J G Scharf

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (23)

  • R Pannem · A Hoeflich · E Wolf · JG Scharf
    Article · Sep 2009 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • J. G. Scharf
    Article · Jan 2008 · Der Gastroenterologe
  • J. G. Scharf
    Article · Jan 2008 · Der Gastroenterologe
  • E. Deininger · C. Schindler · B. Güldenzoph · [...] · J.-G. Scharf
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eine 22-jährige Patientin stellte sich mit Fieber, Nachtschweiß, Gewichtsverlust und Hepatomegalie in Verbindung mit erhöhten Entzündungsparametern und Leberwerten vor. Bildgebend fanden sich eine scharf abgrenzbare Raumforderung zwischen Vena cava inferior und der Psoasmuskulatur sowie vergrößerte zöliakale, retroperitoneale und retrocavale Lymphknoten. Die Biopsie der retrocavalen Raumforderung führte zu der Diagnose einer Retroperitonealfibrose. Unter einer Therapie mit Kortikosteroiden war die klinische Symptomatik in wenigen Tagen deutlich rückläufig, was sich im Intervall auch in der Bildgebung bestätigte. A 22year old female patient presented with fever, night sweats, weight loss and hepatomegaly associated with elevated inflammatory parameters and liver enzymes. Computer tomography revealed a mass located between the inferior vena cava and the psoas muscle as well as enlarged celiac, retroperitoneal and retrocaval lymph nodes. Biopsies of the retrocaval mass led to the diagnosis of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Within a few days of treatment with corticosteroids clinical presentation improved and imaging studies detected complete regression of the retrocaval mass after 6months.
    Article · Aug 2007 · Der Internist
  • R Pannem · A Hoeflich · E Wolf · [...] · JG Scharf
    Article · Jan 2007 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
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    T Schlott · J G Scharf · C Gorzel · [...] · H Spring
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is promoted by changes in the regulatory MDM2-P14ARF system. The incidence of such changes has to date not been analysed in non-tumourous livers showing regenerative proliferation. In the present study, 24 cirrhotic livers of alcohol-, autoimmue disorder- or HCV-caused genesis were screened for MDM2-P14ARF alterations at the level of protein, DNA and mRNA. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, the absence of MDM2 and P14ARF expression was detected in all samples except three HCV-infected livers (four livers) which contained hepatocytes overexpressing MDM2 (P14ARF) protein. In two of the samples lacking P14ARF expression, laser microdissection and PCR demonstrated deletion of the P14ARF gene. The P14ARF gene amplified from other specimens did not carry mutations. MDM2 splicing variants were present in tissues from alcohol- and autoimmune disorder-induced cirrhoses. Sequencing of full-size mRNA revealed a MDM2 mis-sense mutation in an alcohol-induced cirrhosis. One sample contained regenerative nodules with genetic instability occurring at MDM2 locus D12S83 according to the data of automatic PCR fragment analysis. In summary, this study gives first evidence for different types of MDM2 and P14ARF alterations in cirrhotic livers. We suggest that the changes impair the regulatory MDM2-P14ARF system, thus possibly favouring regenerative proliferation and transformation. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1290–1296. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600238 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK
    Full-text Article · May 2002 · British Journal of Cancer
  • L Shalamanova · B Kübler · J G Scharf · T Braulke
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be an important mechanism to regulate IGF availability and IGF-independent functions of IGFBPs. We analyzed the secretion of IGFBP proteases in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results showed that several specific proteases were secreted, cleaving IGFBP-2 to -6 at neutral pH. The proteolytic activity against IGFBP-6 differed at least from IGFBP-5 protease activity in its sensitivity both to IGF-II and to the hydroxamic acid-based disintegrin metalloprotease inhibitor, as well as serine protease inhibitors. During partial purification steps, the serine protease inhibitor-sensitive fraction with IGFBP-6 protease activity was separated from fractions characterized by the presence of a 30-kDa disintegrin immunoreactive band. Whereas the IGFBP-4 and -6 proteases are predominantly secreted across the basolateral membrane, the majority of IGFBPs are sorted to the apical medium from filter-grown cells. These studies indicate that the side-specific secretion of several distinct IGFBP proteases with partially overlapping IGFBP specificities may be another level in the regulation of IGF-dependent epithelial functions.
    Article · Jan 2002 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
  • Adam Lelbach · J G Scharf · Giuliano Ramadori
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catabolism is associated with decreased serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 associated with elevated IGFBP-3 protease activity and increased concentrations of IGFBP-1 and -4. The effects of the acute phase mediators interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on the biosynthesis of IGF-I and IGFBPs were studied in primary rat liver cells. mRNA levels of IGF-I and of IGFBPs were analyzed by Northern blotting, secretion of IGFBPs by [(125)I]IGF-I ligand blotting. Proteolytic activity was measured using iodinated recombinant IGFBP-3 as the substrate. In hepatocytes, Kupffer cells (KC) and cocultures of hepatocytes with KC, IL-6 reduced IGF-I biosynthesis dose-dependently. IL-6 stimulated mRNA expression and protein secretion of IGFBP-1 and -4 in hepatocytes and that of IGFBP-3 in KC, respectively. In cocultures, biosynthesis of IGFBP-1, -3 and -4 was increased dose-dependently by IL-6, while the effects of IL-1beta or TNFalpha were less prominent. At neutral pH, proteolytic activity against IGFBP-3 was not detected in media of cocultures treated with IL-6. The alterations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and -4 observed in catabolism correlate with the effects of IL-6 on the biosynthesis of these components in primary rat liver cells, while a neutral IGFBP-3 protease was not detectable.
    Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Hepatology
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    J G Scharf · F Dombrowski · G Ramadori
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, including the autocrine production of IGFs, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP proteases, and the expression of the IGF receptors, has been identified in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Characteristic alterations detected in HCC and hepatoma cell lines comprise the increased expression of IGF-II and the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), which have emerged as crucial events in malignant transformation and the growth of tumours. Alterations of IGFBP production and the proteolytic degradation of IGFBPs resulting in an excess of bioactive IGFs, as well as the defective function of the IGF degrading IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II/M6PR), may further potentiate the mitogenic effects of IGFs in the development of HCC.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2001 · Molecular Pathology
  • J.-G. Scharf · F. Dombrowski · B. Saile · [...] · G. Ramadori
    Article · Dec 2000 · Journal of Hepatology
  • Article · Nov 2000 · Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preneoplastic hepatic foci have been demonstrated in liver acini, which drain the blood from intraportally transplanted pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with mild persisting diabetes. In long-term studies of this animal model, hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (HCC) developed after a sequence of characteristic preneoplastic hepatic foci. In this experimental model, the local hyperinsulinism is thought to have a causative role. Because insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis are closely linked, an altered gene expression of the IGF axis components is likely. Therefore, preneoplastic hepatic foci and HCC were studied for the expression of IGF axis components. Glycogen-storing "early" preneoplastic hepatic foci were detectable several days after pancreatic islet transplantation. Northern blot analysis, in-situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical studies of these "early" lesions demonstrated increased expressions of IGF-I and IGF binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) in altered parenchymal cells, and a decreased expression of IGFBP-1. IGF-II was not detected in these preneoplastic foci. HCC arising in this model had decreased expressions of IGF-I and IGFBP-4 but IGFBP-1 expression was not significantly altered. Some HCC showed a more than 100-fold overexpression of IGF-II, whereas other tumors were completely negative for IGF-II expression. Low IGF-I receptor expression was detected in preneoplastic foci and adjacent nonaltered liver tissue. However, HCC tissue consistently showed an increased IGF-I receptor expression, rendering these tissues susceptible to the mitogenic effects of IGF. The altered gene expression in glycogen-storing preneoplastic hepatic foci, especially the up-regulation of IGF-I and IGFBP-4 with the down-regulation of IGFBP-1, resemble the insulin-dependent regulation of these components in normal rat hepatocytes. These data agree with previous studies demonstrating a correspondence of the focal character, morphology, and enzyme pattern of preneoplastic hepatic foci with insulin effects on hepatocytes. The development from preneoplastic foci to HCC may be driven by insulin itself and/or an altered IGF axis component or yet unidentified factors.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2000 · Laboratory Investigation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs) are thought to play an essential role in liver injury associated with tissue remodeling. However, their distinct expression profile in different liver repair models still remains to be established. Hepatic expression of collagenase (MMP-13), gelatinases A and B (MMP-2, -9), stromelysin-1 and -2 (MMP-3, -10), membrane-type MMP-1 (MMP-14), and TIMP-1 and -2 was studied following single and repeated CCl4-mediated injury and after partial hepatectomy. Expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), northern blot analysis, zymography, and immunohistochemistry. Following a single toxic liver injury, MMPs and TIMPs were induced in a distinct time frame in that expression of most MMPs was induced during the early phase of liver injury, was maximal during the inflammatory reaction, and was diminished in the recovery phase. In contrast, TIMP and MMP-2 steady state mRNA levels remained constant in the early phase, were strongly induced during tissue inflammation, and remained increased until the recovery phase. Interestingly, hepatic TNF-alpha expression paralleled the MMP induction profile, while the increase of TGF-beta1 expression mapped to the increase of TIMPs. Chronic liver injury was accompanied by an increase in the steady state mRNA levels of MMP-2 and TIMPs, while other MMPs remained more or less unchanged or were diminished. Partial hepatectomy was followed by a dramatic increase of MMP-14 and to a lesser extent also of TIMP-1 expression; other MMPs and TIMPs were not significantly induced. Liver injury is accompanied by profound changes in hepatic MMP/TIMP expression, the latter being critically dependent on the type of injury. Single toxic injury resulting in complete restoration was characterized by a sequential induction of MMPs and TIMPs suggesting initial matrix breakdown and matrix restoration thereafter. Chronic liver injury leading to fibrosis displays overall diminished matrix degradation mainly through TIMP induction, while liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy caused an induction of MMP-14 and TIMP-1 only, which might be unrelated to matrix turnover but connected to pericellular fibrinolysis or fibrolysis required for hepatocellular replication.
    Article · Jul 2000 · Histochemie
  • J G Scharf · G Schneider
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultrastructure of primary cultured rat Kupffer cells was studied using transmission X-ray microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. X-ray microscopical images of intact, hydrated Kupffer cells demonstrated structures such as cell nucleus separated by a nuclear membrane and filaments concentrated in the perinuclear area. Within the cytoplasm, a number of vacuoles were visible; some of these were crescent-shaped vacuoles that were half X-ray lucent, half X-ray dense; others were uniformly dense. The number of crescent-shaped vacuoles was predominant. After phagocytosis of haematite particles, enlarged vacuoles containing the ingested material were visible within the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells while crescent-shaped vacuoles were no longer detectable. Densitometric analysis of the two types of vacuole revealed that the X-ray absorption of the uniform vacuole was approximately half that of the dense part of the crescent-shaped vacuoles. This observation led to speculation on the existence of only one type of vacuole in the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells. The different morphological aspects--crescent-shaped versus uniform vacuoles--might be due to different three-dimensional orientation with respect to the image plane. Using transmission electron microscopy, the morphology of vacuoles differed more widely in diameter, density and shape. Two main types of vacuole were identified: electron-lucent and electron-dense. Based on the observation of only one type of vacuole by transmission X-ray microscopy, the different morphological aspects of vacuoles obtained by transmission electron microscopy could be explained by imaging several different sections of a crescent-shaped vacuole. From the present data it can be concluded that transmission X-ray microscopy is a versatile technique that reveals the ultrastructure of intact, unsectioned biological specimens in their aqueous environment, thereby allowing a more comprehensive interpretation of data obtained by transmission electron microscopy.
    Article · Apr 1999 · Journal of Microscopy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new object stage with extremely low thermal drift at -170 °C was developed for the cryo transmission X-ray microscope (cryo-TXM) at the electron storage ring BESSYI (Berlin). The new set-up enables high resolution studies of frozen-hydrated cells and was applied in investigations of cryogenic Kupffer cells from a rat liver. The ultrastructure and numerous X-ray dense vacuoles are resolved allowing a more comprehensive interpretation of data obtained by TEM studies. Furthermore, the cryo-TXM has been recently used for non-destructive computed tomography of intact frozen-hydrated objects. The resolution obtainable in TXM micrographs is limited significantly by the photon density applied to illuminate an object. The contrast transfer of the TXM was evaluated including the real X-ray optical elements with the help of a so-called multiple plane-wave model which is based on Fourier optics. It allowed to optimize the X-ray optical set-up for best contrast transfer and to minimize the photon density required to detect ice-embedded protein structures. However, the results show that details in biological objects smaller than 30 nm in size, e.g. single chromatin fibers in cell nuclei, can only be visualized if a drastically increased photon flux of the X-ray source is available from undulator insertion devices of electron storage rings. Furthermore, for this purpose new condenser concepts like a rotating condenser and highly efficient X-ray objectives with smallest zone structures of 20 nm have to be employed. This progress in the instrumentation will enable new applications ultimately resulting in artifact-free high-resolution images of radiation sensitive biological samples. .
    Article · Jan 1999
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    J G Scharf · W Schmidt-Sandte · S A Pahernik · [...] · H Hartmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) are structurally related peptides participating in the regulation of metabolism, growth and cellular differentiation. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line PLC was studied for the expression of individual components of the IGF axis. Northern blot analysis using IGF-I and -II coding cDNAs failed to detect IGF-I- or -II-specific transcripts in total RNA from PLC cells. Biosynthesis of type I and II IGF receptors was demonstrated by northern blotting and binding studies as well as cross-linking of the respective radiolabeled ligand. Both IGF-I and -II stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation dose-dependently. The mitogenic activity of exogenously added IGFs was reduced by the presence of IGF-binding proteins of 24, 30, 34, 41 and 45 kDa in supernatants of PLC cells identified as IGFBP-4, -1, -2 and -3, respectively, by [125I]IGF-I ligand-, immuno- and northern blotting. Biosynthesis of IGFBP-3 was stimulated dose-dependently by IGF-I and -II, while IGFBP-1, -2 and -4 were not affected. The increase of IGFBP-3 in response to IGF-I and -II was due to a stimulation of IGFBP-3 specific mRNA as well as to an inhibition of IGFBP-3 endocytosis. Proteolytic activity for rhIGFBP-3 was detected in media from PLC cells at acidic pH that was inhibited by the aspartyl protease inhibitor pepstatin A as well as after immunodepletion of cathepsin D from media of PLC cells. Thus, a role of cathepsin D for the regulation of IGFBP-3 bioavailability via endocytosis in acidic prelysosomal compartments was suggested. The susceptibility of PLC for IGF-I and -II was restricted by their ability to increase the abundance of inhibitory IGFBPs and to decrease the level of IGF-I receptor expression. The present data point to the IGF axis as a complex regulatory system that self limits the mitogenic activity of exogenous IGFs.
    Full-text Article · Jan 1999 · Carcinogenesis
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    Jens‐Gerd Scharf · Thomas Knittel · Frank Dombrowski · [...] · Giuliano Ramadori
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, -II) are circulating peptides known to participate in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and cellular differentiation. In the present study, "early cultured" (days 2-3 of culture) and "culture-activated" (days 6-7 of culture) rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were analyzed for expression of individual components of the IGF axis. Northern blot analysis of IGF-I messenger RNA (mRNA) revealed transcripts of 7.5, 4, 2, and 1.0 to 1.5 kb in culture-activated HSCs, while early cultured HSCs did not express IGF-I mRNA. In culture-activated HSCs, an IGF-I secretion of 8.3+/-2.5 ng/10(6) cells per 24 hours was determined radioimmunologically. In media from early cultured HSCs, IGF-I was not detectable. The IGF-I receptor (IGF-I-R) mRNA expression was three-fold higher in early cultured HSCs than in culture-activated HSCs. By immunohistochemistry, a decrease of IGF-I-R expression of HSCs in vivo following CCl4-induced liver damage was noted as well. IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) were detected in conditioned media from HSCs by 125I-IGF-I ligand blotting at apparent molecular masses of 24 and 41 to 45 kd that were immunologically identified as IGFBP-4 and -3, respectively. Synthesis of these IGFBPs increased with time of culture. At neutral pH, no IGFBP proteolysis was observed in conditioned media of early cultured and culture-activated HSCs, whereas at acidic pH, protease activities against IGFBP-3 and -4 were detectable. IGFBP protease activities were completely abolished by inhibitors of aspartyl and cysteine proteases. Addition of 100 nmol/L IGF-I stimulated cell proliferation of early cultured HSCs 5.6+/-1.1- and 4.6+/-0.2-fold as measured by [3H]thymidine and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, respectively. In culture-activated HSCs, proliferation was increased 1.2+/-0.1-fold in the presence of 100 nmol/L IGF-I in both proliferation assays. It can be concluded that due to a higher expression of the IGF-I-R and lower levels of IGFBPs, early cultured HSCs are more susceptible to the mitogenic actions of IGFs than the culture-activated HSCs. The present data suggest a role for the IGF axis components in the initiation rather than the perpetuation of HSC proliferation during hepatic fibrogenesis.
    Full-text Article · Jun 1998 · Hepatology
  • P Putzer · P Breuer · W Götz · [...] · T Braulke
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogenic and metabolic activities of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are modulated by a family of six high affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). This study describes the expression of the mouse IGFBP-6 which is unique among IGFBPs in its preferential binding of IGF II, in insect cells using the baculovirus system. The purified, O-glycosylated IGFBP-6 was functional as shown by IGF binding and by inhibition of IGF II-stimulated DNA synthesis in human fibroblasts. Specific antibodies generated in chicken against the recombinant IGFBP-6 were used for Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Strong immunoreactivity was found in ossifying bones of the cranial base, in cell clusters of the pancreas anlage, in the trigeminal ganglion, on myoblasts, on motoneurons of the spinal cord of embryonic mice. In tissues of adult mouse, strong IGFBP-6 immunostaining was present in epidermal and peridermal layers of the skin, in meningeal layers, in long-striated skeletal muscle, and in the Langerhans' islets of the pancreas. No immunopositive staining was observed in lung and liver indicating that sites of synthesis and IGFBP action are different.
    Article · Mar 1998 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
  • I Demori · C Bottazzi · A Voci · [...] · E Fugassa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous in vivo studies demonstrated significant variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 hepatic mRNAs and/or serum levels depending on the rat thyroid status. In this study we employed cultured hepatocytes from adult rats to demonstrate a possible direct regulation of these genes by tri-iodothyronine (T3). Northern blot analysis revealed that IGFBP-1 and -4 messages were clearly expressed, whereas IGFBP-2 signal was barely detectable. No significant effects on IGFBP-1 mRNA level or on peptide secretion were detected in T3-cultured hepatocytes. In contrast, significant increases in IGFBP-4 mRNA steady-state levels as well as in IGFBP-4 secretion were observed in hepatocytes cultured for 12-24 h in the presence of T3. The T3 effect on IGFBP-4 transcript levels appears to consist of enhanced gene transcription and is independent of ongoing protein synthesis. The T3-increased IGFBP-4 expression in cultured hepatocytes is consistent with our in vivo experiments demonstrating an increase in hepatic IGFBP-4 mRNA and serum IGFBP-4 levels in T3-treated rats. Furthermore, significant decreases in hepatic IGFBP-4 message and serum IGFBP-4 levels were observed in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid controls. Our data establish an important direct role for thyroid hormone in regulating IGFBP-4 expression and consequently IGF activity.
    Article · Aug 1997 · Journal of Endocrinology
  • J G Scharf · Frank Schmitz · Jan Frystyk · [...] · Heinz Hartmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I are decreased in liver cirrhosis. However, this growth factor is bound for the most part to specific binding proteins that are known to modulate biological actions. Plasma insulin-like growth factor binding proteins are predominantly synthesized in the liver. The effect of liver disease on basal and on growth hormone-stimulated serum concentrations of total and "free" insulin-like growth factor-I and on insulin-like growth factor binding protein patterns is reported. Sera were obtained from 20 patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver diseases and from 20 patients with cirrhosis before and 24 h after a single subcutaneous dose of growth hormone. Samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassays, gel chromatography, ligand blotting and immunoblotting. In cirrhosis, serum concentrations of total and "free" insulin-like growth factor-I were decreased, the binding protein pattern was changed profoundly showing a reduction in the 150 kD complex and an increase in the 30-40 kD complexes. Concentrations of binding protein-1 and -2 were increased, while that of binding protein-3 was decreased in cirrhosis. The response to growth hormone was blunted. These changes were related to the degree of liver dysfunction as assessed by the Child-Pugh classification. A pathogenetic link of altered bio-availability of insulin-like growth factor-I to clinical characteristics of advanced liver disease, e.g. insulin resistance or skeletal muscle wasting, may be suggested by the present data.
    Article · Dec 1996 · Journal of Hepatology