of hematology at the 15 participating centers. The 1426 cases of AML diagnosed during the study period represented an annual incidence of 0.91/100000 persons with a male to female (M/F) ratio of 1:16 and a median age of 45 years (range, 16-82 years). Nationally, 20% of cases AML were diagnosed in the whole western region of the country, 47% in the central and 33% in the east. There was a trend of continuous increase in the rate with age and in the rate of diagnosis over the last 5 years. The most common subtype was M2, followed by M4 and M5. An overall increase in the number of AML patients diagnosed nationwide over the last five years indicates a need for additional health care resources including curative and therapy-intense strategies, such as stem cell transplant facilities to optimize outcome. The relatively younger age of patients compared to the Western countries may be due to the demographic composition of our population.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Hematology/ Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy