D R Mishell

Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (332)1255.15 Total impact

  • Laura A Sech · Daniel R Mishell
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    ABSTRACT: Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Women s Health
  • Laura A Sech · Daniel R Mishell

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Women s Health
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    ABSTRACT: Determine the lowest effective of three Nestorone (NES)/estradiol (E2) transdermal gel doses to ensure ovulation suppression in 90-95% of cycles. This was a randomized, open-label, three-treatment period crossover study to evaluate the effects of NES/E2 transdermal gel on ovulation inhibition, suppression of follicular growth and pharmacokinetic parameters. The doses were: low (1.5mg NES/0.5mg E2), medium (3.0mg NES/1.0mg E2) and high (4.5mg NES/1.5mg E2). Participants applied gel daily to a fixed area on the abdomen for 21 consecutive days. They were interviewed regarding their experiences using the gel. Eighteen participants were randomized; 16 completed the study. Median NES Cmax values for low, medium and high dose at day 21 were: 318.6 pmol/L, 783.0 pmol/L and 1063.8 pmol/L respectively. Median maximum follicular diameter was higher with the lowest dose with 16.2 mm versus 10.0 and 10.4 mm with the medium and high doses respectively. Among adherent participants, ovulation was inhibited in all dose groups, except for one participant in the medium dose (6.7%) that had luteal activity and an ultrasound image suggestive of a luteinized unruptured follicle. There were few reports of unscheduled bleeding, with more episodes reported for the lower dose. Adverse events were mild, and no skin irritation was reported from gel application. While all three doses blocked ovulation effectively and were evaluated as safe and acceptable, the medium dose was considered the lowest effective dose based on a more adequate suppression of follicular development. Further development of this novel contraceptive delivering NES and E2 is warranted and has potential for improved safety compared to ethinyl-estradiol based methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate skin irritation and patch adhesiveness of a new weekly low-dose levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) contraceptive patch (LNG/EE patch). This analysis was part of an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study that randomized healthy women to the LNG/EE patch (one patch weekly for three consecutive weeks, followed by a patch-free week for 13 cycles) or to an oral contraceptive for six cycles followed by seven LNG/EE patch cycles. Participants selected patch application sites of abdomen, buttock or upper torso. Investigators rated patch adhesiveness and skin irritation using standardized scales. Participants rated skin irritation and itching daily using standardized scales and recorded patch fall-off on daily diary cards. A total of 32,508 patches were applied (n=1273). At the five clinic visits in which investigators rated the patches, they rated adhesiveness=0 (no lift) for ≥84% of participants and skin irritation=absent/mild for 97% of patches. Participants reported that 2-3.7% of patches fell off and rated skin irritation as absent or mild for 92- 95% of patches, according to site. Investigator- and participant-rated assessments of LNG/EE patch adhesiveness and irritation demonstrated a low incidence of patch detachment, skin irritation and pruritus. This secondary analysis of a phase 3 clinical trial of a new weekly low-dose LNG and EE contraceptive patch, which used assessment by both investigators and participants, observed a low incidence of skin irritation, pruritus and patch detachment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy rates in US contraceptive clinical trials are increasing due to decreased treatment compliance. This study compared compliance with a new low-dose levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) contraceptive patch (CP, Twirla™) with that of a low-dose combination oral contraceptive (COC) in a demographically diverse population. This analysis was part of an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter phase 3 study that randomized healthy sexually active women (17-40years) to 13cycles of LNG/EE CP or 6cycles of COC, then 7cycles of LNG/EE CP. We defined self-reported compliance as cycles that, according to diaries, show 21days of patch wear without missed days or any patch worn >7days or 21days of pill-taking without missed pill days. We verified compliance by detectable plasma presence of LNG and EE at cycles 2, 6, and 13. Of the intention-to-treat population with diary information (N=1328, mean age 26.4years, 46% minorities, 33% obese), 10.0% of the CP (n=998) versus 21.2% of the COC group (n=330) self-reported noncompliance after 6cycles (p<.001). Laboratory assessments verified 10-14% of participants in both groups as noncompliant. Self-reported perfect use did not vary between obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m(2)] versus nonobese (BMI <30kg/m(2)) participants in both groups or when stratified by age, education, or race/ethnicity in the CP group. Self-reported compliance was significantly greater in the CP than COC group and did not vary by obesity status. Discrepancies between self-reported and verified compliance question reliability of patient diaries. This paper, based on an analysis of a phase 3 trial, shows that compliance was significantly greater with a new weekly transdermal CP than with a once-daily COC in obese as well as nonobese participants. Discrepancies between self-reported compliance and laboratory-verified compliance raise questions regarding the reliability of patient diaries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Contraception
  • Andrew M Kaunitz · David F Archer · Daniel R Mishell · Marie Foegh
