Eric L. N. Jensen

Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (75)228.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present new ALMA observations of CO $J$=2$-$1 line emission from the DQ Tau circumbinary disk. These data are used to tomographically reconstruct the Keplerian disk velocity field in a forward-modeling inference framework, and thereby provide a dynamical constraint on the mass of the DQ Tau binary of $M_\ast = 1.27_{-0.27}^{+0.46} \,M_\odot$. Those results are compared with an updated and improved orbital solution for this double-lined system based on long-term monitoring of its stellar radial velocities. Both of these independent dynamical constraints on the binary mass are in excellent agreement: taken together, they demonstrate that the DQ Tau system mass is $1.21\pm0.26\,M_\odot$ and that the disk and binary orbital planes are aligned within $3^\circ$ (at 3$\sigma$ confidence). The predictions of various theoretical models for pre-main sequence stellar evolution are also consistent with these masses, although more detailed comparisons are difficult due to lingering uncertainties in the photospheric properties of the individual components. DQ Tau is the third nearly equal-mass double-lined spectroscopic binary with a circumbinary disk that has been dynamically "weighed" with these two independent techniques: all show consistent results, validating the overall accuracy of the disk-based approach and demonstrating that it can be robustly applied to large samples of young, single stars as ALMA ramps up to operations at full capacity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system KOI-2939 has a very long orbital period (~1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, KOI-2939b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06+/-0.01 RJup it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light-curve of KOI-2939 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass to be 1.52+/-0.65 MJup. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two Solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric (e_bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth's, KOI-2939b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A crucial aspect of understanding planet formation is determining the binarity of the host stars. Results from radial velocity surveys and the follow-up of Kepler exoplanet candidates have demonstrated that stellar binarity certainly does not exclude the presence of planets in stable orbits and the configuration may in fact be relatively common. Here we present new results for the 30 Arietis system which confirms that the B component hosts both planetary and stellar companions. Keck AO imaging provides direct detection of the stellar companion and additional radial velocity data are consistent with an orbiting star. We present a revised orbit of the known planet along with photometry during predicted transit times. Finally, we provide constraints on the properties of the stellar companion based on orbital stability considerations.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-4Ab, an inflated, transiting Hot Jupiter orbiting the brightest component of a hierarchical triple stellar system. The host star is an F star with $T_{\rm eff}=6206\pm75$ K, $\log g=4.108\pm0.014$, $\left[{\rm Fe}/{\rm H}\right]=-0.116_{-0.069}^{+0.065}$, ${\rm M_*}=1.201_{-0.061}^{+0.067} \ {\rm M}_{\odot}$, and ${\rm R_*}=1.610_{-0.068}^{+0.078} \ {\rm R}_{\odot}$. The best-fit linear ephemeris is $\rm {BJD_{TDB}} = 2456193.29157 \pm 0.00021 + E\left(2.9895936 \pm 0.0000048\right)$. With a magnitude of $V\sim10$, a planetary radius of $1.699_{-0.045}^{+0.046} \ {\rm R_J}$, and a mass of $0.902_{-0.059}^{+0.060} \ {\rm M_J}$, it is the brightest host among the population of inflated Hot Jupiters ($R_P > 1.5R_J$), making it a valuable discovery for probing the nature of inflated planets. In addition, its existence within a hierarchical triple and its proximity to Earth ($210$ pc) provides a unique opportunity for dynamical studies with continued monitoring with high resolution imaging and precision radial velocities. In particular, the motion of the binary stars around each other and of both stars around the primary star relative to the measured epoch in this work should be detectable when it rises in October 2015.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-14b and KELT-15b, two hot Jupiters from the KELT-South survey. KELT-14b, an independent discovery of the recently announced WASP-122b, is an inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a $\sim5.0^{+0.3}_{-0.7}$ Gyr, $V$ = 11.0, G2 star that is near the main sequence turnoff. The host star, KELT-14 (TYC 7638-981-1), has an inferred mass $M_{*}$=$1.18_{-0.07}^{+0.05}$ M$_{\odot}$ and radius $R_{*}$=$1.37\pm{-0.08}$ R$_{\odot}$, and has T$_{eff}$=$5802_{-92}^{+95}$ K, $\log{g}$ = $4.23_{-0.04}^{+0.05}$ and [Fe/H] = $0.33\pm{-0.09}$. The planet orbits with a period of $1.7100588 \pm 0.0000025$ days ($T_{0}$=2457091.02863$\pm$0.00047) and has a radius R$_{P}$=$1.52_{-0.11}^{+0.12}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$ = $1.196\pm0.072$ M$_{J}$, and the eccentricity is consistent with zero. KELT-15b is another inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a $\sim$ $4.