[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of gastric acid suppression medications, including proton pump inhibitors and histamine type 2 blockers, with outcomes in patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a population-based cohort.
To understand the association between acid suppression and outcomes in patients with CDI, we conducted a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2005. We compared demographic data and outcomes, including severe, severe-complicated, and recurrent CDI and treatment failure, in a cohort of patients with CDI who were treated with acid suppression medications with these outcomes in a cohort with CDI that was not exposed to acid-suppressing agents.
Of 385 patients with CDI, 36.4% were undergoing acid suppression (23.4% with proton pump inhibitors, 13.5% with histamine type 2 blockers, and 0.5% with both). On univariate analysis, patients taking acid suppression medications were significantly older (69 vs 56 years; P<.001) and more likely to have severe (34.2% vs 23.6%; P=.03) or severe-complicated (4.4% vs 2.6% CDI; P=.006) infection than patients not undergoing acid suppression. On multivariable analyses, after adjustment for age and comorbid conditions, acid suppression medication use was not associated with severe or severe-complicated CDI. In addition, no association between acid suppression and treatment failure or CDI recurrence was found.
In this population-based study, after adjustment for age and comorbid conditions, patients with CDI who underwent acid suppression were not more likely to experience severe or severe-complicated CDI, treatment failure, or recurrent infection.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Mayo Clinic Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is an increasingly appreciated condition. It is being described in populations lacking traditional predisposing factors that have been previously considered at low-risk for this infection. As most studies of CDI are hospital-based, outcomes in these patients are not well known.
To examine outcomes and their predictors in patients with CA-CDI.
A sub-group analysis of a population-based epidemiological study of CDI in Olmsted county, Minnesota from 1991-2005 was performed. Data regarding outcomes, including severity, treatment response, need for hospitalisation and recurrence were analysed.
Of 157 CA-CDI cases, the median age was 50 years and 75.3% were female. Among all CA-CDI cases, 40% required hospitalisation, 20% had severe and 4.4% had severe-complicated infection, 20% had treatment failure and 28% had recurrent CDI. Patients who required hospitalisation were significantly older (64 years vs. 44 years, P < 0.001), more likely to have severe disease (33.3% vs. 11.7%, P = 0.001), and had higher mean Charlson comorbidity index scores (2.06 vs. 0.84, P = 0.001). They had similar treatment failure and recurrence rates as patients who did not require hospitalisation.
Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection can be associated with complications and poor outcomes, including hospitalisation and severe Clostridium difficile infection. As the incidence of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection increases, clinicians should be aware of risk factors (increasing age, comorbid conditions and disease severity) that predict the need for hospitalisation and complications in patients with community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The American Journal of Gastroenterology is published by Nature Publishing Group (NPG) on behalf of the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Ranked the #1 clinical journal covering gastroenterology and hepatology*, The American Journal of Gastroenterology (AJG) provides practical and professional support for clinicians dealing with the gastroenterological disorders seen most often in patients. Published with practicing clinicians in mind, the journal aims to be easily accessible, organizing its content by topic, both online and in print. www.amjgastro.com, *2007 Journal Citation Report (Thomson Reuters, 2008)
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common hospital-acquired infection with increasing incidence, severity, recurrence, and associated morbidity and mortality. There are emerging data on the occurrence of CDI in nonhospitalized patients. However, there is a relative lack of community-based CDI studies, as most of the existing studies are hospital based, potentially influencing the results by referral or hospitalization bias by missing cases of community-acquired CDI.
To better understand the epidemiology of community-acquired C. difficile infection, a population-based study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Data regarding severity, treatment response, and outcomes were compared in community-acquired vs. hospital-acquired cohorts, and changes in these parameters, as well as in incidence, were assessed over the study period.
Community-acquired CDI cases accounted for 41% of 385 definite CDI cases. The incidence of both community-acquired and hospital-acquired CDI increased significantly over the study period. Compared with those with hospital-acquired infection, patients with community-acquired infection were younger (median age 50 years compared with 72 years), more likely to be female (76% vs. 60%), had lower comorbidity scores, and were less likely to have severe infection (20% vs. 31%) or have been exposed to antibiotics (78% vs. 94%). There were no differences in the rates of complicated or recurrent infection in patients with community-acquired compared with hospital-acquired infection.
In this population-based cohort, a significant proportion of cases of CDI occurred in the community. These patients were younger and had less severe infection than those with hospital-acquired infection. Thus, reports of CDI in hospitalized patients likely underestimate the burden of disease and overestimate severity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology