B. Steinbach

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (28)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) datasets typically requires some filtering of the raw time-ordered data. Filtering is frequently used to minimize the impact of low frequency noise, atmospheric contributions and/or scan synchronous signals on the resulting maps. In this work we explicitly construct a general filtering operator, which can unambiguously remove any set of unwanted modes in the data, and then amend the map-making procedure in order to incorporate and correct for it. We show that such an approach is mathematically equivalent to the solution of a problem in which the sky signal and unwanted modes are estimated simultaneously and the latter are marginalized over. We investigate the conditions under which this amended map-making procedure can render an unbiased estimate of the sky signal in realistic circumstances. We then study the effects of time-domain filtering on the noise correlation structure in the map domain, as well as impact it may have on the performance of the popular pseudo-spectrum estimators. We conclude that although maps produced by the proposed estimators arguably provide the most faithful representation of the sky possible given the data, they may not straightforwardly lead to the best constraints on the power spectra of the underlying sky signal and special care may need to be taken to ensure this is the case. By contrast, simplified map-makers which do not explicitly correct for time-domain filtering, but leave it to subsequent steps in the data analysis, may perform equally well and be easier and faster to implement. We focus on polarization-sensitive measurements targeting the B-mode component of the CMB signal and apply the proposed methods to realistic simulations based on characteristics of an actual CMB polarization experiment, POLARBEAR.
    Article · Aug 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BICEP3, the latest telescope in the BICEP/Keck program, started science observations in March 2016. It is a 550mm aperture refractive telescope observing the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz. We show the focal plane design and detector performance, including spectral response, optical efficiency and preliminary sensitivity of the upgraded BICEP3. We demonstrate 9.72$\mu$K$\sqrt{\textrm{s}}$ noise performance of the BICEP3 receiver.
    Full-text Conference Paper · Jul 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BICEP3 is a small-aperture refracting cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescope designed to make sensitive polarization maps in pursuit of a potential B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. It is the latest in the BICEP/Keck Array series of CMB experiments at the South Pole, which has provided the most stringent constraints on inflation to date. For the 2016 observing season, BICEP3 was outfitted with a full suite of 2400 optically coupled detectors operating at 95 GHz. In these proceedings we report on the far field beam performance using calibration data taken during the 2015-2016 summer deployment season in situ with a thermal chopped source. We generate high-fidelity per-detector beam maps, show the array-averaged beam profile, and characterize the differential beam response between co-located, orthogonally polarized detectors which contributes to the leading instrumental systematic in pair differencing experiments. We find that the levels of differential pointing, beamwidth, and ellipticity are similar to or lower than those measured for BICEP2 and Keck Array. The magnitude and distribution of BICEP3's differential beam mismatch - and the level to which temperature-to-polarization leakage may be marginalized over or subtracted in analysis - will inform the design of next-generation CMB experiments with many thousands of detectors.
    Full-text Conference Paper · Jul 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BICEP3 is a 520 mm aperture, compact two-lens refractor designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 95 GHz. Its focal plane consists of modularized tiles of antenna-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs), similar to those used in BICEP2 and the Keck Array. The increased per-receiver optical throughput compared to BICEP2/Keck Array, due to both its faster f/1.7 optics and the larger aperture, more than doubles the combined mapping speed of the BICEP/Keck program. The BICEP3 receiver was recently upgraded to a full complement of 20 tiles of detectors (2560 TESs) and is now beginning its second year of observation (and first science season) at the South Pole. We report on its current performance and observing plans. Given its high per-receiver throughput while maintaining the advantages of a compact design, BICEP3-class receivers are ideally suited as building blocks for a 3rd-generation CMB experiment, consisting of multiple receivers spanning 35 GHz to 270 GHz with total detector count in the tens of thousands. We present plans for such an array, the new "BICEP Array" that will replace the Keck Array at the South Pole, including design optimization, frequency coverage, and deployment/observing strategies.
    Full-text Conference Paper · Jul 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A linear polarization field on the sphere can be uniquely decomposed into an E-mode and a B-mode component. These two components are analytically defined in terms of spin-2 spherical harmonics. Maps that contain filtered modes on a partial sky can also be decomposed into E-mode and B-mode components. However, the lack of full sky information prevents orthogonally separating these components using spherical harmonics. In this paper, we present a technique for decomposing an incomplete map into E and B-mode components using E and B eigenmodes of the pixel covariance in the observed map. This method is found to orthogonally define E and B in the presence of both partial sky coverage and spatial filtering. This method has been applied to the Bicep2 and the Keck Array maps and results in reducing E to B leakage from ΛCDM E-modes to a level corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of . © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jun 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present measurements of polarization lensing using the 150 GHz maps which include all data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB polarization experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season (BK14). Despite their modest angular resolution (∼0.5∘), the excellent sensitivity (∼3μK-arcmin) of these maps makes it possible to directly reconstruct the lensing potential using only information at larger angular scales (ℓ≤700). From the auto-spectrum of the reconstructed potential we measure an amplitude of the spectrum to be AϕϕL=1.15±0.36 (Planck ΛCDM prediction corresponds to AϕϕL=1), and reject the no-lensing hypothesis at 5.8σ, which is the highest significance achieved to date using an EB lensing estimator. Taking the cross-spectrum of the reconstructed potential with the Planck 2015 lensing map yields AϕϕL=1.13±0.20. These direct measurements of AϕϕL are consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology, and with that derived from the previously reported BK14 B-mode auto-spectrum (ABBL=1.20±0.17). We perform a series of null tests and consistency checks to show that these results are robust against systematics and are insensitive to analysis choices. These results unambiguously demonstrate that the B-modes previously reported by BICEP / Keck at intermediate angular scales (150≲ℓ≲350) are dominated by gravitational lensing. The good agreement between the lensing amplitudes obtained from the lensing reconstruction and B-mode spectrum starts to place constraints on any alternative cosmological sources of B-modes at these angular scales.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present results from an analysis of all data taken by the BICEP2 and Keck Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season. This includes the first Keck Array observations at 95 GHz. The maps reach a depth of 50 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in the 150 GHz band and 127 nK deg in the 95 GHz band. We take auto- and cross-spectra between these maps and publicly available maps from WMAP and Planck at frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz. An excess over lensed ΛCDM is detected at modest significance in the 95×150 BB spectrum, and is consistent with the dust contribution expected from our previous work. No significant evidence for synchrotron emission is found in spectra such as 23×95, or for correlation between the dust and synchrotron sky patterns in spectra such as 23×353. We take the likelihood of all the spectra for a multicomponent model including lensed ΛCDM, dust, synchrotron, and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r) using priors on the frequency spectral behaviors of dust and synchrotron emission from previous analyses of WMAP and Planck data in other regions of the sky. This analysis yields an upper limit r_{0.05}<0.09 at 95% confidence, which is robust to variations explored in analysis and priors. Combining these B-mode results with the (more model-dependent) constraints from Planck analysis of CMB temperature plus baryon acoustic oscillations and other data yields a combined limit r_{0.05}<0.07 at 95% confidence. These are the strongest constraints to date on inflationary gravitational waves.
    Article · Jan 2016 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BICEP3 is a $550~mm$ aperture telescope with cold, on-axis, refractive optics designed to observe at the $95~GHz$ band from the South Pole. It is the newest member of the BICEP/Keck family of inflationary probes specifically designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at degree-angular scales. BICEP3 is designed to house 1280 dual-polarization pixels, which, when fully-populated, totals to $\sim$9$\times$ the number of pixels in a single Keck $95~GHz$ receiver, thus further advancing the BICEP/Keck program's $95~GHz$ mapping speed. BICEP3 was deployed during the austral summer of 2014-2015 with 9 detector tiles, to be increased to its full capacity of 20 in the second season. After instrument characterization measurements were taken, CMB observation commenced in April 2015. Together with multi-frequency observation data from Planck, BICEP2, and the Keck Array, BICEP3 is projected to set upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio to $r$ $\lesssim 0.03$ at $95\%$ C.L..