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The safety and tolerability of a new low-dose levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol (LNG/EE) contraceptive patch was compared with 2 combination oral contraceptives in 2 clinical studies in which approximately 30% of enrolled participants were obese. Study design: Two phase 3, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter trials compared the LNG/EE contraceptive patch (n = 1579) with combination oral contraceptives (n = 581) in healthy women 17-40 years of age. Combination oral contraceptives were LNG 100 μg per EE 20 μg (combination oral contraceptive 20; n = 375) or LNG 150 μg per EE 30 μg (combination oral contraceptive 30; n = 206). Safety and tolerability data from the 2 trials were evaluated in integrated safety analyses. Results: Treatment-emergent adverse events of 2% or greater in the LNG/EE contraceptive patch were nasopharyngitis (5.2%), nausea (4.1%), upper respiratory infection (3.5%), headache (3.4%), sinusitis (2.9%), cervical dysplasia (2.3%), and urinary tract infection (2.1%). Including skin reaction-related treatment-emergent adverse events, the proportion of women who experienced any treatment-emergent adverse event was similar among women randomized to the contraceptive patch (47.5%), the combination oral contraceptive 20 (47.4%), or the combination oral contraceptive 30 (46.8%). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar in obese vs nonobese participants in all groups. Serious adverse events occurred in less than 1% of participants in any of the treatment groups. Conclusion: The LNG/EE contraceptive patch and combination oral contraceptives were well tolerated and associated with similar treatment-emergent adverse event incidences in obese and nonobese women.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2014
  • Article: In Reply.

    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: To compare a new low-dose levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol contraceptive patch (Patch) with a combination oral contraceptive (Pill; 100 micrograms levonorgestrel, 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol) regarding efficacy, safety, compliance, and unscheduled uterine bleeding. Women (17-40 years; body mass index 16-60) were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to one of two groups: Patch only (13 cycles) or Pill (six cycles) followed by Patch (seven cycles). Investigators evaluated adverse events during cycles 2, 4, 6, 9, and 13. Participants recorded drug administration and uterine bleeding on daily diary cards. Compliance was assessed by measuring levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol plasma levels. Pearl Index (pregnancies per 100 woman-years) was calculated to evaluate efficacy. Participants (N=1,504) were randomized to Patch (n=1,129) or Pill (n=375). Approximately 30% were obese, more than 40% were racial or ethnic minorities, and more than 55% were new users of hormonal contraceptives. Laboratory-verified noncompliance (undetectable plasma drug levels) was 11% of Patch and 12.6% of Pill users at cycle 6. Pearl Indices (95% confidence intervals) for the intention-to-treat population (cycles 1-6) were 4.45 (2.34-6.57) for Patch and 4.02 (0.50-7.53) for Pill; excluding laboratory-verified noncompliant participants, Pearl Indices were 2.82 (0.98-4.67) for Patch and 3.80 (0.08-7.52) for Pill (differences not statistically significant). Incidence of unscheduled bleeding and incidence and severity of adverse events were similar for both contraceptives (no statistically significant difference). Efficacy and safety of the new contraceptive Patch are comparable to those of a Pill. Laboratory-verified noncompliance and bleeding profile are similar between the two treatments. The Patch was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01181479. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: I.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic interactions exist between combined oral contraceptives and protease inhibitors (PI). However, such information is lacking for progestin-only oral contraception. We sought to define the steady-state pharmacokinetic interaction between norethindrone (NET) and PI in HIV infected women. We conducted an open-label, prospective, non-randomized trial to characterize the steady-state pharmacokinetics of serum NET in HIVinfected women receiving PI compared to a control group of HIVinfected women receiving other non interacting drugs. Following 21 days of NET 0.35 mg ingestion once daily, serial serum samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The area under the curve between 0 and 72 hours after ingestion was calculated by trapezoidal approximation. Thirty-five women were enrolled, two withdrew. Sixteen women in the PI group and 17 controls completed the study. NET half life, and maximum concentration were not significantly different between the two groups. Minimum concentration of NET was significantly higher in the PI group (p=0.01). The ratio of the geometric mean NET area under the curve in the PI group compared to controls was 1.5 (90% confidence interval 1.21-1.86). NET serum concentrations are significantly higher in HIVinfected women taking a PI compared to controls (p=0.004). Co-administration of PI inhibits NET metabolism as shown by higher serum NET area under the curve levels, a surrogate marker for therapeutic contraceptive efficacy. This study supports increased utilization of progestin only pills in HIV infected women receiving certain PI regimens.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To measure infants' breast milk intake and infant growth when their mothers initiated either combined oral contraceptive (COC), levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, or etonogestrel-releasing implant, or copper intrauterine device (IUD) as a reference group. DESIGN: Prospective trial. SETTING: University-based hospital. PATIENT(S): On postpartum day 42, 40 women initiated a contraceptive method according to their choice. INTERVENTION(S): Deuterium (D2O; 0.5 g/kg mother's weight) was ingested by mothers on postpartum days 42, 52, and 63 as a marker of total body fluid. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Infants' milk intake from 42 to 63 postpartum days was assessed by measurement of D2O levels in infants' saliva and infant growth by measuring their body weight, height, and tibia length. Women recorded all infant feed and changes of diapers wet with urine. Breastfeeding continuation was assessed at 6 months postpartum. RESULT(S): Infant mean milk intake, mean growth increase, mean number of breastfeeding episodes, daily wet diaper changes, and mean duration of exclusively breastfeeding (∼5 months) were similar in the four groups. CONCLUSION(S): Use of a COC, the two progestin-only contraceptives, or copper IUD did not affect the amount of infant milk intake and growth up to 9 weeks of age. The incidence of full breastfeeding and breastfeeding continuation was similar with contraceptive hormonal use and no use. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01388582.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Fertility and sterility
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The metabolic effects of progestin-only long-acting reversible contraception [levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and etonogestrel implant (ENG-I)] have been studied in normal-weight women but not in obese [body mass index≥30kg/m(2)] women. Study design: A nonrandomized open-label prospective trial of healthy obese, reproductive-age women desiring to use long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) or nonhormonal contraception (NHC). At baseline, 3 months and 6 months, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) score, insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) and β-cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated based on fasting insulin and glucose values. In addition, components of metabolic syndrome [fasting glucose (FG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, abdominal circumference] were measured. Twenty-four subjects total (8 in each arm) were needed to detect a 1.0 difference in HOMA-IR with 80% power and a two-sided alpha of 0.05. Results: We present data on eight NHC, eight ENG-I and nine levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users. FG increased, and insulin sensitivity decreased over time among ENG-I users to a greater extent than among LNG-IUS users when compared to women using a nonhormonal method [FG change over 6 months=9.4mg/dL, 4.6mg/dL and -2.1mg/dL, respectively; p=.01); (HOMA-%S change over 6 months=-29.9%, -14.8% and 19.3%, respectively; p=.02)], while β-cell function and insulin resistance did not change significantly (p>.05). Conclusion: While changes in FG and insulin sensitivity were seen in the present study among obese progestin-only contraceptive users, either progestin-only LARC method may be safely used clinically.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study analyzes levels of progesterone, estradiol, norethindrone (NET) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in serum and levels of NET in cervical mucus on the last day of the hormone-free interval (HFI) in users of 24/4 [norethindrone acetate (NETA)/EE-24] vs. 21/7 (NETA/EE-21) regimens. Study design: This was a randomized controlled, crossover, equivalency trial. Subjects were randomized to receive NETA/EE-24 or NETA/EE-21 for 2 months and then switched between study drugs. Blood and cervical mucus samples were obtained on Days 12-16 and on the last day of the HFI. Results: From April 2010 to November 2011, 32 subjects were enrolled with 18 subjects completing all study visits. There were no statistically significant differences in either day 12-16 (p=.54) or last hormone-free day (p=.33) cervical mucus NET concentrations between the regimens. On the last day of the HFI, median serum progesterone levels did not differ significantly; however, users of NETA/EE-24 had higher levels of serum NET (p<.001) and users of NETA/EE-21 had higher levels of serum estradiol (p=.01). Conclusion: This data supports the fact that inhibition of the pituitary-ovarian axis occurs during oral contraceptive use and during the HFI. We demonstrated that a reduced HFI of 4 days resulted in better suppression of the ovarian hormone production, thereby reducing the risk of ovulation and potential contraceptive failure.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Contraception
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    Frank Z Stanczyk · Janet P Hapgood · Sharon Winer · Daniel R Mishell
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    ABSTRACT: The safety of progestogens as a class has come under increased scrutiny after the publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative trial, particularly with respect to breast cancer and cardiovascular disease risk, despite the fact that only one progestogen, medroxyprogesterone acetate, was used in this study. Inconsistency in nomenclature has also caused confusion between synthetic progestogens, defined here by the term progestin, and natural progesterone. Although all progestogens by definition have progestational activity, they also have a divergent range of other properties that can translate to very different clinical effects. Endometrial protection is the primary reason for prescribing a progestogen concomitantly with postmenopausal estrogen therapy in women with a uterus, but several progestogens are known to have a range of other potentially beneficial effects, for example on the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Because women remain suspicious of the progestogen component of postmenopausal hormone therapy in the light of the Women's Health Initiative trial, practitioners should not ignore the potential benefits to their patients of some progestogens by considering them to be a single pharmacological class. There is a lack of understanding of the differences between progestins and progesterone and between individual progestins differing in their effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems, the breast, and bone. This review elucidates the differences between the substantial number of individual progestogens employed in postmenopausal hormone therapy, including both progestins and progesterone. We conclude that these differences in chemical structure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, affinity, potency, and efficacy via steroid receptors, intracellular action, and biological and clinical effects confirm the absence of a class effect of progestogens.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Endocrine reviews
