[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental illness with high lifetime prevalence close to 20%. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported decreased prefrontal, insular and limbic cerebral glucose metabolism in depressed patients compared with healthy controls. However, the literature has not always been consistent. To evaluate current evidence from PET studies, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis of cerebral metabolism in MDD.Method
Data were collected from databases including PubMed and Web of Science, with the last report up to April 2013. Voxel-based meta-analyses were performed using the revised activation likelihood estimation (ALE) software.ResultsTen whole-brain-based FDG-PET studies in MDD were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 188 MDD patients and 169 healthy controls. ALE analyses showed the brain metabolism in bilateral insula, left lentiform nucleus putamen and extra-nuclear, right caudate and cingulate gyrus were significantly decreased. However, the brain activity in right thalamus pulvinar and declive of posterior lobe, left culmen of vermis in anterior lobe were significantly increased in MDD patients.Conclusion
Our meta-analysis demonstrates the specific brain regions where possible dysfunctions are more consistently reported in MDD patients. Altered metabolism in insula, limbic system, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and thus these regions are likely to play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychological status and quality of life in postoperative acoustic neuroma patients were well documented. However, few studies have been proceed in China and investigated in a relative homogenous group. To assess the psychological status and quality of life in patients with facial palsy operated by an identical surgeon in Shanghai, China. We retrospectively reviewed 24 patients who had undergone microsurgery via a retrosigmoid approach in 2009-2010. Each patient was followed up with MRI/CT image and facial palsy evaluation. A mailed comprehensive questionnaire was used to assess the psychological status and quality of life for these patients. Meanwhile, a telephone interview was previously carried out for the consents. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata software. We found that a proportion of anxiety and depression existed among the postoperative acoustic neuroma patients, although a relative physical health was reserved. Facial palsy caused by microsurgery treatment may be a key factor triggered and involved in the psychiatric symptoms and clinicians must be aware that early involvement of a clinical psychologist may be very helpful.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta neurologica Belgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set?
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19-5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD.
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive theorists relate anxiety disorders to the way in which emotional information is processed. The existing research suggests that patients with anxiety disorders tend to allocate their attention toward threat-related information selectively, and this may differ among different types of anxious subjects. The aim of this study was to explore attentional bias in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) using the emotional Stroop task and compare the differences between them.
Forty-two patients with GAD, 34 patients with PD, and 46 healthy controls performed the emotional Stroop task with four word types, ie, GAD-related words, PD-related words, neutral words, and positive words.
Patients with GAD and those with PD were slower than healthy controls to respond to all stimuli. Patients with GAD had longer response latencies in color-naming both PD-relevant words and GAD relevant words. Patients with PD had longer response latencies only in color-naming PD-related words, similar to healthy controls.
Patients with GAD and those with PD had a different pattern of attentional bias, and there was insufficient evidence to support the existence of specific attentional bias in patients with PD.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods have reported a relationship between the cognitive dysfunction of patients with schizophrenia and P300 latency and amplitude, but it remains uncertain whether or not these indices change as cognitive functioning improves with pharmacological treatment.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis so we could evaluate the impact of antipsychotics on the P50 ratio in Chinese schizophrenia patients.
Data were collected from the following databases: PubMed, China Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Library and Elsevier Science Direct, with the latest report up to May 2011. An effect size with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of various effects of antipsychotics on P50 ratio in the patients.
A total of six studies including 315 and 285 schizophrenia patients at the baseline and endpoint, respectively. Overall, no significant effect of these medicines on the P50 ratio was found (overall effect z=1.03, p=0.30; heterogeneity: Chi2=2.81, df=8, p=0.95, I2=0%). In subgroup analysis by drug, we did not find any significant effects on P50 ratio in either first-generation antipsychotics (effect z=0.92, p=0.36; heterogeneity: Chi2=0.00, df=1, p=0.98, I2=0%) or second-generation antipsychotics (effect z=0.55, p=0.58; heterogeneity: Chi2=2.38, df=5, p=0.79, I2=0%).
Our meta-analysis suggests that neither the first-generation nor the second-generation antipsychotics had any significant effects on P50 ratio in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Psychiatria Danubina
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the diagnosis of melancholia has had a long history, the validity of the current DSM-IV definition remains contentious. We report here the first detailed comparison of melancholic and nonmelancholic major depression (MD) in a Chinese population examining in particular whether these two forms of MD differ quantitatively or qualitatively.
DSM-IV criteria for melancholia were applied to 1,970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD recruited from 53 provincial mental health centers and psychiatric departments of general medical hospitals in 41 cities. Statistical analyses, utilizing Student's t-tests and Pearson's χ(2) , were calculated using SPSS 13.0.
Melancholic patients with MD were distinguished from nonmelancholic by being older, having a later age at onset, more episodes of illness and meeting more A criteria. They also had higher levels of neuroticism and rates of lifetime generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social and agoraphobia. They had significantly lower rates of childhood sexual abuse but did not differ on other stressful life events or rates of MD in their families.
Consistent with most prior findings in European and US populations, we find that melancholia is a more clinically severe syndrome than nonmelancholic depression with higher rates of comorbidity. The evidence that it is a more "biological" or qualitatively distinct syndrome, however, is mixed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Depression and Anxiety