Richard Klaghofer

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (178)455.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Trichotillomania (TTM) is characterized by recurrent hair-pulling behaviours that cause significant distress. Deficits in affective regulation have been reported in individuals with TTM. We aimed to investigate temporal stability of affective regulation in TTM individuals. Methods: Eighty-one TTM individuals underwent an online intervention. Affective Regulation Scale (ARS), Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were obtained at baseline, post-treatment (4 weeks), and follow-up (6 months). We examined the effect of phenotypes including hair-pulling severity and depressive symptoms on absolute and relative stability of affective regulation over time, using multiple linear and hierarchical regression analyses. Results: The ARS total-score from the present TTM sample was significantly lower than the score from non-hair pullers (p<0.001). ARS total-scores inversely correlated with the MGH-HPS total-scores at baseline (p=0.001) and post-treatment (p=0.02), and correlated significantly with BDI total-scores at all time-points (p<0.001). Although ARS total-scores significantly decreased, all ARS sub-scores, except guilt sub-scores, did not change over time, indicating absolute stability. Baseline ARS total-, and sub-scores (except tension) were found to predict their ARS follow-up scores (all p< 0.01), confirming relative stability (i.e., the extent to which the inter-individual differences remained the same over time). The relative stability of ARS total-scores and all but two sub-scores (irritability and guilt) were independent from BDI baseline scores. Conclusions: Individuals with TTM reported deficits in affective regulation that demonstrated mostly high relative stability and partly absolute stability. Therefore, targeting to improve affective regulation in individuals with TTM during therapy is warranted. Full text till 2nd of March 2016: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1SMUP55vYiShq
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: Questions under study: To (1) assess distinct clusters of psychological distress and health-related quality of life during the first 6 months following lung transplantation; (2) identify patients with poor psychosocial outcomes; and (3) determine potential predictors regarding psychological distress and health-related quality (HRQoL) of life at 6 months post-transplant. Methods: A total of 40 patients were examined for psychological distress (Symptom Checklist short version-9) and quality of life (EuroQOL five-dimension health-related quality of life questionnaire) during their first 6 months post-transplant. Hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to identify specific types of post-transplant outcomes in terms of psychological distress and HRQoL over the first six post-transplant months. Correlational analyses examined medical and psychosocial predictors of the outcome at 6 months post-transplant. Results: Three distinctive clusters were identified, summarizing either groups of patients with (1) optimal (35%), (2) good (42%), and (3) poor outcome-clusters (23%). The latter tended to be older, to suffer from more severe disease, to have more co-morbidities, to have had a prolonged intensive care unit and/or hospital stay, to have more hospital admissions and were more frequently treated with antidepressants post-transplant. Disease severity, length of stay, quality of life two weeks post-transplant, hospital admissions and use of antidepressants were strong predictors of psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life at six months of follow-up. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the investigated patients suffered from elevated distress and substantially impaired HRQoL, with no improvements over time. Results underscore the psychosocial needs of patients with poor post-transplant outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Trichotillomania (TTM) is characterized by recurrent hair-pulling that results in substantial hair loss. A previous pilot study demonstrated that online self-help-intervention decoupling (DC) might be effective at reducing hair-pulling symptoms, with a stronger effect than progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). We aimed to extend these findings using a more robust randomized clinical trial (RCT) design, including diagnostic interviews by phone, a 6-month follow-up, and email support. Methods: For this RCT, 105 adults with TTM were recruited online and randomly allocated to either DC (n=55) or PMR (n=50). The intervention lasted four weeks, with severity of TTM assessed at three time-points (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and at 6-months follow-up) using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS). Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and completer analyses were conducted. Results: ITT analysis demonstrated highly-significant and comparable symptom reduction (MGH-HPS) in both the DC and PMR groups (p<0.001, partial η2=0.31) that persisted through six months of follow-up. Participants’ subjective appraisals favoured DC in some areas (e.g., greater satisfaction with DC than PMR). Completer analyses demonstrated the same pattern as ITT analysis. Conclusions: Despite subjective appraisals in favour of DC, symptom reduction was comparable in the two groups. While the results suggest that even short internet-based interventions like DC and PMR potentially help patients with TTM, a partial effect of unspecific factors, like regression towards the mean, cannot be ruled out. Therefore, longitudinal studies with non-treated controls are warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Lung transplantation (LTx) aims to reduce physical disability and mental distress, extend survival, and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In this systematic review we aimed to: (1) augment evidence regarding measures to assess HRQoL and psychological outcomes after LTx; and (2) summarize HRQoL and psychological outcomes after LTx. Methods: Validated and standardized instruments with well-known psychometric properties used for assessing HRQoL and psychological outcomes after LTx were identified by means of comprehensive literature searches of PsychINFO and Medline/PubMed, up through March 2014, using the following search terms in various combinations: lung transplantation; physical functioning; symptom experience; mental health; anxiety; depression; distress; social functioning; life satisfaction; and health-related quality of life. Results: The search strategy identified 371 titles and abstracts. Of these, 279 were retrieved for further assessment and 63 articles selected for final review. Thirty-nine studies were found for HRQoL, 15 for physical functioning, 5 for mental health and 4 for social functioning. A total of 50 psychometric instruments were encountered. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in methodology, operational concepts and applied outcome measures in the existing literature on HRQoL and psychological outcomes after LTx. Nevertheless, the studies generally point to significant improvements in both mental health and HRQoL post-transplant. Further research is warranted utilizing consistent outcome measures, including LTx-specific measures and longitudinal study designs. © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Health Psychology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of psychosomatic research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine if Sonoclot with its sensitive glass bead-activated, viscoelastic test can predict postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at predefined time points. A prospective, observational clinical study. A teaching hospital, single center. Consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery (N = 300). Besides routine laboratory coagulation studies and heparin management with standard (kaolin) activated clotting time, additional native blood samples were analyzed on a Sonoclot using glass bead-activated tests. Glass bead-activated clotting time, clot rate, and platelet function were recorded immediately before anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery after heparin reversal but before chest closure. Primary outcome was postoperative blood loss (chest tube drainage at 4, 8, and 12 hours postoperatively). Secondary outcome parameters were transfusion requirements, need for surgical re-exploration, time of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and hospital morbidity and mortality. Patients were categorized into "bleeders" and "nonbleeders." Patient characteristics, operations, preoperative standard laboratory parameters, and procedural times were comparable between bleeders and nonbleeders except for sex and age. Bleeders had higher rates of transfusions, surgical re-explorations, and complications. Only glass bead measurements by Sonoclot after heparin reversal before chest closure but not preoperatively were predictive for increased postoperative bleeding. Sonoclot with its glass bead-activated tests may predict the risk for postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the end of surgery after heparin reversal but before chest closure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines suggest a fasting time of 2 h for clear fluids, which is often exceeded in clinical practice, leading to discomfort, dehydration and stressful anaesthesia induction to patients, especially in the paediatric population. Shorter fluid fasting might be a strategy to improve patient comfort but has not been investigated yet. This prospective clinical trial compares gastric pH and residual volume after 1 vs 2 h of preoperative clear fluid fasting. Children (1-16 yr, ASA I or II) undergoing elective procedures in general anaesthesia requiring tracheal intubation were randomized into group A with 60 min or B with 120 min preoperative clear fluid fasting. To determine gastric pH and residual volume, the gastric content was sampled in supine, left and right lateral patient position using an oro-gastric tube after intubation. Data are median (interquartile range) for group A or B (P<0.05). In total, 131 children aged 1.01-16.23 yr were included; gastric pH was determined in 120 cases. Patient characteristic data were similar between the two groups, except for gender (46/33 males in group A/B; P=0.02). Despite significantly shorter fasting times for clear fluids in group A compared with group B (76/136 min; P<0.001), no significant difference was observed regarding gastric pH [1.43 (1.30-1.56)/1.44 (1.29-1.68), P=0.66] or residual volume [0.43 (0.21-0.84)/0.46 (0.19-0.78) ml kg(-1), P=0.47]. One hour clear fluid fasting does not alter gastric pH or residual volume significantly compared with 2 h fasting. The study was approved by the local ethics committee (KEK-ZH-Nr. 2011-0034) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01516775). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
  • S Buehrer · R Klaghofer · M Weiss · A Schmitz
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    ABSTRACT: Negative behavioral changes after anesthesia in children are common. The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) was particularly developed and has been widely used in English-speaking countries to investigate such behavioral changes. The PHBQ consists of 27 questions related to behavioral features observed by parents after anesthesia or hospitalization, each involving comparison with their baseline status. A comparable diagnostic tool in German should be established. The PHBQ was translated into German using a well defined back-translation method. A 3-point Likert scale was used to categorize behavioral features as less than, equal to or more than baseline. Overall 600 questionnaires were given out at children's hospital discharge, following surgical or medical procedures or examinations with or without concurrent anesthesia or deep sedation. After questionnaires were returned, factor and item analysis was conducted. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to determine internal consistency as a measure of reliability. In total, 155 returned and completed questionnaires were assessed, with patients' age ranging from 1.1 to 15.9 (median 5.7) years and length of hospitalization between 1 to 15 (median 2.5) days. The German translation of the PHBQ has a factorial structure that is similar to the English version, and its psychometric properties are also similar. After analysis of the main components and consideration of the Scree plot, either 6 or 7 factors were indicated. Analogously to the original version, we chose 6 factors, which explain 58% of variance. Items were not identically assigned to factors as with the original version, and terms used to describe the factors were slightly adapted. Reliability was adequate, with Cronbach's alpha for the 6 factors being between 0.6 and 0.82 (for total scale: Cronbach's alpha = 0.89, compared to 0.82 for the original version). Children younger than 5 years showed more negative behavioral changes than older children. There were no gender differences. With the German translation of the PHBQ presented here an instrument is available to detect negative behavioral changes after anesthesia in children among German speaking populations. The translation is comparable to the English version with minor differences concerning its factorial structure, which may be due to the predominant role of anxiety in all items. Like the original, this questionnaire does not per se discriminate between anesthesia and hospitalization induced behavioral changes. However, the German translation of the PHBQ is a questionnaire that is feasible for clinical routine and scientific settings and can be easily and quickly completed by caregivers.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Der Anaesthesist
