[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A field pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive phytotoxicity of soil Cu and Zn on soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Two soils (Arkport sandy loam [coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Lamellic Hapludalf] and Hudson silty clay loam [fine, illitic, mesic Glossaquic Hapludalf]) spiked with Cu, Zn, and combinations of both to reach the final soil metal range of 0 to 400 mg kg(-1) were tested in a 2-yr bioassay after 1 yr of soil-metal equilibration in the field. The soluble and easily-extractable fraction of soil Zn (or Cu), estimated by dilute CaCl2, increased linearly in response to the total Zn (or Cu) added. This linearity was, however, strongly affected where soils were treated with both metals in combination, most notably for Zn, as approximately 50% more of soil Zn was extracted into solution when the Cu level was high. Consequently, added Zn is less likely to be stabilized by aging than added Cu when both metals are present in field soils. The predictive model relating soil metal extractability to plant Zn concentration also revealed a significant Cu-Zn interaction. By contrast, the interaction between the two metals contributed little to explain plant Cu uptake. The additive action of soil Cu and Zn was of considerable importance in explaining plant biomass reduction. This work clearly demonstrates the critical roles of the properties of the soil, the nature of the metal, and the level of other toxic metals present on the development of differential phytotoxicity due to soil Cu and Zn.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Environmental Quality
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common soil test methods were compared with 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction to determine their relative abilities to extract and estimate phytoavailability of Cu and Zn. In aged metal-spiked soils, all soil tests evaluated (Mehlich 3, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid [DTPA], Morgan, modified Morgan, CaCl2) showed a linear relationship of extractable to total Cu and Zn for both soil types studied. The fraction of total Cu and Zn extracted by aggressive tests (Mehlich 3, DTPA) was much higher than the fraction extracted by CaCl2, with the Morgan tests being intermediate. Although all extraction methods revealed Cu and Zn to be more available in the coarse-textured soil than the fine-textured soil, this texture effect was greatest for the least aggressive test (CaCl2) and least for Mehlich 3. The texture effect on soil test Cu and Zn was also reflected in bioavailability, with greater plant tissue concentrations of both metals from the coarse-textured soil in a soybean assay. Although all soil test methods provided similarly strong correlations to plant tissue concentrations of Zn for soybeans grown in the two soils, the less aggressive soil tests seemed more reliable as predictors of Cu uptake.
The efficiency of Cu and Zn extraction from field-contaminated soils was much lower than that from laboratory-spiked aged soils. For Mehlich 3 and DTPA tests, Cu and Zn in field-contaminated soils were less extractable by a factor of about 2 compared with the spiked soils. For less aggressive tests, the difference in extractability was even greater.
This study suggests that soil extraction methods removing smaller pools of Cu and Zn are more responsive to soil properties affecting chemical lability of the metals. Therefore, chemically nonaggressive neutral salts may be the most appropriate extractants where phytotoxicity is the concern in metal-contaminated soils.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the utilization of dilute CaCl2 extraction and free metal ion activity was tested for its ability to predict urease activity in soils that was measured by a simple and rapid urease assay. Two soil series (an Arkport sandy loam and a Hudson silty clay loam) were spiked with Cu and Zn, both singly and in combination, and then field aged for over a year prior to use. For both the metal-spiked Arkport and Hudson soils, much of the inhibition in measured urease activity was explained by increased CaCl2-extractable Cu, with a lesser effect from increased Zn extractability. A positive but weak interaction between Cu and Zn suggested by regression analysis indicates the toxicity of Cu-Zn mixtures to soil urease is slightly less than additive (antagonistic). Copper extractability using CaCl2 was able to predict urease activity in only one of the tested soils. By contrast, measurements of Cu2+ activity were predictive of reduced urease activity in both soils (R2adj = 0.726, p < 0.0001), indicating that Cu2+ activity is a more useful predictor of urease inhibition in soils than CaCl2-extractable Cu. The present study also highlighted the importance that clay mineral content had on controlling the availability of added metals in soils over time since a greater aging effect on Cu toxicity was found for the fine-textured Hudson than the coarse-textured Arkport soil.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A long-term greenhouse column experiment using two soils of different textures amended with dewatered, composted and alkaline-stabilized
sludges (biosolids) tested the effect of aging on trace metal solubility, mobility and crop uptake over 15 cropping cycles.
Specifically, soil chemical properties and extractability of Cu, Zn and Mo were measured after each cropping cycle, and soybeans
(Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown as the final crop were analyzed for those metal concentrations in the seeds. Significant Cu loss from the
surface soil through leaching, and increased Zn extractability resulting from soil acidification were evident in the early
cropping cycles shortly after sludge application, with the degree of Cu mobilization and soil acidification strongly dependent
on the type of soil and sludge. Liming to counter acidification in later cycles enhanced Mo extractability and bioavailability
substantially, with some sludge treatments producing soybean seeds with Mo concentrations up to 5 times greater than the control.
Aging effects were difficult to discern for trace metals in this long-term study, since soil pH changes caused by sludge and
liming amendments dominated metal solubility and crop uptake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequential extraction procedures are widely used to estimate the quantity of trace metals bound to different solid fractions in contaminated soils. However, reliability of speciation of trace metals by these procedures remains largely unexamined. In the present study, the selectivity of each extraction step was tested by observing the effect of reversing the extraction order in the procedure. Two different sequential extraction methods and their reversed modes were used for metal fractionation in sewage sludge-amended soils. Significantly increased amounts of extractable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were evident in the sludge-amended soils compared to control soil by all extraction schemes; however, the amounts of metals extracted by each step were strongly dependent on the order of extraction, the type of reagents and the nature of the individual metals. Caution is advised in deducing the forms of soil metals from sequential extraction results from metal-contaminated soils.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Environmental Pollution