Dennis R Diener

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (39)243.1 Total impact

  • Dennis R. Diener · Pietro Lupetti · Joel L. Rosenbaum
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    ABSTRACT: The transition zone (TZ) is a specialized region of the cilium characterized by Y-shaped connectors between the microtubules of the ciliary axoneme and the ciliary membrane [1]. Located near the base of the cilium, the TZ is in the prime location to act as a gate for proteins into and out of the ciliary compartment, a role supported by experimental evidence [2-6]. The importance of the TZ has been underscored by studies showing that mutations affecting proteins located in the TZ result in cilia-related diseases, or ciliopathies, presenting symptoms including renal cysts, retinal degeneration, and situs inversus [7-9]. Some TZ proteins have been identified and shown to interact with each other through coprecipitation studies in vertebrate cells [4, 10, 11] and genetics studies in C. elegans [3]. As a distinct approach to identify TZ proteins, we have taken advantage of the biology of Chlamydomonas to isolate TZs. Proteomic analysis identified 115 proteins, ten of which were known TZ proteins related to ciliopathies, indicating that the preparation was highly enriched for TZs. Interestingly, six proteins of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) were also associated with the TZs. Identification of these and other proteins in the TZ will provide new insights into functions of the TZ, as well as candidate ciliopathy genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Current Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The ciliary tip has been implicated in ciliary assembly/disassembly and signaling, yet information on its protein composition is limited. Using comparative, quantitative proteomics based on the fact that tip proteins will be ca. twice as concentrated in half-length compared to full-length flagella, we have identified FAP256 as a tip protein in Chlamydomonas. FAP256 localizes to the tips of both central pair and outer doublet microtubules (MTs) and it remains at the tip during flagellar assembly and disassembly. Similarly, its vertebrate counterpart, CEP104, localizes on the distal ends of both centrioles of nondividing cells until the mother centriole forms a cilium and then localizes at the tip of the elongating cilium. A null mutant of FAP256 in Chlamydomonas and RNAi in vertebrate cells showed that FAP256/CEP104 is required for ciliogenesis in a high percentage of cells. In those cells that could form cilia, there were structural deformities at the ciliary tips.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: The release of membrane vesicles from the surface of cells into their surrounding environment is now recognized as an important pathway for the delivery of proteins to extracellular sites of biological function. Membrane vesicles of this kind, termed exosomes and ectosomes, are the result of active processes and have been shown to carry a wide array of biological effector molecules that can play roles in cell-to-cell communication and remodeling of the extracellular space [1-7]. Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the regulated release of proteolytic enzymes is a key process for development, morphogenesis, and cell migration in animal and plant cells. Here we show that the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas achieves the timely degradation of its mother cell wall, a type of ECM, through the budding of ectosomes directly from the membranes of its flagella. Using a combination of immunoelectron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and functional analysis, we demonstrate that these vesicles, which we term ciliary ectosomes, act as carriers of the proteolytic enzyme necessary for the liberation of daughter cells following mitosis [8, 9]. Chlamydomonas has proven to be the key unicellular model for the highly conserved mechanisms of mammalian cilia, and our results suggest that cilia may be an underappreciated source of bioactive, extracellular membrane vesicles.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Current biology: CB
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    Dataset: 4.cover

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2012
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: LC8 is present in various molecular complexes. However, its role in these complexes remains unclear. We discovered that although LC8 is a subunit of the radial spoke (RS) complex in Chlamydomonas flagella, it was undetectable in the RS precursor that is converted into the mature RS at the tip of elongating axonemes. Interestingly, LC8 dimers bound in tandem to the N-terminal region of a spoke phosphoprotein, RS protein 3 (RSP3), that docks RSs to axonemes. LC8 enhanced the binding of RSP3 N-terminal fragments to purified axonemes. Likewise, the N-terminal fragments extracted from axonemes contained LC8 and putative spoke-docking proteins. Lastly, perturbations of RSP3's LC8-binding sites resulted in asynchronous flagella with hypophosphorylated RSP3 and defective associations between LC8, RSs, and axonemes. We propose that at the tip of flagella, an array of LC8 dimers binds to RSP3 in RS precursors, triggering phosphorylation, stalk base formation, and axoneme targeting. These multiple effects shed new light on fundamental questions about LC8-containing complexes and axoneme assembly.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The cilium serves as a cellular antenna by coordinating upstream environmental cues with numerous downstream signaling processes that are indispensable for the function of the cell. This role is supported by the revelation that defects of the cilium underlie an emerging class of human disorders, termed "ciliopathies." Although mounting interest in the cilium has demonstrated the essential role that the organelle plays in vertebrate development, homeostasis, and disease pathogenesis, the mechanisms regulating cilia morphology and function remain unclear. Here, we show that the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) growth pathway modulates cilia size and function during zebrafish development. Knockdown of tuberous sclerosis complex 1a (tsc1a), which encodes an upstream inhibitor of TOR complex 1 (Torc1), increases cilia length. In contrast, treatment of embryos with rapamycin, an inhibitor of Torc1, shortens cilia length. Overexpression of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6k1), which encodes a downstream substrate of Torc1, lengthens cilia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that TOR-mediated cilia assembly is evolutionarily conserved and that protein synthesis is essential for this regulation. Finally, we demonstrate that TOR signaling and cilia length are pivotal for a variety of downstream ciliary functions, such as cilia motility, fluid flow generation, and the establishment of left-right body asymmetry. Our findings reveal a unique role for the TOR pathway in regulating cilia size through protein synthesis and suggest that appropriate and defined lengths are necessary for proper function of the cilium.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    Dataset: Text S1
    Christopher R. Wood · Zhaohui Wang · Dennis Diener · James Matt Zones · Joel Rosenbaum · James G. Umen
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    ABSTRACT: Relationship between cell size and flagellar length. (DOCX)
    Preview · Dataset · Feb 2012
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    Dataset: Figure S1
    Christopher R. Wood · Zhaohui Wang · Dennis Diener · James Matt Zones · Joel Rosenbaum · James G. Umen
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    ABSTRACT: Correlation between cell size and flagella length. (A) log-log scatter plot of ∼200 flagella length and cell size measurements from individual cells (blue points) taken from two independent asynchronous cultures (∼100 cells each). The best fit linear regression is plotted as a dashed gray line. The regression line function and its R2 value are shown above. (B) Histogram plot of R values from 100,000 randomized re-sampled sets of data from A. Mean R value and standard deviation (SD) for resampled data are shown. The actual R value is indicated by an arrow. The p-value of obtaining this result from the randomly resampled distribution is shown below it. (EPS)
    Preview · Dataset · Feb 2012
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    Dataset: Table S2
    Christopher R. Wood · Zhaohui Wang · Dennis Diener · James Matt Zones · Joel Rosenbaum · James G. Umen
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    ABSTRACT: Data for quantitative RT-PCR. (DOCX)
    Preview · Dataset · Feb 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins are well established as conserved mediators of flagellum/cilium assembly and disassembly. However, data has begun to accumulate in support of IFT protein involvement in other processes elsewhere in the cell. Here, we used synchronous cultures of Chlamydomonas to investigate the temporal patterns of accumulation and localization of IFT proteins during the cell cycle. Their mRNAs showed periodic expression that peaked during S and M phase (S/M). Unlike most proteins that are synthesized continuously during G1 phase, IFT27 and IFT46 levels were found to increase only during S/M phase. During cell division, IFT27, IFT46, IFT72, and IFT139 re-localized from the flagella and basal bodies to the cleavage furrow. IFT27 was further shown to be associated with membrane vesicles in this region. This localization pattern suggests a role for IFT in cell division.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Radial spokes (RSs) are ubiquitous components in the 9 + 2 axoneme thought to be mechanochemical transducers involved in local control of dynein-driven microtubule sliding. They are composed of >23 polypeptides, whose interactions and placement must be deciphered to understand RS function. In this paper, we show the detailed three-dimensional (3D) structure of RS in situ in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and Tetrahymena thermophila cilia that we obtained using cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET). We clarify similarities and differences between the three spoke species, RS1, RS2, and RS3, in T. thermophila and in C. reinhardtii and show that part of RS3 is conserved in C. reinhardtii, which only has two species of complete RSs. By analyzing C. reinhardtii mutants, we identified the specific location of subsets of RS proteins (RSPs). Our 3D reconstructions show a twofold symmetry, suggesting that fully assembled RSs are produced by dimerization. Based on our cryo-ET data, we propose models of subdomain organization within the RS as well as interactions between RSPs and with other axonemal components.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas can assemble two 10 μm flagella in 1 h from proteins synthesized in the cell body. Targeting and transporting these proteins to the flagella are simplified by preassembly of macromolecular complexes in the cell body. Radial spokes are flagellar complexes that are partially assembled in the cell body before entering the flagella. On the axoneme, radial spokes are "T" shaped structures with a head of five proteins and a stalk of 18 proteins that sediment together at 20S. In the cell body, radial spokes are partially assembled; about half of the radial spoke proteins (RSPs) form a 12S complex. In mutants lacking a single RSP, smaller spoke subassemblies were identified. When extracts from two such mutants were mixed in vitro the 12S complex was assembled from several smaller complexes demonstrating that portions of the stepwise assembly of radial spoke assembly can be carried out in vitro to elucidate the order of spoke assembly in the cell body.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Cytoskeleton
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    ABSTRACT: The radial spoke (RS)/central pair (CP) system in cilia and flagella plays an essential role in the regulation of force generation by dynein, the motor protein that drives cilia/flagella movements. Mechanical and mechanochemicl interactions between the CP and the distal part of the RS, the spokehead, should be crucial for this control; however, the details of interaction are totally unknown. As an initial step toward an understanding of the RS-CP interaction, we examined the protein-protein interactions between the five spokehead proteins (radial spoke protein (RSP)1, RSP4, RSP6, RSP9, and RSP10) and three spoke stalk proteins (RSP2, RSP5, and RSP23), all expressed as recombinant proteins. Three of them were shown to have physiological activities by electroporation-mediated protein delivery into mutants deficient in the respective proteins. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays in vitro detected interactions in 10 out of 64 pairs of recombinants. In addition, chemical crosslinking of axonemes using five reagents detected seven kinds of interactions between the RS subunits in situ. Finally, in the mixture of the recombinant spokehead subunits, RSP1, RSP4, RSP6, and RSP9 formed a 7-10S complex as detected by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. It may represent a partial assembly of the spokehead. From these results, we propose a model of interactions taking place between the spokehead subunits.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Cytoskeleton
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system for the biology of unicellular green algae. Chemically regulated promoters, such as the nickel-inducible CYC6 or the low CO₂-inducible CAH1 promoter, may prove useful for expressing, at precise times during its cell cycle, proteins with relevant biological functions, or complementing mutants in genes encoding such proteins. To this date, this has not been reported for the above promoters. We fused the CYC6 and CAH1 promoters to an HA-tagged RSP3 gene, encoding a protein of the flagellar radial spoke complex. The constructs were used for chemically regulated complementation of the pf14 mutant, carrying an ochre mutation in the RSP3 gene. 7 to 8% of the transformants showed cells with restored motility after induction with nickel or transfer to low CO₂ conditions, but not in non-inducing conditions. Maximum complementation (5% motile cells) was reached with very different kinetics (5-6 hours for CAH1, 48 hours for CYC6). The two inducible promoters drive much lower levels of RSP3 protein expression than the constitutive PSAD promoter, which shows almost complete rescue of motility. To our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of the CYC6 or CAH1 promoters to perform a chemically regulated complementation of a Chlamydomonas mutant. Based on our data, the CYC6 and CAH1 promoters should be capable of fully complementing mutants in genes whose products exert their biological activity at low concentrations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · BMC Plant Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Motility of a PSAD:RSP3-HA transformant. Movie showing the motility of a PSAD:RSP3-HA transformant.
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Motility of a CYC6:RSP3-HA transformant, 48 hours after Ni induction. Movie showing the motility of a CYC6:RSP3-HA transformant, 48 hours after Ni induction.
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Estimation of transgene copy number by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Figure showing the estimation of transgene copy number by Real Time PCR.
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in human CEP290 cause cilia-related disorders that range in severity from isolated blindness to perinatal lethality. Here, we describe a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant in which most of the CEP290 gene is deleted. Immunoelectron microscopy indicated that CEP290 is located in the flagellar transition zone in close association with the prominent microtubule-membrane links there. Ultrastructural analysis revealed defects in these microtubule-membrane connectors, resulting in loss of attachment of the flagellar membrane to the transition zone microtubules. Biochemical analysis of isolated flagella revealed that the mutant flagella have abnormal protein content, including abnormal levels of intraflagellar transport proteins and proteins associated with ciliopathies. Experiments with dikaryons showed that CEP290 at the transition zone is dynamic and undergoes rapid turnover. The results indicate that CEP290 is required to form microtubule-membrane linkers that tether the flagellar membrane to the transition zone microtubules, and is essential for controlling flagellar protein composition.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Cilia are necessary for normal tissue development and homeostasis and are generally present during interphase, but not in mitosis. The precise mechanism of premitotic ciliary loss has been controversial, with data supporting either sequential disassembly through the transition zone or, alternatively, a severing event at the base of the cilia. Here we show by live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy that resorbing flagella of Chlamydomonas leave remnants associated with the mother cell wall. We postulated that the remnants are the product of severing of doublet microtubules between the basal bodies and the flagellar transition zone, thereby freeing the centrioles to participate in spindle organization. We show via TEM that flagellar remnants are indeed flagellar transition zones encased in vesicles derived from the flagellar membrane. This transition zone vesicle can be lodged within the cell wall or it can be expelled into the environment. This process is observable in Chlamydomonas, first because the released flagellar remnants can remain associated with the cell by virtue of attachments to the cell wall, and second because the Chlamydomonas transition zone is particularly rich with electron-dense structure. However, release of basal bodies for spindle-associated function is likely to be conserved among the eukaryotes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Cytoskeleton