[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5 [times] 10-8) distributed across 34 loci. Although wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first genetic association signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference P value = 4.1 [times] 10-10). Very rare coding variants (frequency <0.1%) in CFH, CFI and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Less is known about the genetic basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in African Americans (AAs) than in non-Hispanic whites.
Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on seven AA AD cases. Disease association with potentially AD-related variants from WES was assessed in an AA discovery cohort of 422 cases and 394 controls. Replication was sought in an AA sample of 1037 cases and 1869 controls from the Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC).
Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from WES passed filtering criteria and were successfully genotyped. Nominally significant (P < .05) association to AD was observed with two African-descent specific AKAP9 SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium: rs144662445 (P = .014) and rs149979685 (P = .037). These associations were replicated in the ADGC sample (rs144662445: P = .0022, odds ratio [OR] = 2.75; rs149979685: P = .0022, OR = 3.61).
Because AKAP9 was not previously linked to AD risk, this study indicates a potential new disease mechanism.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several lines of inquiry point to overlapping molecular mechanisms between late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We evaluated summarized results from large genome-wide association studies for AD and AMD to test the hypothesis that AD susceptibility loci are also associated with AMD. We observed association of both disorders with genes in a region of chromosome 7, including PILRA and ZCWPW1 (peak AMD SNP rs7792525, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 19%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, p = 2.34 × 10(-6)), and with ABCA7 (peak AMD SNP rs3752228, MAF = 0.054, OR = 1.22, p = 0.00012). Next, we evaluated association of AMD with genes in AD-related pathways identified by canonical pathway analysis of AD-associated genes. Significant associations were observed with multiple previously identified AMD risk loci and 2 novel genes: HGS (peak SNP rs8070488, MAF = 0.23, OR = 0.91, p = 7.52 × 10(-5)), which plays a role in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling pathway, and TNF (peak SNP rs2071590, MAF = 0.34, OR = 0.89, p = 1.17 × 10(-5)), which is a member of the atherosclerosis signaling and the LXR/RXR activation pathways. Our results suggest that AMD and AD share genetic mechanisms.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Neurobiology of aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10-8. These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10-8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of genetic variation with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans, including genes implicated in recent genome-wide association studies of whites.
We analyzed a genome-wide set of 2.5 million imputed markers to evaluate the genetic basis of AD in an African American population. Subjects: Five hundred thirteen well-characterized African American AD cases and 496 cognitively normal African American control subjects.
Data were collected from multiple sites as part of the Multi-Institutional Research on Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) Study and the Henry Ford Health System as part of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Among African Americans (GenerAAtions) Study.
Several significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). After adjusting for the confounding effects of APOE genotype, one of these SNPs, rs6859 in PVRL2, remained significantly associated with AD (P = .0087). Association was also observed with SNPs in CLU, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A, ABCA7, and CD33, although the effect direction for some SNPs and the most significant SNPs differed from findings in data sets consisting of whites. Finally, using the African American genome-wide association study data set as a discovery sample, we obtained suggestive evidence of association with SNPs for several novel candidate genes.
Some genes contribute to AD pathogenesis in both white and African American cohorts, although it is unclear whether the causal variants are the same. A larger African American sample will be needed to confirm novel gene associations, which may be population specific.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Archives of neurology