[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Serum uric acid (SUA) levels are associated with poorer outcomes in healthy cohorts and patients with stable and unstable coronary heart disease. We investigated the relationship between SUA and clinical outcomes in subjects with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by reduced left ventricular (LV) function, heart failure (HF), or both.
Methods and results:
Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed to study the association of baseline SUA and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and HF hospitalization in an individual patient meta-analysis of four merged large randomized trials (CAPRICORN, EPHESUS, OPTIMAAL, and VALIANT). Three trials (excluding VALIANT) reported SUA, which was available in a total of 12 677 subjects. The ranges of SUA for quartiles I-IV were 45-280, 281-344, 345-420, and 420-1640 mmol/L, respectively. While almost 90% of patients in the lowest SUA quartile were alive after a mean follow-up of 23 ± 11 months, <70% were alive in the highest SUA quartile. Compared with the lowest SUA quartile as reference, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of SUA quartiles III and IV showed an increase in all-cause mortality [HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.95-1.46, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.67) and CV mortality (HR 1.27, 95% 1.01-1.61, and HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.83). SUA quartiles III and IV also exhibited increased HF hospitalization (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09-1.36, and HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.43; P < 0.001 for all comparisons) in multivariable analyses. The addition of SUA was associated with a significant improvement in reclassification to predict CV mortality (net reclassification improvement 17.6%, 95% CI 14.9-20.5%, P < 0.001).
Elevated SUA is associated with poor outcomes in patients after MI complicated by reduced LV function, HF, or both. The quantification of SUA, a low-cost routinely available biomarker, could improve risk stratification of patients with complicated MI.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH:
To study the influence of age on the clinical presentation and long-term outcome of patients referred for atrial flutter (AFL) ablation. Age-related differences have been reported regarding the prognosis of arrhythmias.
A total of 1187 patients with a mean age 65±12 years consecutively referred for AFL ablation were retrospectively analyzed in the study.
445 (37.5%) patients were aged ≥70 (range 70 to 93) among which 345 were aged 70 to 79 years (29.1%) and 100 were aged ≥80 (8.4%). In multivariable analysis, AFL-related rhythmic cardiomyopathy and presentation with 1/1 AFL were less frequent (respectively adjusted OR = 0.44, 0.27-0.74, p = 0.002 and adjusted OR = 0.29, 0.16-0.52, p<0.0001). AFL ablation-related major complications were more frequent in patients ≥70 although remained lower than 10% (7.4% in ≥70 vs. 4.2% in <70, adjusted OR = 1.74, 1.04-2.89, p = 0.03). After 2.1±2.7 years, AFL recurrence was less frequent in patients ≥70 (adjusted OR = 0.54, 0.37-0.80, p = 0.002) whereas atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence was as frequent in the 70-79 and ≥80 age subsets. As expected, cardiac mortality was higher in older patients. Patients aged ≥80 also had a low probability of AFL recurrence (5.0%) and AF onset (19.0%).
Older patients represent 37.5% of patients referred for AFL ablation and displayed a <10% risk of ablation-related complications. Importantly, AFL recurrences were less frequent in patients ≥70 while AF occurrence was as frequent as in patients <70. Similar observations were made in patients ≥80 years. AFL ablation appears to be safe and efficient and should not be ruled out in elderly patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is limited evidence regarding intra-observer and inter-observer variations in echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function. This study aimed to assess this reproducibly within a population-based cohort study.
Sixty subjects in sinus rhythm were randomly selected among 4th visit participants of the STANISLAS Cohort (Lorraine region, France). This 4th examination systematically included M-mode, 2-dimensional, DTI and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiograms. Reproducibility of variables was studied by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland Altman plots.
Our population was on average middle-aged (50 ± 14y), overweight (BMI = 26 ± 6kg/m2) and non-smoking (87%) with a quarter of the participants having self-declared hypertension or treated with anti-hypertensive medication(s). Intra-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) which was 0.89 (0.81-0.93). The mean relative intra-observer differences were small and limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow for all considered parameters (<5% and <15% respectively). Inter-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for LVEF (ICC = 0.87) and both mitral and pulmonary A wave duration (0.83 and 0.73 respectively). The mean relative inter-observer differences were <5% for all parameters except for pulmonary A wave duration (mean difference = 6.5%). Limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow (<15%), except for mitral A wave duration and velocity (both <20%) as well as left ventricular mass and pulmonary A wave duration (both <30%). Intra-observer agreements with regard to the presence and severity of diastolic dysfunction were excellent (Kappa = 0.93 (0.83-1.00) and 0.88 (0.75-0.99), respectively).