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    S. Buehrer · R. Klaghofer · M. Weiss · A. Schmitz
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Negative behavioral changes after anesthesia in children are common. The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) was particularly developed and has been widely used in English-speaking countries to investigate such behavioral changes. The PHBQ consists of 27 questions related to behavioral features observed by parents after anesthesia or hospitalization, each involving comparison with their baseline status. AIM: A comparable diagnostic tool in German should be established. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PHBQ was translated into German using a well defined back-translation method. A 3-point Likert scale was used to categorize behavioral features as less than, equal to or more than baseline. Overall 600 questionnaires were given out at children’s hospital discharge, following surgical or medical procedures or examinations with or without concurrent anesthesia or deep sedation. After questionnaires were returned, factor and item analysis was conducted. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to determine internal consistency as a measure of reliability. RESULTS: In total, 155 returned and completed questionnaires were assessed, with patients’ age ranging from 1.1 to 15.9 (median 5.7) years and length of hospitalization between 1 to 15 (median 2.5) days. The German translation of the PHBQ has a factorial structure that is similar to the English version, and its psychometric properties are also similar. After analysis of the main components and consideration of the Scree plot, either 6 or 7 factors were indicated. Analogously to the original version, we chose 6 factors, which explain 58% of variance. Items were not identically assigned to factors as with the original version, and terms used to describe the factors were slightly adapted. Reliability was adequate, with Cronbach’s alpha for the 6 factors being between 0.6 and 0.82 (for total scale: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, compared to 0.82 for the original version). Children younger than 5 years showed more negative behavioral changes than older children. There were no gender differences. CONCLUSION: With the German translation of the PHBQ presented here an instrument is available to detect negative behavioral changes after anesthesia in children among German speaking populations. The translation is comparable to the English version with minor differences concerning its factorial structure, which may be due to the predominant role of anxiety in all items. Like the original, this questionnaire does not per se discriminate between anesthesia and hospitalization induced behavioral changes. However, the German translation of the PHBQ is a questionnaire that is feasible for clinical routine and scientific settings and can be easily and quickly completed by caregivers.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Der Anaesthesist
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    ABSTRACT: The benefit of the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) with respect to an early detection of postoperative complications is beyond dispute. From a patient perspective, prevention and optimal management of pain, nausea and vomiting (PONV) are also of utmost importance. The aims of the study were therefore to prospectively measure pain and PONV on arrival to the PACU and before discharge and to determine the relationship of pain and PONV to the length of stay in the PACU. Postoperative pain was assessed over 30 months using a numeric rating scale on admittance to the PACU and before discharge; in addition, PONV was recorded. Statistical analysis was done considering gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, surgical speciality, anaesthesia technique, duration of anaesthesia, intensity of nursing and length of stay. Data of 12,179 patients were available for analysis. The average length of stay in the PACU was 5.7 ± 5.9 h, whereas regular PACU patients stayed for 3.2 ± 1.9 h and more complex IMC patients stayed for 15.1 ± 6.0 h. On admittance, 27% of patients were in pain and the number decreased to 13% before discharge; 3% experienced PONV. Risk factors for increased pain determined by multivariate analysis were female gender; higher ASA classification; general, cardiac and orthopaedic surgery and prolonged case duration. In more complex IMC patients, pain scores were higher on arrival but dropped to similar levels before discharge compared to regular PACU patients. Female gender and postoperative pain were risk factors for postoperative vomiting. Pain and PONV on arrival correlated with length of stay in the PACU. Pain- or PONV-free patients stayed almost half of the time in the PACU compared to patients with severe pain or vomiting on arrival. The majority of PACU patients had good pain control, both on admittance and before discharge, and the overall incidence of PONV was low. Managing patients in the PACU could achieve a significant reduction of pain and PONV. The level of pain and presence of PONV on admittance to the PACU correlate with and act as predictors for increased length of PACU stay.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this article is to examine the mutual associations between patients' and partners' depression and quality of life (QOL) in couples facing cancer with respect to potential resources (sense of coherence and relationship quality (RQ)) and stressors (physical complaints). Patients and methods: Questionnaires rating depression, QOL, sense of coherence, RQ, and physical complaints were completed by 207 couples facing different cancer types and stages. Multiple regression models were used to assess the mutual associations between patient and partner variables. Results: In female patients, 40.7% of the variance in depression score was explained by male partners' stressors and resources, whereas only 3.5% of the variance in male patients' depression was explained by female partners' stressors and resources. In male and female partners, respectively, the patients' stressors and resources explained 34.9% versus just 15.8% of the variance in depression. Regarding QOL in female patients, 30.1% of the variance was explained by the partners' stressors and resources, versus only 3.7% in male patients. Meanwhile, in male and female partners, respectively, the patients' stressors and resources explained 25.6% and 12.9% of the variance in QOL. Conclusions: These findings support a couples-centered approach to psycho-oncological counseling and treatment. Particularly in depressed couples with low RQ, couples therapy or counseling should be considered because of the mutual adverse association between depression and QOL in these couples.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Psycho-Oncology