    Full-text Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present results from an analysis of all data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB polarization experiments up to and including that taken during the 2014 observing season. This includes the first Keck Array observations at 95 GHz. The maps reach a depth of 50 nK deg in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ in the 150 GHz band and 127 nK deg in the 95 GHz band. We take auto- and cross-spectra between these maps and publicly available maps from WMAP and Planck at frequencies from 23 GHz to 353 GHz. An excess over lensed-LCDM is detected at modest significance in the 95x150 $BB$ spectrum, and is consistent with the dust contribution expected from our previous work. No significant evidence for synchrotron emission is found in spectra such as 23x95, or for dust/sync correlation in spectra such as 23x353. We take the likelihood of all the spectra for a multi-component model including lensed-LCDM, dust, synchrotron and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$), using priors on the frequency spectral behaviors of dust and synchrotron emission from previous analyses of WMAP and Planck data in other regions of the sky. This analysis yields an upper limit $r_{0.05}<0.09$ at 95% confidence, which is robust to variations explored in analysis and priors. Combining these $B$-mode results with the (more model-dependent) constraints from Planck analysis of CMB temperature and other evidence yields a combined limit $r_{0.05}<0.07$. These are the strongest constraints to date on inflationary gravitational waves.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We constrain anisotropic cosmic birefringence using four-point correlations of even-parity $E$-mode and odd-parity $B$-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background measurements made by the POLARBEAR experiment in its first season of observations. We find that the anisotropic cosmic birefringence signal from any parity violating processes is consistent with zero. The Faraday rotation from anisotropic cosmic birefringence can be compared with the equivalent quantity generated by primordial magnetic fields if they existed. The POLARBEAR non-detection translates into a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit of 93 nano-Gauss (nG) on the amplitude of an equivalent primordial magnetic field inclusive of systematic uncertainties. This four-point correlation constraint on Faraday rotation is about 15 times tighter than the upper limit of 1380 nG inferred from constraining the contribution of Faraday rotation to two-point correlations of $B$-modes measured by Planck in 2015. Metric perturbations sourced by primordial magnetic fields would also contribute to the $B$-mode power spectrum. Using the POLARBEAR measurements of the $B$-mode power spectrum (two-point correlation), we set a 95% C.L. upper limit of 3.9 nG on primordial magnetic fields assuming a flat prior on the field amplitude. This limit is comparable to what was found in the Planck 2015 two-point correlation analysis with both temperature and polarization. We perform a set of systematic error tests and find no evidence for contamination. This work marks the first time that anisotropic cosmic birefringence or primordial magnetic fields have been constrained from the ground at sub-degree scales.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2015 · Physical Review D
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    Full-text Article · Aug 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements, and find that the polarization fraction of atmospheric emission is below 1.0 percent. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    Full-text Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    D. Barron · P. Ade · A. Anthony · [...] · O. Zahn
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polarbear cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment has been observing since early 2012 from its 5,200 m site in the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. polarbear’s measurements will characterize the expected CMB polarization due to gravitational lensing by large scale structure, and search for the possible B-mode polarization signature of inflationary gravitational waves. polarbear’s 250 mK focal plane detector array consists of 1,274 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled bolometers, each with an associated lithographed band-defining filter and contacting dielectric lenslet, an architecture unique in current CMB experiments. The status of the polarbear instrument, its focal plane, and the analysis of its measurements are presented.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
  • Y. Inoue · N. Stebor · P.A.R. Ade · [...] · O. Zahn
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment for B-mode detection. The PB-2 receiver has a large focal plane and aperture that consists of 7588 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 250 mK. The receiver consists of the optical cryostat housing reimaging lenses and infrared filters, and the detector cryostat housing TES bolometers. The large focal plane places substantial requirements on the thermal design of the optical elements at the 4K, 50K, and 300K stages. Infrared filters and lenses inside the optical cryostat are made of alumina for this purpose. We measure basic properties of alumina, such as the index of refraction, loss tangent and thermal conductivity. All results meet our requirements. We also optically characterize filters and lenses made of alumina. Finally, we perform a cooling test of the entire optical cryostat. All measured temperature values satisfy our requirements. In particular, the temperature rise between the center and edge of the alumina infrared filter at 50 K is only 2:0 ± 1:4 K. Based on the measurements, we estimate the incident power to each thermal stage.
    Article · Aug 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Simons Array is an expansion of the POLARBEAR cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment currently observing from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. This expansion will create an array of three 3.5m telescopes each coupled to a multichroic bolometric receiver. The Simons Array will have the sensitivity to produce a ≥ 5σ detection of inationary gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≥ 0:01, detect the known minimum 58 meV sum of the neutrino masses with 3σ confidence when combined with a next-generation baryon acoustic oscillation measurement, and make a lensing map of large-scale structure over the 80% of the sky available from its Chilean site. These goals require high sensitivity and the ability to extract the CMB signal from contaminating astrophysical foregrounds; these requirements are met by coupling the three high-throughput telescopes to novel multichroic lenslet-coupled pixels each measuring CMB photons in both linear polarization states over multiple spectral bands. We present the status of this instrument already under construction, and an analysis of its capabilities.
    Article · Aug 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
  • P A R Ade · Y Akiba · A E Anthony · [...] · O Zahn
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.
    Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    P A R Ade · Y Akiba · A E Anthony · [...] · O Zahn
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the Universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early Universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < l < 2100 and is based on observations of 30 square degrees with 3.5 arcmin resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the Universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.5% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A_BB to the measured band powers, A_BB = 1.12 +/- 0.61 (stat) +0.04/-0.10 (sys) +/- 0.07 (multi), where A_BB = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 LCDM value. In this expression, "stat" refers to the statistical uncertainty, "sys" to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and "multi" to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A_BB.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

175 Citations

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Paris Diderot University
      • AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC) UMR 7164
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France