In this validation study within the STANISLAS cohort, diastolic function echocardiographic parameters were found to be highly reproducible. Diastolic dysfunction consequently appears as a highly effective clinical and research tool.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a particular form of atherothrombotic disease characterized by the dilation of the aortic wall and the presence of an intraluminal thrombus (ILT). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pro-oxidant properties of the ILT and to characterize the anti-oxidant capacity of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).Methods and ResultsOur results show that both ILT, adventitia and plasma from AAA patients contained high concentrations of lipid and protein oxidation products. Mediators produced within or released by the thrombus and the adventitia were shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) and to trigger the onset of apoptosis (an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential). Iron chelation Hemoglobin depletion limited these effects. Both concentration and functionality of HDLs were altered in AAA patients. Plasma levels of Apo A-I were lower and small HDL subclasses were decreased in AAA patients. Circulating HDLs in AAA patients displayed an impaired capacity to inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation and AoSMC ROS production. Western blot analyses of HDLs demonstrated that myeloperoxidase is associated with HDL particles in AAA patients.
The ILT and adventitia are is a source of pro-oxidant products, in particular hemoglobin, which may impact on the wall stability/rupture in AAA. In addition, HDLs from AAA patients exhibit an impaired anti-oxidant activity. In this context, restoring HDL functionality may represent a new therapeutic option in AAA.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cardiovascular Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsSeveral clinical trials have shown that in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), statin therapy improves cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, but in these trials patients with acute heart failure (HF) were excluded or only a few were included. In patients with chronic HF, statin therapy does not reduce all-cause or CV mortality. We aimed to assess the association between statin therapy and clinical outcomes in the setting of acute HF with systolic dysfunction complicating acute MI.Methods and resultsWe performed a post-hoc analysis in 6632 patients included in the EPHESUS trial. The mean age of patients was 64 years and 71% were male. Overall, 47% of patients had a statin prescribed at baseline. Cox regression models and a secondary analysis using propensity score matching were fit to assess the association between statin prescription and clinical outcomes. During a mean follow-up of 16 ± 7 months, all-cause death occurred in 385 (12%) patients with and in 647 (18%) patients without a statin (P < 0.001). After extensive adjustment, the risk of all-cause death was 20% lower in patients on statin [hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-0.92, P = 0.001]. This positive association was mostly due to a lower risk of CV death (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.88, P = 0.0002). In contrast, statin use was associated with a higher risk of non-CV hospitalizations (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.33, P = 0.02).Conclusion
Our results suggest that patients with acute HF complicating acute MI may benefit from being on statin therapy. Prospective clinical trials are required to validate these findings.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · European Journal of Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia predicts death in cardiovascular disease, but intensive glucose-lowering strategies increase mortality rates in diabetes. The present analysis investigated the prognostic value of postadmission blood glucose (BG) concentration on clinical outcomes in high-risk patients with heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.
A total of 6,496 patients from the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) were categorized into 4 groups by plasma glucose concentration: ≤4.5 mmol/L (hypoglycemia), 4.5-5.5 mmol/L (normoglycemia), 5.5-8.3 mmol/L (elevated glucose level), and >8.3 mmol/L (severe hyperglycemia). We evaluated the time to all-cause death (primary end point) and time to cardiovascular death or hospitalization (secondary end point). Hypo- and severe hyperglycemia were prevalent in 509 (8%) and 1,588 (24%) patients, respectively. There was a U-shaped relationship between BG level and incidence of all-cause death (11.8% in patients with normoglycemia vs 15.1% and 19.9% in those with hypo- and severe hyperglycemia; P < .001). The incidence of the secondary end point was increased only in hyperglycemic patients (36% vs 23% in normoglycemic patients; P < .001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, hypoglycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.81; P = .002) and severe hyperglycemia (HR 1.52, CI 1.27-1.83; P < .0001) proved to be strong predictors of all-cause death. There was no significant interaction between eplerenone treatment and blood glucose levels regarding clinical outcomes.
In heart failure after acute myocardial infarction, both hypo- and hyperglycemia at the postacute phase identify patients with increased risk of death during long-term follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of cardiac failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone on renal function and the interaction between changes in renal function and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction in the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS).
Serial changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were available in 5792 patients during a 24-month follow-up. Patients assigned to eplerenone had a decline in eGFR with an adjusted mean difference of -1.4±0.3 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) compared with placebo (P<0.0001), an effect that appeared within the first month (-1.3±0.4 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2)) and persisted throughout the study. Overall, 914 patients experienced a decline in eGFR >20% in the first month, 16.9% and 14.7% in the eplerenone and placebo groups, respectively (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.30; P=0.017). In multivariate analyses, determinants of this early decline in eGFR were female sex, age ≥65 years, smoking, left ventricular ejection fraction <35%, and use of eplerenone and loop diuretic. An early decline in eGFR by >20% was associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes independently of baseline eGFR and of the use of eplerenone, which retained its prognostic benefits even under these circumstances.
In patients with heart failure after acute myocardial infarction and receiving standard medical care, an early decline in eGFR is not uncommon and is associated with poor long-term outcome. Eplerenone induced a moderately more frequent early decline in eGFR, which did not affect its clinical benefit on cardiovascular outcomes.