  • A. Seiler · R. Klaghofer · C. Martin Soelch · J. Jenewein

    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research on trichotillomania (TTM) has demonstrated an emotion regulation function of hair pulling behavior. One condition that can impede the regulation of emotions is alexithymia. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the degree of alexithymia and the severity of hair pulling behavior in individuals with TTM. Multiple strategies were used to recruit a sample of 105 participants via the internet. All participants were diagnosed with TTM by an experienced clinician via a subsequent phone-interview. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to test the potential predictive value of the different facets of alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale) on the severity of TTM (Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale). Both the difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF) facet of alexithymia (p = 0.045) and depression (p = 0.049) were significant predictors of the severity of TTM. In conclusion, alexithymia seems to play a role in hair pulling behavior in individuals with TTM. However, the significant association was small in terms of the overall variance explained, thus warranting further research. If replicated in prospective studies, then these results indicate that therapeutic approaches aimed at supporting patients in recognizing and differentiating feelings might be useful for the treatment of TTM.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Psychiatry Research
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Pediatric Anesthesia
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    ABSTRACT: While there is a considerable amount of literature addressing consequences of trauma in veterans and holocaust survivors, war and postwar civilian populations, particularly children, are still understudied. Evidence regarding intergenerational effects of trauma in families is inconsistent. To shed light on intergenerational aspects of trauma-related mental health problems among families 11 years after the Kosovo war. In a cross-sectional study, a paired sample of 51 randomly selected triplets (school-aged child, mother, father, N=153) of Kosovar families was investigated with regard to trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (UCLA Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25), and depressive symptoms (Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche [DIKJ; depression inventory for children and adolescents], Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25). Considerable trauma exposure and high prevalence rates of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found in both parents and children. While strong correlations were found between children's depressive symptoms and paternal posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, maternal symptoms did not correlate with their children's. In multiple regression analyses, only posttraumatic stress symptoms of fathers were significantly related with children's depressive symptoms. Eleven years after the Kosovo war, the presence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in civilian adults and their children is still substantial. As symptoms of parents and children are associated, mental health problems of close ones should be actively screened and accounted for in comprehensive treatment plans, using a systemic approach. Future research should include longitudinal studies conducting multivariate analyses with larger sample sizes in order to investigate indicators, causal and resilience factors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · European Journal of Psychotraumatology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Survey of Anesthesiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Concomitant skin conditions may be neglected in internal medicine patients due to lack of knowledge or resources. Thus, we investigated the prevalence of undiagnosed skin conditions in this population. Methods: 200 patients in a university medical center's internal medicine division were examined clinically for dermatoses and quality of life in a prospective, 2-month, single-center study. Results: All patients had several dermatological problems (mean per patient: 13; range: 3-25). There was no relationship between the patient's main medical problem and the number or nature of dermatological conditions. Most patients (84%) requested treatment for their skin condition during hospitalization, especially for xerosis (76%), warts (69%), seborrheic eczema (67%) and onychorrhexis (53%) but not for asymptomatic dermatoses. The impairment in skin-related quality of life was mild but significant, with a mean ± SD Dermatology Life Quality Index of 3 ± 4 (p < 0.001), and global quality of life impairment was severe (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Inpatients suffered from many different, mostly age-related, skin conditions that remained undiagnosed. When prompted, however, patients requested treatment, particularly for symptomatic dermatological conditions such as xerosis, revealing an unmet need that needs to be addressed by qualified evaluation and care.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Dermatology

Publication Stats

4k Citations
455.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2016
    • University of Zurich
      • • Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
      • • Internal Medicine Unit
      • • Institut für Anästhesiologie
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2000-2014
    • University Hospital Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • Zürcher Höhenklinik Wald
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2002-2004
    • Triemli City Hospital
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1998-2002
    • Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland