[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aim:
To identify genetic variants associated with greater tobacco consumption in a Mexican population.
Patients & methods:
Daily smokers were classified as light smokers (LS, n = 742), heavy smokers (HS; n = 601) and nonsmokers (NS, n = 606). In the first stage, a genotyping microarray that included 347 SNPs in CHRNA2-CHRNA7/CHRNA10, CHRNB2-CHRNB4 and NRXN1 genes and 37 ancestry-informative markers was used to analyze 707 samples (187 HS, 328 LS and 192 NS). In the second stage, 14 SNPs from stage 1 were validated in the remaining samples (HS, LS and NS; n = 414 in each group) using real-time PCR. To predict the role of the associated SNPs, an in silico analysis was performed.
Two SNPs in NRXN1 and two in CHRNA5 were associated with cigarette consumption, while rs10865246/C (NRXN1) was associated with high nicotine addiction. The in silico analysis revealed that rs1882296/T had a high level of homology with Hsa-miR-6740-5p, which encodes a putative miRNA that targets glutamate receptor subunits (GRIA2, GRID2) and GABA receptor subunits (GABRG1, GABRA4, GABRB2), while rs1882296/C had a high level of homology with Hsa-miR-6866-5p, which encodes a different miRNA that targets GRID2 and GABRB2.
In a Mexican Mestizo population, greater consumption of cigarettes was influenced by polymorphisms in the NRXN1 and CHRNA5 genes. We proposed new hypotheses regarding the putative roles of miRNAs that influence the GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in smoking addiction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are factors associated with the development of gastroduodenal diseases in Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals.
Materials and methods:
We aimed to analyze polymorphisms in HLA-DQ, together with other host and H. pylori variables as risk factors for precancerous and cancerous gastric lesions. 1052 individuals were studied, including nonatrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), gastric cancer (GC) or duodenal ulcer (DU) patients, and healthy volunteers.
Patients with alleles DQA*01:01 (OR 0.78), *01:02 (OR 0.29), *01:03 (OR 0.31), and DQB*02:01/02 (OR 0.40) showed a reduced risk for GC. A multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that patients with homozygote genotypes DQA1*03:01 (OR 7.27) and DQA1*04:01 (OR 8.99) and DQB1*05:01:01 (OR 12.04) were at significantly increased risk for GC. Multivariate analyses also demonstrated that age (OR>10.0) and gender (OR>2.0) were variables that influenced significantly the risk for GC, while H. pylori infection (OR>2.5) increased the risk for IM.
We identified HLA-DQ alleles associated with IM and GC, and confirm that age, sex, and H. pylori infection are variables that also influence the risk for disease. The use of multiple markers, HLA-DQ alleles, age, sex, and H. pylori infection may be useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of patients with IM and GC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Nicotine addiction is a complex and multifactorial disease affecting the central nervous system and consists of a set of characteristic symptoms and signs.
The objective of this study was to provide an overview on smoking and the complexity of dependency, with special emphasis on the involvement of genetic factors, including neurexin and nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes.
The following two aspects are discussed in the present article: (i) epidemiology in Mexico; and (ii) a review of the published literature on genetic association studies using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database of the USA as a search tool. The search key words were: nicotine, smoking, dependence, genetic, tobacco, neurobiology and GWAS. The publication period of the reviewed articles was January 2005 to July 2015.
There are numerous studies that provide evidence of the involvement of a genetic component that contributes to the risk of developing nicotine addiction, but the multifactorial nature of addiction requires coordinated research from multiple disciplines.
Research is needed on the factors associated with genetic risk for nicotine addiction and their interaction with environmental factors.
Full-text Article · Nov 2015 · Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Genetic variation within different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci contributes to the susceptibility to IPF. The effect of 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to IPF is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the association between HSP70 polymorphisms and IPF susceptibility in the Mexican population.
Four HSP70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated using real time PCR assays in 168 IPF patients and 205 controls: +2763 C>T of HSPA1L (rs2075800), +2437 of HSP HSPA1L A>G (rs2227956), +190 of HSPA1A G>C (rs1043618) and +1267 of HSPA1B G>A (rs1061581).
The analysis of the recessive model revealed a significant decrease in the frequency of the genotype HSPA1B AA (rs1061581) in IPF patients (OR = 0.27, 95 % CI = 0.13-0.57, Pc = 0.0003) when compared to controls. Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis in a codominant model the HSPA1B (rs1061581) GA and AA genotypes were associated with a lower risk of IPF compared with GG (OR = 0.22, 95 % CI = 0.07-0.65; p = 0.006 and OR = 0.17, 95 % CI = 0.07-0.41; p = <0.001). Similarly, HSPA1L (rs2227956) AG genotype (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI = 0.12-0.99; p = 0.04) and the dominant model AG + GG genotypes were also associated with a lower risk of IPF (OR = 0.24, 95 % CI = 0.08-0.67; p = 0.007). In contrast, the HSPA1L (rs2075800) TT genotype was associated with susceptibility to IPF (OR = 2.52, 95 % CI = 1.32-4.81; p = 0.005).