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$ Gyr, $V$ = 11.2, G0 star (TYC 8146-86-1) that is near the "blue hook" stage of evolution prior to the Hertzsprung gap, and has an inferred mass $M_{*}$=$1.181_{-0.050}^{+0.051}$ M$_{\odot}$ and radius $R_{*}$=$1.48_{-0.04}^{+0.09}$ R$_{\odot}$, and T$_{eff}$=$6003_{-52}^{+56}$ K, $\log{g}$=$4.17_{-0.04}^{+0.02}$ and [Fe/H]=$0.05\pm0.03$. The planet orbits on a period of $3.329441 \pm 0.000016$ days ($T_{0}$ = 2457029.1663$\pm$0.0073) and has a radius R$_{P}$=$1.443_{-0.057}^{+0.11}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$=$0.91_{-0.22}^{+0.21}$ M$_{J}$ and an eccentricity consistent with zero. KELT-14b has the second largest expected emission signal in the K-band for known transiting planets brighter than $K<10.5$. Both KELT-14b and KELT-15b are predicted to have large enough emission signals that their secondary eclipses should be detectable using ground-based observatories.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright $V = 10.7$ star (TYC 8378-64-1), with T$_{eff}$ = $5948\pm74$ K, $\log{g}$ = $4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020}$ and [Fe/H] = $0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$, an inferred mass M$_{*}$ = $1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055}$ M$_{\odot}$ and radius R$_{*}$ = $1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047}$ R$_{\odot}$. The planet has a radius R$_{P}$ = $1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$ = $0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039}$ M$_{J}$. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semi-major axis $a$ = $0.05250_{-0.00097}^{+0.00086}$ AU. The best fitting linear ephemeris is $T_{0}$ = 2457066.72045$\pm$0.00027 BJD$_{TDB}$ and P = 4.1662739$\pm$0.0000063 days. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a radius much larger and a mass much less than those of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4%, has a relatively high equilibrium temperature of T$_{eq}$ = $1377_{-23}^{+28}$ K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution. KELT-10b receives an estimated insolation of $0.817_{-0.054}^{+0.068}$ $\times$ 10$^9$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, which places it far above the insolation threshold above which hot Jupiters exhibit increasing amounts of radius inflation. Evolutionary analysis of the host star suggests that KELT-10b is unlikely to survive beyond the current subgiant phase, due to a concomitant in-spiral of the planet over the next $\sim$1 Gyr. The planet transits a relatively bright star which is accessible to large telescopes and exhibits the third largest transit depth of all transiting exoplanets with V $<$ 11 in the southern hemisphere, making it a promising candidate for future atmospheric characterization studies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: As part of our ongoing effort to investigate transit timing variations (TTVs) of known exoplanets, we monitored transits of the four exoplanets HAT-P-18b, HAT-P-19b, HAT-P-27b/WASP-40b and WASP-21b. All of them are suspected to show TTVs due to the known properties of their host systems based on the respective discovery papers. During the past three years 46 transit observations were carried out, mostly using telescopes of the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative. The analyses are used to refine the systems orbital parameters. In all cases we found no hints for significant TTVs, or changes in the system parameters inclination, fractional stellar radius and planet to star radius ratio. However, comparing our results with those available in the literature shows that we can confirm the already published values.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    DESCRIPTION: We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust in the disk orbiting the pre-main sequence (pre-MS) binary AK Sco. By forward-modeling the disk velocity field traced by CO J = 2–1 line emission, we infer the mass of the central binary, M_star =2.49+/- 0.10 M_sun, a new dynamical measurement that is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Assuming the disk and binary are co-planar within ∼2°, this disk-based binary mass measurement is in excellent agreement with constraints from radial velocity monitoring of the combined stellar spectra. These ALMA results are also compared with the standard approach of estimating masses from the location of the binary in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, using several common pre-MS model grids. These models predict stellar masses that are marginally consistent with our dynamical measurement (at ∼2σ), but are systematically high (by ∼10%). These same models consistently predict an age of 18 ± 1 Myr for AK Sco, in line with its membership in the Upper Centaurus–Lupus association but surprisingly old for it to still host a gas-rich disk. As ALMA accumulates comparable data for large samples of pre-MS stars, the methodology employed here to extract a dynamical mass from the disk rotation curve should prove extraordinarily useful for efforts to characterize the fundamental parameters of early stellar evolution.
    Full-text · Research · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We announce the discovery of a highly inflated transiting hot Jupiter discovered by the KELT-North survey. A global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.8 host star (HD 343246) is a mildly evolved, G dwarf with $T_{\rm eff} = 5754_{-55}^{+54}$ K, $\log{g} = 4.078_{-0.054}^{+0.049}$, $[Fe/H] = 0.272\pm0.038$, an inferred mass $M_{*}=1.211_{-0.066}^{+0.078}$ M$_{\odot}$, and radius $R_{*}=1.67_{-0.12}^{+0.14}$ R$_{\odot}$. The planetary companion has mass $M_P = 0.867_{-0.061}^{+0.065}$ $M_{J}$, radius $R_P = 1.86_{-0.16}^{+0.18}$ $R_{J}$, surface gravity $\log{g_{P}} = 2.793_{-0.075}^{+0.072}$, and density $\rho_P = 0.167_{-0.038}^{+0.047}$ g cm$^{-3}$. The planet is on a roughly circular orbit with semimajor axis $a = 0.04571_{-0.00084}^{+0.00096}$ AU and eccentricity $e = 0.035_{-0.025}^{+0.050}$. The best-fit linear ephemeris is $T_0 = 2456883.4803 \pm 0.0007$ BJD$_{\rm TDB}$ and $P = 3.24406 \pm 0.00016$ days. This planet is one of the most inflated of all known transiting exoplanets, making it one of the few members of a class of extremely low density, highly-irradiated gas giants. The low stellar $\log{g}$ and large implied radius are supported by stellar density constraints from follow-up light curves, plus an evolutionary and space motion analysis. We also develop a new technique to extract high precision radial velocities from noisy spectra that reduces the observing time needed to confirm transiting planet candidates. This planet boasts deep transits of a bright star, a large inferred atmospheric scale height, and a high equilibrium temperature of $T_{eq}=1675^{+61}_{-55}$ K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution, making it one of the best targets for future atmospheric characterization studies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust in the disk orbiting the pre-main sequence binary AK Sco. By forward-modeling the disk velocity field traced by CO J=2-1 line emission, we infer the mass of the central binary, $M_\ast = 2.49 \pm 0.10~M_\odot$, a new dynamical measurement that is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Assuming the disk and binary are co-planar within $\sim$2{\deg}, this disk-based binary mass measurement is in excellent agreement with constraints from radial velocity monitoring of the combined stellar spectra. These ALMA results are also compared with the standard approach of estimating masses from the location of the binary in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, using several common pre-main sequence model grids. These models predict stellar masses that are marginally consistent with our dynamical measurement (at $\sim 2\,\sigma$), but are systematically high (by $\sim$10%). These same models consistently predict an age of $18\pm1$ Myr for AK Sco, in line with its membership in the Upper Centaurus-Lupus association but surprisingly old for it to still host a gas-rich disk. As ALMA accumulates comparable data for large samples of pre-main sequence stars, the methodology employed here to extract a dynamical mass from the disk rotation curve should prove extraordinarily useful for efforts to characterize the fundamental parameters of early stellar evolution.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-7b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a mass of $1.28 \pm 0.18$ MJ, radius of $1.53_{-0.047}^{+0.046}$ RJ, and an orbital period of $2.7347749 \pm 0.0000039$ days. The bright host star (HD33643; KELT-7) is an F-star with $V=8.54$, Teff $=6789_{-49}^{+50}$ K, [Fe/H] $=0.139_{-0.081}^{+0.075}$, and $\log{g}=4.149 \pm 0.019$. It has a mass of $1.535_{-0.054}^{+0.066}$ Msun, a radius of $1.732_{-0.045}^{+0.043}$ Rsun, and is the fifth most massive, fifth hottest, and the ninth brightest star known to host a transiting planet. It is also the brightest star around which KELT has discovered a transiting planet. Thus, KELT-7b is an ideal target for detailed characterization given its relatively low surface gravity, high equilibrium temperature, and bright host star. The rapid rotation of the star ($73 \pm 0.5$ km/s) results in a Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with an unusually large amplitude of several hundred m/s. We find that the orbit normal of the planet is likely to be well-aligned with the stellar spin axis, with a projected spin-orbit alignment of $\lambda=9.7 \pm 5.2$ degrees. This is currently the most rapidly rotating star to have a reflex signal (and thus mass determination) due to a planetary companion measured.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    R. L. Akeson · E. L. N. Jensen

    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Eric L N Jensen · Rachel Akeson
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    ABSTRACT: Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of 45 transit observations obtained for the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-32b. The transits have been observed using several telescopes mainly throughout the YETI (Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative) network. In 25 cases, complete transit light curves with a timing precision better than 1.4 min have been obtained. These light curves have been used to refine the system properties, namely inclination i, planet-to-star radius ratio Rp/Rs, and the ratio between the semimajor axis and the stellar radius a/Rs. First analyses by Hartman et al. suggests the existence of a second planet in the system, thus we tried to find an additional body using the transit timing variation (TTV) technique. Taking also the literature data points into account, we can explain all mid-transit times by refining the linear ephemeris by 21 ms. Thus, we can exclude TTV amplitudes of more than ∼1.5 min.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    R. L. Akeson · E. L. N. Jensen
