[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To highlight the risk of clinical worsening after deep brain stimulation in histologically proven multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients presenting slow and relatively benign disease progression mimicking Parkinson's disease (PD). In such cases but also in more typical MSA patients, the results of deep brain stimulation have been mostly reported as case reports and small patient series.
The present study describes the outcome of the largest series of histologically proven MSA patients who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus because they were considered as having PD at the time of surgery.
Three patients showed significant improvement of motor signs after surgery while two did not. Clinical improvement was short-lasting and rapidly followed by the occurrence of disabling manifestations of MSA that counteracted DBS benefits.
Together with previous reports, our study demonstrates that DBS should not be recommended for MSA patients. It also underlines that detecting subtle red flags is crucial to avoid DBS surgery in this population.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ataxia is a symptom that is often associated with syndromic inherited diseases. We previously reported the linkage of a novel syndrome, ataxia with blindness and deafness (SCAR3/SCABD, OMIM# 271250), to chromosome 6p21-p23 by linkage mapping of an Arab Israeli consanguineous family. We have now identified by whole-exome sequencing a homozygous missense mutation in the Arab Israeli family in the SLC52A2 gene located in 8qter, therefore excluding linkage of this family to 6p. We confirmed the involvement of SLC52A2 by the identification of a second mutation in an independent family with an identical syndromic presentation, which we suggest to name SCABD2. SCABD2 is therefore allelic to Brown-Vialleto-Van Laere syndrome type 2 defined by prominent motoneuronopathy and deafness, and also caused by SLC52A2 mutations. In the course of this project, we identified a clinically similar family with a homozygous missense mutation in PEX6, which is located in 6p21. Therefore, despite false linkage in the initial family, SCABD1/SCAR3 is located in 6p21 and is caused by PEX6 mutations. Both SLC52A2 and PEX6 should be included in screening panels for the diagnosis of syndromic inherited ataxias, particularly as patients with mutations in SLC52A2 can be ameliorated by riboflavin supplementation.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 16 December 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.259.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the clinical spectrum and distinguishing features of adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5)-related dyskinesia and genotype-phenotype relationship.
We analyzed ADCY5 in patients with choreiform or dystonic movements by exome or targeted sequencing. Suspected mosaicism was confirmed by allele-specific amplification. We evaluated clinical features in our 50 new and previously reported cases.
We identified 3 new families and 12 new sporadic cases with ADCY5 mutations. These mutations cause a mixed hyperkinetic disorder that includes dystonia, chorea, and myoclonus, often with facial involvement. The movements are sometimes painful and show episodic worsening on a fluctuating background. Many patients have axial hypotonia. In 2 unrelated families, a p.A726T mutation in the first cytoplasmic domain (C1) causes a relatively mild disorder of prominent facial and hand dystonia and chorea. Mutations p.R418W or p.R418Q in C1, de novo in 13 individuals and inherited in 1, produce a moderate to severe disorder with axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia, paroxysmal nocturnal or diurnal dyskinesia, chorea, myoclonus, and intermittent facial dyskinesia. Somatic mosaicism is usually associated with a less severe phenotype. In one family, a p.M1029K mutation in the C2 domain causes severe dystonia, hypotonia, and chorea. The progenitor, whose childhood-onset episodic movement disorder almost disappeared in adulthood, was mosaic for the mutation.
ADCY5-related dyskinesia is a childhood-onset disorder with a wide range of hyperkinetic abnormal movements. Genotype-specific correlations and mosaicism play important roles in the phenotypic variability. Recurrent mutations suggest particular functional importance of residues 418 and 726 in disease pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Friedreich's ataxia usually occurs before the age of 25. Rare variants have been described, such as late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, occurring after 25 and 40 years, respectively. We describe the clinical, functional, and molecular findings from a large series of late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and compare them with typical-onset Friedreich's ataxia.
Phenotypic and genotypic comparison of 44 late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, 30 very late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, and 180 typical Friedreich's ataxia was undertaken.
Delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia (late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia) had less frequently dysarthria, abolished tendon reflexes, extensor plantar reflexes, weakness, amyotrophy, ganglionopathy, cerebellar atrophy, scoliosis, and cardiomyopathy than typical-onset Friedreich's ataxia, along with less severe functional disability and shorter GAA expansion on the smaller allele (P < 0.001). Delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia had lower scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia and spinocerebellar degeneration functional scores and longer disease duration before wheelchair confinement (P < 0.001). Both GAA expansions were negatively correlated to age at disease onset (P < 0.001), but the smaller GAA expansion accounted for 62.9% of age at onset variation and the larger GAA expansion for 15.6%. In this comparative study of late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, no differences between these phenotypes were demonstrated.
Typical- and delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia are different and Friedreich's ataxia is heterogeneous. Late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia appear to belong to the same clinical and molecular continuum and should be considered together as "delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia." As the most frequently inherited ataxia, Friedreich's ataxia should be considered facing compatible pictures, including atypical phenotypes (spastic ataxia, retained reflexes, lack of dysarthria, and lack of extraneurological signs), delayed disease onset (even after 60 years of age), and/or slow disease progression.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Movement Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence supports a link between fatty acid metabolism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we determined the fatty acid composition of blood lipids to identify markers of disease progression and survival. We enrolled 117 patients from two clinical centers and 48 of these were age and gender matched with healthy volunteers. We extracted total lipids from serum and blood cells, and separated fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography. We measured circulating biochemical parameters indicative of the metabolic status. Association between fatty acid composition and clinical readouts was studied, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), survival, disease duration, site of onset and body mass index. Palmitoleate (16:1) and oleate (18:1) levels, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) significantly increased in blood cells from ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Palmitoleate levels and 16:1/16:0 ratio in blood cells, but not body mass index or leptin concentrations, negatively correlated with ALSFRS-R decline over a six-month period (p<0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis, with age, body mass index, site of onset and ALSFRS-R as covariables, showed that blood cell 16:1/16:0 ratio was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.1 per unit of ratio, 95% confidence interval=0.01-0.57, p=0.009). In patients with high 16:1/16:0 ratio, survival at blood collection was extended by 10 months, as compared to patients with low ratio. The 16:1/16:0 index is an easy-to-handle parameter that predicts survival of ALS patients independently of body mass index. It therefore deserves further validation in larger cohorts for being used to assess disease outcome and effects of disease-modifying drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a key feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA), a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with autonomic failure, parkinsonism and ataxia. This study aims (1) to determine the clinical spectrum of OH in a large European cohort of patients with MSA and (2) to investigate whether a prolonged postural challenge increases the sensitivity to detect OH in MSA.
Assessment of OH during a 10 min orthostatic test in 349 patients with MSA from seven centres of the European MSA-Study Group (age: 63.6±8.8 years; disease duration: 4.2±2.6 years). Assessment of a possible relationship between OH and MSA subtype (P with predominant parkinsonism or C with predominant cerebellar ataxia), Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS) scores and drug intake.
187 patients (54%) had moderate (>20 mm Hg (systolic blood pressure (SBP)) and/or >10 mm Hg (diastolic blood pressure (DBP)) or severe OH (>30 mm Hg (SBP) and/or >15 mm Hg (DBP)) within 3 min and 250 patients (72%) within 10 min. OH magnitude was significantly associated with disease severity (UMSARS I, II and IV), orthostatic symptoms (UMSARS I) and supine hypertension. OH severity was not associated with MSA subtype. Drug intake did not differ according to OH magnitude except for antihypertensive drugs being less frequently, and antihypotensive drugs more frequently, prescribed in severe OH.
