[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs naturally during embryogenesis, tissue repair, cancer progression, and metastasis. EMT induces cellular and microenviromental changes resulting in loss of epithelial and acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype, which promotes cellular invasive and migratory capabilities. EMT can be triggered by extracellular factors, including TGF-beta, HGF, and EGF. Overexpression of transcription factors such as SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1/2, and TWIST1, also induce EMT and are correlated to cancer aggressiveness. Here, the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7 was transduced with SNAIL to identify specific mechanisms controlled by this transcription factor during EMT. Overexpression of SNAIL led to EMT, which was thoroughly validated by molecular, morphological, and functional experiments. Subcellular proteome enrichment followed by GEL-LC-MS/MS was performed to provide extensive protein fractionation and in-depth proteomic analysis. Quantitative analysis relied on a SILAC strategy, using the invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, as a reference for quantitation. Subsets of proteins enriched in each subcellular compartment led to a complementary list of 4289 proteins identified with high confidence. A subset of differentially expressed proteins was validated by western blot, including regulation in specific cellular compartments, potentially caused by protein translocation. Protein network analysis highlighted complexes involved in cell cycle control and epigenetic regulation. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that SNAIL overexpression led to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases. Furthermore, down-regulation of HDAC1 was observed, supporting the involvement of epigenetic processes in SNAIL-induced EMT. When HDAC1 activity was inhibited, MCF7 not only apparently initiated EMT, but also upregulated SNAIL, indicating the crosstalk between these two proteins. Both HDAC1 inhibition and SNAIL overexpression activated the AKT pathway. These molecular mechanisms appear to be essential to EMT and, therefore, for cancer metastasis. Specific control of such epigenetic processes might then represent effective approaches for clinical management of metastatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TP73 gene transcript is alternatively spliced and translated into the transcriptionally active (TAp73) or inactive (ΔNp73) isoforms, with opposite effects on the expression of TP53 target genes and on apoptosis induction. The imbalance between ΔNp73 and TAp73 may contribute to tumorigenesis and resistance to chemotherapy in human cancers, including hematological malignancies. In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), both isoforms are expressed, but their relevance in determining response to therapy and contribution to leukemogenesis remains unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that a higher ΔNp73/TAp73 RNA expression ratio is associated with lower survival, lower disease-free survival, and higher risk of relapse in patients with APL homogeneously treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline-based chemotherapy, according to International Consortium on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (IC-APL) study. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that a high ΔNp73/TAp73 ratio was independently associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio: 4.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.64-12.2; P=0.0035). Our data support the hypothesis that the ΔNp73/TAp73 ratio is an important determinant of clinical response in APL and may offer a therapeutic target for enhancing chemosensitivity in blast cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy we study the influence of the alkylphospholipid 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate, ODPC, in giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs, composed of DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), brain sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). The results show that adding 100 μM ODPC (below CMC) to the outer solution of GUVs promotes DOPC membrane disruption over a period of 1 hour of continuous observation. On the other hand, the presence of SM and Chol in homogeneous fluid lipid bilayers protects the membrane from disruption. Interestingly, by adding 100 μM ODPC to GUVs containing DOPC:SM:Chol (1:1:1), which display liquid ordered (Lo) - liquid disordered (Ld) phase coexistence, the domains rapidly disappear in less than one minute of ODPC contact with the membrane. The lipids are subsequently redistributed to liquid domains within a time course of 14 - 18 minutes, reflecting that the homogenous phase was not thermodynamically stable, followed by rupture of the GUVs. A similar mechanism of action is also observed for perifosine, although to a larger extent. Therefore, the initial stage of lipid raft disruption by both ODPC and perifosine, and maybe other ALPS, by promoting lipid mixing, may be correlated with their toxicity upon neoplastic cells, since selective (dis)association of essential proteins within lipid rafts microdomains must take place in the plasma membrane.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are adult multipotent cells that have high therapeutic potential due to their immunological properties. They can be isolated from several different tissues with bone marrow (BM) being the most common source. Because the isolation procedure is invasive, other tissues such as human umbilical cord vein (UCV) have been considered. However, their interchangeability remains unclear. In the present study, total protein extracts of BM-hMSCs and UCV-hMSCs were quantitatively compared using gel-LC-MS/MS. Previous SAGE analysis of the same cells was re-annotated to enable comparison and combination of these two data sets. We observed a more than 63% correlation between proteomic and transcriptomic data. In silico analysis of highly expressed genes in cells of both origins suggests that they can be modulated by microRNA, which can change protein abundance. Our results showed that MSCs from both tissues shared high similarity in metabolic and functional processes relevant to their therapeutic potential, especially in the immune system process, response to stimuli, and processes related to the delivery of the hMSCs to a given tissue, such as migration and adhesion. Hence, our results support the idea that the more accessible UCV could be a potentially less invasive source of MSCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) expression in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) impairs transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling, leading to cell growth advantage. Halofuginone (HF), a low-molecular-weight alkaloid that modulates TGFβ signaling, was used to treat APL cell lines and non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice subjected to transplantation with leukemic cells from human chorionic gonadotrophin-PML-RARα transgenic mice (TG). Cell cycle analysis using incorporated bromodeoxyuridine and 7-amino-actinomycin D showed that, in NB4 and NB4-R2 APL cell lines, HF inhibited cellular proliferation (P<0.001) and induced apoptosis (P = 0.002) after a 24-hour incubation. Addition of TGFβ revealed that NB4 cells were resistant to its growth-suppressive effects and that HF induced these effects in the presence or absence of the cytokine. Cell growth inhibition was associated with up-regulation of TGFβ target genes involved in cell cycle regulation (TGFB, TGFBRI, SMAD3, p15, and p21) and down-regulation of MYC. Additionally, TGFβ protein levels were decreased in leukemic TG animals and HF in vivo could restore TGFβ values to normal. To test the in vivo anti-leukemic activity of HF, we transplanted NOD/SCID mice with TG leukemic cells and treated them with HF for 21 days. HF induced partial hematological remission in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen. Together, these results suggest that HF has anti-proliferative and anti-leukemic effects by reversing the TGFβ blockade in APL. Since loss of the TGFβ response in leukemic cells may be an important second oncogenic hit, modulation of TGFβ signaling may be of therapeutic interest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vitamin E derivative (+)α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a wide range of tumors and is well tolerated by normal tissues. Previous studies point to a mitochondrial involvement in the action mechanism; however, the early steps have not been fully elucidated. In a model of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) derived from hCG-PML-RARα transgenic mice, we demonstrated that α-TOS is as effective as arsenic trioxide or all-trans retinoic acid, the current gold standards of therapy. We also demonstrated that α-TOS induces an early dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential in APL cells and studies with isolated mitochondria revealed that this action may result from the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Moreover, α-TOS promoted accumulation of reactive oxygen species hours before mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspases activation. Therefore, an in vivo antileukemic action and a novel mitochondrial target were revealed for α-TOS, as well as mitochondrial respiratory complex I was highlighted as potential target for anticancer therapy.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impairment of CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein alpha (CEBPA) function is a common finding in acute myeloid leukemia; nevertheless, its relevance for acute promyelocytic leukemia pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed the expression and assessed the methylation status of the core and upstream promoters of CEBPA in acute promyelocytic leukemia at diagnosis. Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (n = 18) presented lower levels of CEBPA expression compared to healthy controls (n = 5), but higher levels than those in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21) (n = 9) and with inv(16) (n = 5). Regarding the core promoter, we detected no methylation in 39 acute promyelocytic leukemia samples or in 8 samples from controls. In contrast, analysis of the upstream promoter showed methylation in 37 of 39 samples, with 17 patients showing methylation levels over 30%. Our results corroborate data obtained in animal models showing that CEBPA is down-regulated in acute promyelocytic leukemia stem cells and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 10-(Octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC) is an alkylphospholipid that can interact with cell membranes because of its amphiphilic character. We describe here the interaction of ODPC with liposomes and its toxicity to leukemic cells with an ED-50 of 5.4, 5.6 and 2.9 microM for 72 h of treatment for inhibition of proliferation of NB4, U937 and K562 cell lines, respectively, and lack of toxicity to normal hematopoietic progenitor cells at concentrations up to 25 microM. The ED-50 for the non-malignant HEK-293 and primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was 63.4 and 60.7 microM, respectively. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) of ODPC was 200 microM. Dynamic light scattering indicated that dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposome size was affected only above the CMC of ODPC. Differential calorimetric scanning (DCS) of liposomes indicated a critical transition temperature (T(c)) of 41.5 degrees C and an enthalpy (H) variation of 7.3 kcal mol(-1). The presence of 25 microM ODPC decreased T(c) and H to 39.3 degrees C and 4.7 kcal mol(-1), respectively. ODPC at 250 microM destabilized the liposomes (36.3 degrees C, 0.46 kcal mol(-1)). Kinetics of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) leakage from different liposome systems indicated that the rate and extent of CF release depended on liposome composition and ODPC concentration and that above the CMC it was instantaneous. Overall, the data indicate that ODPC acts on in vitro membrane systems and leukemia cell lines at concentrations below its CMC, suggesting that it does not act as a detergent and that this effect is dependent on membrane composition.