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (> 100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and ten secondaries, with disk masses as low as $10^{-4} M_{\odot}$. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of $F_{mm} \propto M_{\ast}^{1.5-2.0}$ to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In the determination of the dimensions of celestial objects, it is important to confirm results through multiple independent methods. Asteroseismology can be employed to determine the stellar density based on the observed pulsation spectrum of a star for which a high quality light curve is available. This stellar density can be used in conjunction with evolutionary models to determine the mass and radius of the star. Alternatively, masses and radii can be determined for eclipsing binary stars based on well-known techniques if radial velocity data are available. We present masses and radii for the eclipsing binaries KIC 7821010 and KIC 9474969, which are targets that have great potential for seeking mass and radius confirmation through asteroseismological means. Stellar parameters for these systems were found using short cadence observations collected over the course of 25 months by the Kepler spacecraft as well as ground-based radial velocity and photometric data. Analyzing the eclipses and radial velocity data, we find mass and radius measurements accurate at the ~1% level. We compare our results with mass-radius relations from stellar evolutionary models. Finally, we compare our results with preliminary mass and radius measurements from asteroseismology. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation via the grant AST-1109928.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Eric L. Jensen · R. L. Akeson
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    ABSTRACT: Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our solar system. Planets' orbits may be eccentric or significantly inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting very close to their host stars suggests significant orbital migration. There is currently no consensus on what causes the migration and produces inclined or eccentric orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star on an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between planetary and binary star orbital planes, which until now have not been measured. Here we show that at least one of the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tau is significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our ALMA observations of the molecular gas in the system show that both stars have protoplanetary disks in Keplerian rotation, the first time that disk rotation has been detected around both stars in a binary. The two disk planes are misaligned by roughly 60° from each other, so at least one of the disks is inclined 30° or more from the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits. The misalignment is present at the time of planet formation, and it is apparently a part of the binary formation process. Thus, binary companions may be important drivers of the diversity of orbits seen in extrasolar planets. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3 b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The radial-velocity data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T eff = 6102 ± 43 K, , and [Fe/H] = –0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M = 1.09 ± 0.04 M ☉ and radius . The planetary companion has mass MP = 0.43 ± 0.05 M Jup, radius , surface gravity , and density . The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity , which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T c(BJDTDB) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ~4}-7}. KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ~0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The tables summarize the properties of stars in Trumpler 37. The positions, names in different publications, photometry, spectral classification and extinction, and the proper motions are given in tablea1. All values were determined in earlier publications. Tablea2 shows the radial velocity, equivalent widths for Hα and Lithium, mass accretion, x-ray luminosity, and T Tauri type, as well as the membership probability from proper motion. These values were also determined in earlier publications. The following columns of the membership probabilities using different data were determined by us. The last columns in tablea2 presents the membership probability determined by us from the measured values as well as the extinction, and stellar masses. If data from different literature are available, the more recent one is given. (2 data files).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013

Publication Stats

991 Citations
228.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • Swarthmore College
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1996-1997
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1994
    • Sierra Tucson
      Tucson, Arizona, United States