[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is still a major public health problem in the world and sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most affected areas. Efforts to control malaria are highly affected by drug resistance to commonly used antimalarials. The introduction of artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) as a first line drug seems to be a major step in treatment of uncomplicated malaria, though search for drugs to combine with artemisinins still continues. There have been reports on increased prevalence of the wild type markers Pfcrt 76K and Pfmdr1 86N in some African countries and ideas of using chloroquine (CQ) in intermittent presumptive treatment for adults (IPTa) is coming up. The common combination of artemether and lumefantrine even selects for parasites that are wild type at these positions. This study is comparing prevalence of mutation at these two positions in two East African countries with ACT as their first line drug but following somewhat different drug policies regarding CQ. In Tanzania CQ was stopped in 2001 but in Uganda CQ was retained in combination with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and used in home based management of fever for some time. SP is still used in IPT for pregnant women.