This is the largest study of OH in patients with MSA. Our data suggest that the sensitivity to pick up OH increases substantially by a prolonged 10 min orthostatic challenge. These results will help to improve OH management and the design of future clinical trials.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinsonism has been found in numerous hereditary metabolic or rare diseases. Familial history, young age of onset, associated neurological signs (spasticity, dystonia, ophtalmoplegia, ataxia, cognitive decline…), neuroradiological abnormalities (metallic deposits, calcifications, cerebellar atrophy…), dopa-resistance or early dopa-intolerance, can lead to the diagnosis. The main objectives are to detect treatable diseases (Wilson disease, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick disease, Gaucher disease, hypermanganesemia…), so genetic and prognostic advice can be proposed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Pratique Neurologique - FMC
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 73-year-old man complained at bedtime of electric shock sensations, corresponding to myoclonic-like jerks, observed solely in both arms, causing severe insomnia. These involuntary movements appeared at rest and were accompanied by an urge to move that relieved symptoms (video on the Neurology (R) Web site at Neurology.org). To date, few observations have been reported on arm restlessness and periodic movements of the upper limbs.(1,2) This variant shares common features with restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, such as therapeutic response to dopaminergic agonists. Clinicians should be aware of restlessness of the upper limbs, which likely remains underdiagnosed and requires appropriate therapeutic management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1(FSHD1) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with the contraction of D4Z4 less than 11 repeat units (RUs) on chromosome 4q35. Penetrance in the range of the largest alleles is poorly known. Our objective was to study the penetrance of FSHD1 in patients carrying alleles ranging between 6 to10 RUs and to evaluate the influence of sex, age, and several environmental factors on clinical expression of the disease.MethodsA cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in six French and one Swiss neuromuscular centers. 65 FSHD1 affected patients carrying a 4qA allele of 6¿10 RUs were identified as index cases (IC) and their 119 at-risk relatives were included. The age of onset was recorded for IC only. Medical history, neurological examination and manual muscle testing were performed for each subject. Genetic testing determined the allele size (number of RUs) and the 4qA/4qB allelic variant. The clinical status of relatives was established blindly to their genetic testing results. The main outcome was the penetrance defined as the ratio between the number of clinically affected carriers and the total number of carriers.ResultsAmong the relatives, 59 carried the D4Z4 contraction. At the clinical level, 34 relatives carriers were clinically affected and 25 unaffected. Therefore, the calculated penetrance was 57% in the range of 6¿10 RUs. Penetrance was estimated at 62% in the range of 6¿8 RUs, and at 47% in the range of 9¿10 RUs. Moreover, penetrance was lower in women than men. There was no effect of drugs, anesthesia, surgery or traumatisms on the penetrance.Conclusions
Penetrance of FSHD1 is low for largest alleles in the range of 9¿10 RUs, and lower in women than men. This is of crucial importance for genetic counseling and clinical management of patients and families.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is caused by FMR1 premutation. The features include ataxia, action tremor and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) hyperintensity, the latter being the only major radiological criterion in the diagnosis of definite FXTAS until very recently. The importance of corpus callosum splenium (CCS) hyperintensity was recently reported and this sign is now considered as an additional major radiological diagnostic criterion in the diagnosis of FXTAS. However, little is known about its relevance for the diagnosis of FXTAS in clinical practice. We report a practical justification of the relevance of CCS hyperintensity in parallel with MCP hyperintensity for the diagnosis of FXTAS. Clinical and radiological study of 22 FMR1 premutation carriers with neurological signs that may be encountered in FXTAS compared to series of patients with essential tremor, multiple system atrophy of cerebellar type, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. Among the 22 patients with FMR1 premutation [17 men, 5 women; mean age, 63 ± 7.5 (46–84)], 14 were diagnosed with definite FXTAS with the initial criteria. Considering CCS hyperintensity as a new major radiological criterion permitted the diagnosis of definite FXTAS in 3 additional patients. Overall CCS proved as frequent as MCP hyperintensity (64 versus 64 %), while 23 % of patients had CCS but not MCP hyperintensity, 14 % of patients had CCS hyperintensity but neither MCP, nor brainstem hyperintensity. In contrast with CCS hyperintensity, MCP hyperintensity proved less frequent in women than in men. CCS and MCP hyperintensity were more frequent in FXTAS than in the other neurodegenerative disorders. The combination of CCS and MCP hyperintensity was specific of FXTAS. We confirmed the relevance of CCS hyperintensity in FXTAS and we clarified its interest compared to MCP hyperintensity. Our results support the inclusion of CCS hyperintensity in the diagnostic criteria as a new major radiological criterion.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Neurology