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    Frans J M E Roumen · Daniel R Mishell
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To review the clinical experience with the contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR, NuvaRing(®)) since its introduction over ten years ago. Methods The literature was searched on efficacy, cycle control, safety, user preference and satisfaction of the CVR in comparison with combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and the patch, with special attention to recent developments. Results The ring has the same working mechanism and contraindications as COCs. Serum levels of steroids are steadier, whereas oestrogenic exposure is lower. Contraceptive efficacy is similar, as are metabolic changes. Cycle control is better, and compliance and continuation rates are equal or higher. Oestrogen-related adverse symptoms appear to be fewer, but reports on the incidence of venous thrombosis are conflicting. Expulsion of the ring is reported by 4% to 20% of women. Local adverse events are the main reason for discontinuation. Acceptability is as high as with COCs and, after structured counselling, the ring is preferred by many women to the pill or the patch. Conclusions Efficacy of the CVR, and the metabolic changes and adverse events it elicits, are generally comparable to those of COCs, yet oestrogenic exposure is lower and cycle control superior. After counselling, the ring is preferred to the pill by many women.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The major contraceptive action of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is cervical mucus (CM) thickening, which prevents sperm penetration. No study to date has examined the temporal relationship between the insertion of the LNG-IUS and changes in CM quality and sperm penetration. Study design: Participants were enrolled in a clinically descriptive study to compare the quality of CM and three parameters of sperm penetration prior to insertion of the LNG-IUS and on Days 1, 3 and 5 after insertion. Measurements of estradiol, progesterone and levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum and LNG in CM were also carried out at these times. CM was analyzed using the World Health Organization CM grading criteria. Sperm penetration was determined using an in vitro sperm-CM penetration test. Results: All 10 participants underwent LNG-IUS insertion during midcycle when CM quality was good and sperm penetration was excellent. On Day 1 after LNG-IUS insertion, the majority of participants demonstrated poor CM quality and poor sperm penetration. On Day 3, all participants had poor CM quality, and all but one subject had poor sperm penetration. By Day 5, all participants had poor CM quality and poor sperm penetration. LNG levels in CM peaked on the day after LNG-IUS insertion. Conclusion: Significant changes in quality of CM and sperm penetration were observed shortly after LNG-IUS insertion; however, CM can remain penetrable for up to 5 days when the LNG-IUS is inserted midcycle.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The effect of obesity on ovarian follicular suppression in women using low-estrogen dose contraceptive patches has not been determined. Study design: A Phase II, parallel-group, multicenter, three-cycle study evaluated three patches containing different ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) doses. Serum levels of EE, LNG, sex hormone-binding globulin and progesterone were compared in 41 obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥30] and 75 nonobese (BMI <30) women. Results: Suppression of ovulation during the luteal phase was dose dependent, with the highest dose (AG200-15) preventing progesterone increases in all women (cycles 2-3). In the follicular phase, the lowest-dose patch had the highest rate of increased progesterone in nonobese subjects. Progesterone levels ≥3.0 ng/mL in the follicular phase were more common in obese than nonobese women. Conclusions: AG200-15 suppresses ovulation in obese and nonobese women. All three patches found increased progesterone in the follicular phase, albeit more in obese versus nonobese women.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Contraception

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,255.15 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • Keck School of Medicine USC
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1986-2015
    • University of Southern California
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Keck School of Medicine
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1975-2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1995-2006
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Florida Health Science Center-Jacksonville
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
    • Children´s Hospital Association
      Overland Park, Kansas, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1997
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 1984-1997
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990
    • Ain Shams University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Al Qāhirah, Muḩāfaz̧at al Qāhirah, Egypt
  • 1988
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1972-1984
    • City University Los Angeles
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1981
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil