Brian R Davidson

Royal Free Academy of PMC, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (220)941.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Surgical excision by removal of the head of the pancreas to decompress the obstructed ducts is one of the treatment options for people with symptomatic chronic pancreatitis. Surgical excision of the head of the pancreas can be performed by excision of the duodenum along with the head of the pancreas (pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD)) or without excision of the duodenum (duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR)). There is currently no consensus on the method of pancreatic head resection in people with chronic pancreatitis. Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreaticoduodenectomy in people with chronic pancreatitis for whom pancreatic resection is considered the main treatment option. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trials registers to June 2015 to identify randomised trials. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. Selection criteria: We considered only randomised controlled trials (RCT) performed in people with chronic pancreatitis undergoing pancreatic head resection, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, for inclusion in the review. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), rate ratio (RaR), or hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on an available-case analysis. Main results: Five trials including 292 participants met the inclusion criteria for the review. After exclusion of 23 participants mainly due to pancreatic cancer or because participants did not receive the planned treatment, a total of 269 participants (with symptomatic chronic pancreatitis involving the head of pancreas and requiring surgery) were randomly assigned to receive DPPHR (135 participants) or PD (134 participants). The trials did not report the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status of the participants. All the trials were single-centre trials and included people with and without obstructive jaundice and people with and without duodenal stenosis but did not report data separately for those with and without jaundice or those with and without duodenal stenosis. The surgical procedures compared in the five trials included DPPHR (Beger or Frey procedures, or wide local excision of the head of the pancreas) and PD (pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy or Whipple procedure). The participants were followed up for various periods of time ranging from one to 15 years. The trials were at unclear or high risk of bias. The overall quality of evidence was low or very low.The differences in short-term mortality (up to 90 days after surgery) (RR 2.89, 95% CI 0.31 to 26.87; 369 participants; 5 studies; DPPHR: 2/135 (1.5%) versus PD: 0/134 (0%); very low quality evidence) or long-term mortality (maximal follow-up) (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.34; 229 participants; 4 studies; very low quality evidence), medium-term (three months to five years) (only a narrative summary was possible; 229 participants; 4 studies; very low quality evidence), or long-term quality of life (more than five years) (MD 8.45, 95% CI -0.27 to 17.18; 101 participants; 2 studies; low quality evidence), proportion of people with adverse events (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.35; 226 participants; 4 studies; DPPHR: 23/113 (adjusted proportion 20%) versus PD: 41/113 (36.3%); very low quality evidence), number of people with adverse events (RaR 0.95, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.12; 43 participants; 1 study; DPPHR: 12/22 (54.3 events per 100 participants) versus PD: 12/21 (57.1 events per 100 participants); very low quality evidence), proportion of people employed (maximal follow-up) (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.37; 189 participants; 4 studies; DPPHR: 65/98 (adjusted proportion 69.4%) versus PD: 41/91 (45.1%); low quality evidence), incidence proportion of diabetes mellitus (maximum follow-up) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.22; 269 participants; 5 studies; DPPHR: 25/135 (adjusted proportion 18.6%) versus PD: 32/134 (23.9%); very low quality evidence), and prevalence proportion of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (maximum follow-up) (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.02; 189 participants; 4 studies; DPPHR: 62/98 (adjusted proportion 62.0%) versus PD: 68/91 (74.7%); very low quality evidence) were imprecise. The length of hospital stay appeared to be lower with DPPHR compared to PD and ranged between a reduction of one day and five days in the trials (208 participants; 4 studies; low quality evidence). None of the trials reported short-term quality of life (four weeks to three months), clinically significant pancreatic fistulas, serious adverse events, time to return to normal activity, time to return to work, and pain scores using a visual analogue scale. Authors' conclusions: Low quality evidence suggested that DPPHR may result in shorter hospital stay than PD. Based on low or very low quality evidence, there is currently no evidence of any difference in the mortality, adverse events, or quality of life between DPPHR and PD. However, the results were imprecise and further RCTs are required on this topic. Future RCTs comparing DPPHR with PD should report the severity as well as the incidence of postoperative complications and their impact on patient recovery. In such trials, participant and observer blinding should be performed and the analysis should be performed on an intention-to-treat basis to decrease the bias. In addition to the short-term benefits and harms such as mortality, surgery-related complications, quality of life, length of hospital stay, return to normal activity, and return to work, future trials should consider linkage of trial participants to health databases, social databases, and mortality registers to obtain the long-term benefits and harms of the different treatments.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: 'Fast-track surgery' or 'enhanced recovery protocol' or 'fast-track rehabilitation', incorporating one or more elements of preoperative education, pain relief, early mobilisation, enteral nutrition and growth factors, may improve health-related quality of life and reduce length of hospital stay and costs. The role of enhanced recovery protocols in major upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic surgery is unclear. Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of enhanced recovery protocols compared with standard care (or usual practice) in major upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic surgery. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Cochrane Library; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until March 2015 to identify randomised trials. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. Selection criteria: We considered only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) performed in people undergoing major upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic surgery, irrespective of language, blinding or publication status for inclusion in the review. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently identified trials and independently extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using both fixed-effect and random-effects models using Review Manager 5, based on available case analysis. Main results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria for the review, and nine studies provided information on one or more outcomes for the review. A total of 1014 participants were randomly assigned to the enhanced recovery protocol (499 participants) or standard care (515 participants) in the nine RCTs. Most of the trials included low anaesthetic risk participants with high performance status undergoing different upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic surgeries. Eight trials incorporated more than one element of the enhanced recovery protocol. All of the trials were at high risk of bias. The overall quality of evidence was low or very low.None of the trials reported long-term mortality, medium-term health-related quality of life(three months to one year), time to return to normal activity, or time to return to work. The difference between the enhanced recovery protocol and standard care were imprecise for short-term mortality (enhanced recovery protocol: 4/425 (adjusted proportion = 0.6%); standard care: 1/443 (0.2%); seven trials; 868 participants; RR 2.79; 95% CI 0.44 to 17.73; very low quality evidence), proportion of people with serious adverse events (enhanced recovery protocol: 4/157 (adjusted proportion = 0.6%); standard care: 0/184 (0.0%); two trials; 341 participants; RR 5.57; 95% CI 0.68 to 45.89; very low quality evidence), number of serious adverse events (enhanced recovery protocol: 34/421 (8 per 100 participants); standard care: 46/438 (11 per 100 participants); seven trials; 859 participants; rate ratio 0.72; 95% CI 0.45 to 1.13; very low quality evidence), health-related quality of life (four trials; 373 participants; SMD 0.29; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.62; very low quality evidence) and hospital readmissions (enhanced recovery protocol: 14/355 (adjusted proportion = 3.3%); standard care: 9/378 (2.4%); seven trials; 733 participants; RR 1.4; 95% CI 0.69 to 2.87; very low quality evidence). The enhanced recovery protocol group had a lower proportion of people with mild adverse events (enhanced recovery protocol: 31/254 (adjusted proportion = 10.9%); standard care: 51/271 (18.8%); four trials; 525 participants; RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.85; low quality evidence), fewer number of mild adverse events (enhanced recovery protocol: 69/499 (13 per 100 participants); standard care: 128/515 (25 per 100 participants); nine trials; 1014 participants; rate ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70; low quality evidence), shorter length of hospital stay (nine trials; 1014 participants; MD -2.19 days; 95% CI -2.53 to -1.85; low quality evidence) and lower costs (four trials; 282 participants; MD USD -6300; 95% CI -8400 to -4200; low quality evidence) than standard care group. Authors' conclusions: Based on low quality evidence, enhanced recovery protocols may reduce length of hospital stay and costs (primarily because of reduction in hospital stay) in people undergoing major upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic surgeries. However, the validity of the results is uncertain because of the risk of bias in the trials and the way the outcomes were measured. Future RCTs should be conducted with low risk of bias, and measure clinically important outcomes for including the three months to one year period.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms in people with chronic pancreatitis. The role of pregabalin in people with chronic pancreatic pain due to chronic pancreatitis is uncertain. Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of pregabalin in people with chronic abdominal pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2015, issue 6, and MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, trials registers until June 2015. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. Selection criteria: We considered only randomised controlled trials (RCT) performed in people with chronic pancreatic pain due to chronic pancreatitis, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently identified trials and independently extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with RevMan 5, based on intention-to-treat analysis. Main results: Only one study, funded by Pfizer, met the inclusion criteria for the review. A total of 64 participants (with chronic pain due to chronic pancreatitis) were randomly assigned to receive escalating doses of pregabalin (150 mg per day to 600 mg per day; 34 participants) or matching placebo (30 participants). Participants received pregabalin or placebo for three weeks on an outpatient basis; the outcomes were measured at the end of the treatment (i.e. three weeks from commencement of treatment). Potential participants taking concomitant analgesic medication and expected to stay on a stable regime during the trial were allowed to enter the study. This trial was at low risk of bias. The overall quality of evidence was low or moderate.Only the short-term outcomes were available in this trial. The medium and long-term outcomes, number of work days lost, and length of hospital stay due to admissions for pain control were not available. This trial found that the changes in opiate use (MD -26.00 mg; 95% CI -47.36 to -4.64; participants = 64; moderate-quality evidence), and pain score percentage changes from baseline (MD -12.00; 95% CI -21.82 to -2.18; participants = 64; moderate-quality evidence) were better in participants taking pregabalin compared to those taking placebo. This trial also found that there were more adverse events in participants taking pregabalin compared to those taking placebo (RR 1.71; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.43; participants = 64). The differences between pregabalin and placebo were imprecise for short-term health-related quality of life measured with the EORTC CLQ-30 questionnaire (MD 11.40; 95% CI -3.28 to 26.08; participants = 64; moderate-quality evidence), proportion of people with serious adverse events (RR 1.76; 95% CI 0.35 to 8.96; participants = 64; low-quality evidence), and proportion of people requiring hospital admissions (RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.04 to 4.62; participants = 64; low quality evidence). Authors' conclusions: Based on low- to moderate-quality evidence, short-term use of pregabalin decreases short-term opiate use, and short-term pain scores, but increases the adverse events compared to placebo, in people with chronic pain due to chronic pancreatitis. The clinical implication of the decreases in short-term opiate use and short-term pain scores is not known.Future trials assessing the role of pregabalin in decreasing chronic pain in chronic pancreatitis should assess the medium- or long-term effects of pregabalin and should include outcomes such as, quality of life, treatment-related adverse events, number of work days lost, number of hospital admissions, and the length of hospital stay, in addition to pain scores, to assess the clinical and socioeconomic impact.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Laparoscopic liver ablation therapy can be used for the treatment of primary and secondary liver malignancy. The increased incidence of cancer recurrence associated with this approach, has been attributed to the inability of monitoring the extent of ablated liver tissue. Methods: The feasibility of assessing liver ablation with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) was studied in a porcine model of laparoscopic microwave liver ablation. Following the intravenous injection of the fluorophores fluorescein and indocyanine green, CLE images were recorded at 488 nm and 660 nm wavelength and compared to liver histology. Statistical analysis was performed to assess if fluorescence intensity change can predict the presence of ablated liver tissue. Results: CLE imaging of fluorescein at 488 nm provided good visualization of the hepatic microvasculature; whereas, CLE imaging of indocyanine green at 660 nm enabled detailed visualization of hepatic sinusoid architecture and interlobular septations. Fluorescence intensity as measured in relative fluorescence units was found to be 75-100% lower in ablated compared to healthy liver regions. General linear mixed modeling and ROC analysis found the decrease in fluorescence to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Laparoscopic, dual wavelength CLE imaging using two different fluorophores enables clinically useful visualization of multiple liver tissue compartments, in greater detail than is possible at a single wavelength. CLE imaging may provide valuable intraoperative information on the extent of laparoscopic liver ablation. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Use of image guidance systems (IGS) during laparoscopic liver surgery (LLS) may be beneficial. Issues of current IGS are workflow interruption and difficulty of displaying image data within the laparoscopic view. To address these issues, accuracy features and usability of an IGS utilising landmark based alignment was evaluated clinically. Methods: Patients scheduled for staging laparoscopy were recruited. Preoperative CT scans were used to construct liver 3D-models which were superimposed onto the laparoscopic screen. Intraoperative organ deformation was assessed by measuring distances of anatomical landmarks between 3D-model and in-situ liver. Setup time and usability feedback was recorded for each case. Results: Six patients were recruited. Average pre- and intraoperative setup time was 16 and 7 minutes respectively. Based on porcine experiments the deformation based error is estimated <8mm. Measurements from human data will be available for the conference. Subjectively the alignment between 3D-model and laparoscopic view (video presentation) was good. Conclusion: Deformation based errors cause discrepancy between non-deformable 3D-model and in-situ liver, thereby reducing imaging accuracy. Results from this study indicate that the proposed IGS solution for LLS is feasible. Potential advantages include: short setup time, minimal user input and an integrated view of 3D model and operative site.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study sought to compare the perioperative outcomes of interventions aiming to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury during elective liver resection. Method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials. A Bayesian network metaanalysis was performed using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method in WinBUGS following the guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Decision Support Unit. Odds ratios for binary outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes were calculated using a fixed effect model or a random effects model according to model fit. Results: Forty-four trials with 2,457 patients having undergone liver resection were included and were divided into 8 classes of interventions aimed at decreasing IR injury and a control group, which was hepatectomy alone. There was no difference between the different interventions in mortality, quantity of blood transfusion, and durations of stay in an intensive therapy unit between any pairwise comparisons. Patients treated with ischemic preconditioning, cardiovascular modulators, and miscellaneous interventions had significantly fewer serious adverse events compared with patients undergoing liver resection alone. Ischemic preconditioning patients had significantly fewer transfusion proportions and shorter operative time than patients treated with steroids. Ischemic preconditioning had significantly less operative blood loss compared with all other interventions, and a lesser duration of hospital stay than hepatectomy alone. Sensitivity analysis showed that the drugs sevoflurane (a volatile anesthetic), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and gabexate mesilate (a thrombin inhibitor) produced fewer serious adverse events compared with hepatectomy alone. Conclusion: Ischemic preconditioning resulted in multiple beneficial clinical endpoints and further RCTs seem to be needed to confirm its clinical benefits.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: A single centre prospectively collected liver transplant database was analysed for the period 1988-2012. All patients were followed up for 5 years or until graft failure. Transaminase levels on the 1(st) , 3(rd) and 7(th) post-operative days were correlated with the patient demographics, operative outcomes, post-operative complications and both graft and patient survival via a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Graft and patient survival at 3 months was 80.3% and 87.5%. AST levels on the 3(rd) (p=0.005) and 7(th) (p=0.001) post-operative days correlated with early graft loss. Patients were grouped by their AST level (day 3): <107iU, 107-1213iU, 1213-2744iU and >2744iU. The incidence of graft loss at 3 months was 10%, 12%. 27% and 59% and 1 year patient mortality was 12%, 14%, 27% and 62%. Conclusions: Day 3 AST levels correlate with patient and graft outcome post liver transplantation and would be a suitable surrogate end-point for clinical trials in liver transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Transplant International
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Intraoperative haemorrhage remains one of the major risks during liver resection, and perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion are important factors affecting perioperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to compare treatment strategies aiming to decrease blood loss during hepatectomy. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify randomised controlled trials reporting on the method of vascular occlusion, parenchymal transection, and management of the cut surface during liver resection. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed using WinBUGS. Results: Seven trials reporting on 496 participants randomised to seven treatment strategies were analysed. Continuous vascular occlusion resulted in lower blood loss compared to no vascular occlusion when parenchymal transection was performed with clamp-crush and no fibrin sealant was used for the cut surface. People undergoing liver resection by continuous vascular occlusion had decreased amounts of blood transfused than people with intermittent vascular occlusion when parenchymal transection was performed with clamp-crush and no fibrin sealant. There was no significant difference in proportion of people transfused, mortality, or hospital stay between the different strategies. There were significantly more serious adverse events when surgery was performed using radiofrequency dissecting sealer compared with standard clamp-crush method in the absence of vascular occlusion and fibrin sealant. Conclusions: Continuous vascular occlusion during hepatectomy results in decreased blood loss and decreased blood transfusion requirements. Further studies are needed to compare treatment strategies aiming to decrease blood loss, defined by their method of vascular occlusion, parenchymal transection, and management of the cut surface.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Surgery (London, England)
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
  • F P Robertson · D Tsironis · B R Davidson
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    ABSTRACT: Diaphragmatic lesions are usually congenital bronchogenic cysts. A patient with a known diaphragmatic cyst presented with new onset right upper quadrant pain. Repeat imaging showed enlargement of the cyst, the CA19-9 cancer marker was raised at 312iu/ml (normal: <27iu/ml) and positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography showed focally increased uptake in the cystic wall. In view of symptoms and risk of neoplasia, the lesion was excised. Histology showed a benign epidermoid cyst. Features falsely suggesting neoplasia have been reported previously with benign splenic cysts but not with a benign diaphragmatic epidermoid cyst.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • Rahul S Koti · Christopher J Davidson · Brian R Davidson
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    ABSTRACT: Acute cholecystitis occurs in approximately 1 % of patients with known gallstones. It presents as a surgical emergency and usually requires hospitalisation for treatment. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Cholecystectomy is advocated for acute cholecystitis; however, the timing of cholecystectomy and the value of the additional treatments have been a matter of debate. This review examines the available evidence regarding the optimal surgical management of patients with acute cholecystitis. A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, databases for English language publications. The MeSH headings 'cholecystitis', 'acute', 'gallbladder', 'inflammation', 'surgery', 'cholecystectomy', 'laparoscopic', 'robotic', 'telerobotic' and 'computer-assisted' were used. Data from eight randomised controlled trails and three population-based analyses show that early cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis performed on the index admission is safe and not associated with increased conversion rates or morbidity in comparison to conservative treatment followed by elective cholecystectomy. Delaying cholecystectomy increases readmissions for gallstone-related events, complications, hospital stay and mortality in the elderly. Early cholecystectomy is also more cost-effective. Randomised trials addressing antibiotic use in acute cholecystitis suggest that antibiotics should be stopped on the day of cholecystectomy. Insufficient trials have been performed to address the optimal analgesia regime post cholecystectomy. Similarly, a lack of trials on intraoperative cholangiography and management of common bile duct stones in patients with acute cholecystitis means that treatment of concomitant bile duct stones should be based on institutional expertise and resource availability. As regards acute cholecystitis in elderly and high-risk patients, case series and retrospective studies would suggest that cholecystectomy is more effective and of lower mortality than percutaneous cholecystostomy. There is not enough evidence to support the routine use of robotic surgery, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in the treatment of acute cholecystitis. Trial evidence would favour a policy of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy following admission with acute cholecystitis. The optimal approach to support early cholecystectomy is suggested but requires evidence from further randomised trials.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical resection is the only curative treatment for pancreatic and periampullary cancer, but many patients undergo unnecessary laparotomy because tumours can be understaged by computerised tomography (CT). A recent Cochrane review found diagnostic laparoscopy can decrease unnecessary laparotomy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic laparoscopy prior to laparotomy versus direct laparotomy in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer with resectable disease based on CT scanning. Model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service. A decision tree model was constructed using probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken. When laparotomy following diagnostic laparoscopy occurred in a subsequent admission, diagnostic laparoscopy incurred similar mean costs per patient to direct laparotomy (£7470 versus £7480); diagnostic laparoscopy costs (£995) were offset by avoiding unnecessary laparotomy costs. Diagnostic laparoscopy produced significantly more mean QALYs per patient than direct laparotomy (0.346 versus 0.337). Results were sensitive to the accuracy of diagnostic laparoscopy and the probability that disease was unresectable. Diagnostic laparoscopy had 63 to 66% probability of being cost-effective at a maximum willingness to pay for a QALY of £20 000 to £30 000. When laparotomy was undertaken in the same admission as diagnostic laparoscopy the mean cost per patient of diagnostic laparoscopy increased to £8224. Diagnostic laparoscopy prior to laparotomy in patients with CT-resectable cancer appears to be cost-effective in pancreatic cancer (but not in periampullary cancer), when laparotomy following diagnostic laparoscopy occurs in a subsequent admission.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Leiomyomas are benign lesions arising from the smooth muscle layer. They are most commonly detected either within the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tracts. Primary hepatic leiomyoma (PHL) is a rare pathology. It is an isolated pathology within the liver, without evidence of any other coexisting leiomyomas. Very few cases have been described in literature. PHL may occur in healthy individuals although an association with immunodeficiency and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been observed. Majority of the reported cases have been in females. A 20-year-old female patient presented with abdominal symptoms. MRI confirmed an 8 cm mass, with very low signal intensity on T2 images and peripheral rim enhancement on gadolinium. A laparoscopic left lateral sectorectomy was performed. Final histopathology confirmed the presence of benign lesion with spindle cell and smooth muscle proliferation and a fibro-vascular stroma compatible with a leiomyoma. There was no evidence of any leiomyomatous lesion elsewhere in the body. A rare diagnosis of PHL was therefore established. Acknowledging the rare incidence of this lesion, we report the same and review the relevant literature. PHL is usually a retrospective diagnosis, confirmed on histo-pathology assessment of the resected specimen. Liver resection is required in these patients due to the presence of symptoms, in the presence of a solid mass lesion within the liver. Surgery is thus definitive, diagnostic cum therapeutic.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Cohrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Cohrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Cohrane Database of Systematic Reviews

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Cohrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy is an emerging imaging modality that enables visualization of histologic details during endoscopy and surgery. A method of guiding the probe with millimeter accuracy is required to enable imaging in all regions of the abdomen accessed during laparoscopy. On the basis of a porcine model of laparoscopic liver resection, we report our experience of using a steerable intravascular catheter to guide a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscope.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones are often diagnosed using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), an invasive procedure with risk of significant complications. Using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or Magnetic Resonance CholangioPancreatography (MRCP) first to detect CBD stones can reduce the risk of unnecessary procedures, cut complications and may save costs. Aim: This study sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of initial EUS or MRCP in patients with suspected CBD stones. Methods: This study is a model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) over a 1 year time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources, including one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Using MRCP to select patients for ERCP was less costly than using EUS to select patients or proceeding directly to ERCP ($1299 versus $1753 and $1781, respectively), with similar QALYs accruing to each option (0.998, 0.998 and 0.997 for EUS, MRCP and direct ERCP, respectively). Initial MRCP was the most cost-effective option with the highest monetary net benefit, and this result was not sensitive to model parameters. MRCP had a 61% probability of being cost-effective at $29,000, the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK. Conclusion: From the perspective of the UK NHS, MRCP was the most cost-effective test in the diagnosis of CBD stones.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Gurusamy KS · Vanja Giljaca · Takwoingi Y · Higgie D · Poropat G · Štimac D · Brian R Davidson
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) are tests used in the diagnosis of common bile duct stones in people suspected of having common bile duct stones. There has been no systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of ERCP and IOC. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the accuracy of ERCP and IOC for the diagnosis of common bile duct stones. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS, and Clinicaltrials.gov to September 2012. To identify additional studies, we searched the references of included studies and systematic reviews identified from various databases (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), Medion, and ARIF (Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility)). We did not restrict studies based on language or publication status, or whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that provided the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives for ERCP or IOC. We only accepted studies that confirmed the presence of common bile duct stones by extraction of the stones (irrespective of whether this was done by surgical or endoscopic methods) for a positive test, and absence of common bile duct stones by surgical or endoscopic negative exploration of the common bile duct, or symptom-free follow-up for at least six months for a negative test as the reference standard in people suspected of having common bile duct stones. We included participants with or without prior diagnosis of cholelithiasis; with or without symptoms and complications of common bile duct stones; with or without prior treatment for common bile duct stones; and before or after cholecystectomy. At least two authors screened abstracts and selected studies for inclusion independently. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently collected data from each study. We used the bivariate model to summarise the sensitivity and specificity of the tests. MAIN RESULTS: We identified five studies including 318 participants (180 participants with and 138 participants without common bile duct stones) that reported the diagnostic accuracy of ERCP and five studies including 654 participants (125 participants with and 529 participants without common bile duct stones) that reported the diagnostic accuracy of IOC. Most studies included people with symptoms (participants with jaundice or pancreatitis) suspected of having common bile duct stones based on blood tests, ultrasound, or both, prior to the performance of ERCP or IOC. Most studies included participants who had not previously undergone removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). None of the included studies was of high methodological quality as evaluated by the QUADAS-2 tool (quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies). The sensitivities of ERCP ranged between 0.67 and 0.94 and the specificities ranged between 0.92 and 1.00. For ERCP, the summary sensitivity was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.90) and specificity was 0.99 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.00). The sensitivities of IOC ranged between 0.75 and 1.00 and the specificities ranged between 0.96 and 1.00. For IOC, the summary sensitivity was 0.99 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.00) and specificity was 0.99 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.00). For ERCP, at the median pre-test probability of common bile duct stones of 0.35 estimated from the included studies (i.e., 35% of people suspected of having common bile duct stones were confirmed to have gallstones by the reference standard), the post-test probabilities associated with positive test results was 0.97 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.99) and negative test results was 0.09 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.14). For IOC, at the median pre-test probability of common bile duct stones of 0.35, the post-test probabilities associated with positive test results was 0.98 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.00) and negative test results was 0.01 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.10). There was weak evidence of a difference in sensitivity (P value = 0.05) with IOC showing higher sensitivity than ERCP. There was no evidence of a difference in specificity (P value = 0.7) with both tests having similar specificity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although the sensitivity of IOC appeared to be better than that of ERCP, this finding may be unreliable because none of the studies compared both tests in the same study populations and most of the studies were methodologically flawed. It appears that both tests were fairly accurate in guiding further invasive treatment as most people diagnosed with common bile duct stones by these tests had common bile duct stones. Some people may have common bile duct stones in spite of having a negative ERCP or IOC result. Such people may have to be re-tested if the clinical suspicion of common bile duct stones is very high because of their symptoms or persistently abnormal liver function tests. However, the results should be interpreted with caution given the limited quantity and quality of the evidence.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

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Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Royal Free Academy of PMC
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999-2015
    • University College London
      • Division of Surgery and Interventional Science
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997-2015
    • Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Radiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Ealing, Hammersmith & West London College
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Sichuan University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China
  • 2009
    • Royal University Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2003-2009
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of Leipzig
      • Institute of Anatomy
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil