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ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung biopsy is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency and complication rate of CT-guided lung biopsy in a Chinese population. CT-guided cutting needle lung biopsies were performed in our institution on 1014 patients between January 2000 and October 2010. A chest radiograph was taken after the biopsy. Data about basic patient information, final diagnosis, and complications secondary to biopsy procedure (pneumothorax and bleeding) were extracted. The diagnostic efficiency of CT-guided lung biopsy was 94.8%; only 53 patients did not get a final diagnosis from lung biopsy. Final diagnoses found 639 malignant lesions (63.0%) and 322 benign lesions (31.8%). Pneumothorax occurred in 131 patients and 15 required insertion of an intercostal drain. Small hemoptysis occurred in 41 patients and mild parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 16 patients. The overall complication rate was 18.5%. CT-guided cutting needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions is a relatively safe technique with a high diagnostic accuracy. It can be safely performed in clinical trials.