Our findings indicate that HSPA1B (rs1061581), HSPA1L (rs2227956) and HSPA1 (rs1043618) polymorphisms are associated with a decreased risk of IPF.
Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection is mainly acquired during childhood, and establishes a chronic infection that may lead to peptic ulcer or gastric cancer during adulthood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed by distinct cell types throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and play an important role in regulation of the innate immune response. Few works have addressed TLRs expression in gastric epithelia of adults, and scarce studies have done it in children. The aim of this work was to analyze the expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in the gastric mucosa of children with and without H. pylori infection.
Gastric biopsies were collected by endoscopy from 50 children with recurrent abdominal pain, 25 with H. pylori infection and 25 without infection. In the gastric biopsies the expression of TLRs and cytokines was studied by immunohistochemistry, and the degree of mucosal inflammation was determined using the Sydney system.
We found that H. pylori infection was associated with a significant increased expression of TLRs 2, 4, 5 and 9, although expression varied between surface epithelia and glands. Epithelial cells expressing IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were increased in gastric mucosa of children with H. pylori infection.
This study shows the gastric epithelia of children respond to H. pylori infection by increasing the expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9 and the cytokines IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009.
Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases.
Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated with an elevated number of leukocytes (p <0.001) and the IL8 rs4073 AA genotype, with a higher value for PaO2 mm Hg.
The polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory process contributed to the severity of the clinical behavior of infection by the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus.
Full-text Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) are important molecules in inflammatory, infectious and tumoral processes. The genes codifying these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to disease. Gastric cancer is associated with an Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic inflammatory response. The aim of this work was to analyze whether polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are associated with the development of gastric cancer. We studied 447 Mexican adult patients including 228 with non-atrophic gastritis, 98 with intestinal metaplasia, 63 with gastric cancer and 58 with duodenal ulcer, and 132 asymptomatic individuals as well. DNA from peripheral white blood cells was typed for the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) -308 of TNF-alpha, +252 of TNF-beta, +190 of HSP70-1, +1267 of HSP70-2 and +2437 of HSP70-HOM. Compared with the asymptomatic group, we found a significant association of TNF-beta*A and HSP70-1*C alleles with gastric cancer (OR 5.69 and 3.76, respectively) and HSP70-1*C with duodenal ulcer (OR 3.08). Genotype TNF-beta G/G showed a significant gene-dose effect with gastric cancer (OR 0.09); whereas HSP70-1 C/G showed significant association with both, gastric cancer (OR 13.31) and duodenal ulcer (OR 16.19). Polymorphisms in TNF and HSP70 showed a significant severity-dose-response as risk markers from preneoplastic lesions to gastric cancer in Mexican population, probably because of their association with an intense and sustained inflammatory response.
Full-text Article · Apr 2010 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disorder of unknown etiology. IPF is likely the result of complex interrelationships between environmental and host factors, although the genetic risk factors are presently uncertain. Because we have found that some MHC polymorphisms confer susceptibility to IPF, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the role of the MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in the risk of developing the disease. MICA molecular typing was done by reference strand mediated conformation analysis in a cohort of 80 IPF patients and 201 controls. In addition, the lung cellular source of the protein was examined by immunohistochemistry, the expression of the MICA receptor NKG2D in lung cells by flow cytometry and soluble MICA by ELISA. A significant increase of MICA*001 was observed in the IPF cohort (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.04-8.25; pC = 0.03). Likewise, the frequency of the MICA*001/*00201 genotype was significantly increased in patients with IPF compared with the healthy controls (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 1.15-22.51; pC = 0.01). Strong immunoreactive MICA staining was localized in alveolar epithelial cells and fibroblasts from IPF lungs while control lungs were negative. Soluble MICA was detected in 35% of IPF patients compared with 12% of control subjects (P = 0.0007). The expression of NKG2D was significantly decreased in gammadelta T cells and natural killer cells obtained from IPF lungs. These findings indicate that MICA polymorphisms and abnormal expression of the MICA receptor NKG2D might contribute to IPF susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in H. pylori recognition, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs are associated with impaired immune response. We aimed to evaluate the association of TLR2/R753Q and TLR4/D299G/T399I SNPs with gastroduodenal diseases; and study the effect of SNPs on cytokine and chemokine expression in the gastric mucosa. Study included 450 Mexican patients with gastroduodenal diseases. SNPs in TLRs 2 and 4 genes were analyzed by allele-specific PCR. Cytokines and chemokines were assessed by qRT-PCR and immunoassay. TLR4/D299G/T399I polymorphisms were more frequent in duodenal ulcer and showed a trend in gastric cancer, when compared with non-atrophic gastritis. Patients with TLR4 polymorphisms expressed significantly lower levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GRO-alpha; and higher levels of TNF-alpha, IL-10, MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha . SNPs in TLR4 gene had an association with severe H. pylori-associated disease and with modified pattern of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that TLR4 SNPs contributes importantly to the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection.