[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reversible posttranslational modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial proteins and metabolism. Here, we use a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the lysine succinylome in liver mitochondria and its regulation by the desuccinylase SIRT5. A total of 1,190 unique sites were identified as succinylated, and 386 sites across 140 proteins representing several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and ketogenesis were significantly hypersuccinylated in Sirt5(-/-) animals. Loss of SIRT5 leads to accumulation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate production in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, mutation of hypersuccinylated residues K83 and K310 on HMGCS2 to glutamic acid strongly inhibits enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings establish SIRT5 as a global regulator of lysine succinylation in mitochondria and present a mechanism for inhibition of ketogenesis through HMGCS2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress in neurodegenerative disease research is hampered by the lack of biomarkers of neuronal dysfunction. We here identified a class of cerebrospinal fluid-based (CSF-based) kinetic biomarkers that reflect altered neuronal transport of protein cargo, a common feature of neurodegeneration. After a pulse administration of heavy water (2H2O), distinct, newly synthesized 2H-labeled neuronal proteins were transported to nerve terminals and secreted, and then appeared in CSF. In 3 mouse models of neurodegeneration, distinct 2H-cargo proteins displayed delayed appearance and disappearance kinetics in the CSF, suggestive of aberrant transport kinetics. Microtubule-modulating pharmacotherapy normalized CSF-based kinetics of affected 2H-cargo proteins and ameliorated neurodegenerative symptoms in mice. After 2H2O labeling, similar neuronal transport deficits were observed in CSF of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with non-PD control subjects, which indicates that these biomarkers are translatable and relevant to human disease. Measurement of transport kinetics may provide a sensitive method to monitor progression of neurodegeneration and treatment effects.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this completed multicentre randomised, parallel, double-blind placebo-controlled study was to elucidate the mechanisms of glucose-lowering with colesevelam and secondarily to investigate its effects on lipid metabolism (hepatic de novo lipogenesis, cholesterol and bile acid synthesis).
Participants with type 2 diabetes (HbA(1c) 6.7-10.0% [50-86 mmol/mol], fasting glucose <16.7 mmol/l, fasting triacylglycerols <3.9 mmol/l and LDL-cholesterol >1.55 mmol/l) treated with diet and exercise, sulfonylurea, metformin or a combination thereof, were randomised by a central coordinator to either 3.75 g/day colesevelam (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks at three clinical sites in the USA. The primary measure was the change from baseline in glucose kinetics with colesevelam compared to placebo treatment. Fasting and postprandial glucose, lipid and bile acid pathways were measured at baseline and post-treatment using stable isotope techniques. Plasma glucose, insulin, total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) concentrations were measured during the fasting state and following a meal tolerance test. Data was collected by people blinded to treatment.
Compared with placebo, colesevelam improved HbA(1c) (mean change from baseline of 0.3 [SD 1.1]% for placebo [n = 28] and -0.3 [1.1]% for colesevelam [n = 26]), glucose concentrations, fasting plasma glucose clearance and glycolytic disposal of oral glucose. Colesevelam did not affect gluconeogenesis or appearance rate (absorption) of oral glucose. Fasting endogenous glucose production and glycogenolysis significantly increased with placebo but were unchanged with colesevelam (treatment effect did not reach statistical significance). Compared with placebo, colesevelam increased total GLP-1 and GIP concentrations and improved HOMA-beta cell function while insulin, glucagon and HOMA-insulin resistance were unchanged. Colesevelam increased cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and decreased FGF-19 concentrations. However, no effect was seen on fractional hepatic de novo lipogenesis.
Colesevelam, a non-absorbed bile acid sequestrant, increased circulating incretins and improved tissue glucose metabolism in both the fasting and postprandial states in a manner different from other approved oral agents.
The study was funded by Daiichi Sankyo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with pioglitazone results in a more favorable lipid profile, and perhaps more favorable cardiac outcomes, than treatment with rosiglitazone. Pioglitazone treatment increases VLDL-triacylglycerol clearance, but the role of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) has not been explored, and no direct comparison has been made between the thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Twelve subjects with T2DM and hypertriacylglyceridemia were randomized to either rosiglitazone or pioglitazone treatment. Stable isotope infusion studies were performed at baseline and after 20 weeks of treatment. Both treatments reduced glucose and HbA(1c) concentrations equally. Pioglitazone treatment resulted in a 40% reduction in hepatic DNL (P < 0.01) and in a 25% reduction in hepatic glucose production (P < 0.05), while rosiglitazone did not significantly change either parameter, although comparisons of changes between treatments were not significantly different. These pilot results indicate that pioglitazone reduces hepatic DNL while rosiglitazone does not. Larger follow-up studies are required to confirm differential effects of these agents definitively. The reduction in DNL may underlie altered assembly or atherogenicity of lipoprotein particles and may reflect PPARalpha or other non-PPARgamma actions on the liver by pioglitazone. These differences might help explain previously reported differences in lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease outcomes for rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.
Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare an in vivo test of whole-body glycolysis, the deuterated-glucose disposal test (2H-GDT), with insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp and the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) test.
The 2H-GDT consists of an oral glucose challenge containing deuterated glucose, followed by measurement of heavy water (2H2O) production, which represents whole-body glycolytic disposal of the glucose load. 2H2O production is corrected for ambient insulin concentration as an index of tissue insulin sensitivity. The 2H-GDT was compared with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps in healthy lean subjects (n = 8) and subjects with the metabolic syndrome (n = 9) and with the SSPG test in overweight (n = 12) and obese (n = 6) subjects.
A strong correlation with the clamp was observed for the 75-g and 30-g 2H-GDT (r = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.88, P < 0.0001, respectively). The 2H-GDT and clamp studies revealed marked insulin resistance in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared with lean control subjects. The correlation with the clamp was maintained in each group (lean, r = 0.86, P < 0.01; metabolic syndrome, r = 0.81, P < 0.01) for the 75-g test. The 2H-GDT also correlated strongly with the SSPG test (r = -0.87, P < 0.0001) in overweight and obese subjects.
The 2H-GDT, which measures whole-body glycolysis in humans in a quantitative manner, correlates highly with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp and the SSPG test. Impaired insulin-mediated whole-body glycolysis is a feature of insulin resistance, which provides a means of assessing insulin sensitivity in vivo.