X. Laqueille

Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (91)316.07 Total impact

  • C. Guldner · M. Mohamed · X. Laqueille · M.C. Bourdel · A. Dervaux

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Alain Dervaux · Xavier Laqueille

    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
  • R. Wallaert · X. Laqueille · M.C. Bourdel · M.O. Krebs · A. Dervaux
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    ABSTRACT: Certaines études ont retrouvé que la consommation précoce de cannabis était associée à une fréquence plus élevée de troubles cognitifs ou psychiatriques, mais l’âge exact reste indéterminé, entre 13 et 18 ans selon les études [1], [2], [3] and [4].
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · European Psychiatry
  • J.-F. Bouton · X. Laqueille · M.-C. Bourdel · A. Dervaux
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    ABSTRACT: Alors que dans l’étude Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA, Regier et al., 1900), la prévalence de la schizophrénie était de 11 % chez les toxicomanes aux opiacés, aucune étude à notre connaissance n’a évalué l’efficacité des traitements de substitution aux opiacés (TSO : méthadone ou buprénorphine) chez les sujets présentant une comorbidité dépendance opiacée/schizophrénie (Dervaux et al., 2009). L’objectif de cette étude rétrospective était d’évaluer les différences cliniques et toxicologiques entre deux populations de patients traitées par TSO : un groupe de patients schizophrènes et un groupe de patients sans troubles psychotiques.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · European Psychiatry
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    S Lamy · X Laqueille · F Thibaut
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    ABSTRACT: Substance use has increased worldwide. Based on these data, we may think that substance use has also increased during pregnancy, but epidemiological data are scarce in this population. The potential consequences of tobacco, cocaine or cannabis use during pregnancy are a major public health concern. The combined use of different substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on child development. In this paper, we will describe the potential consequences for the newborn, child and adolescent after being exposed to tobacco, cannabis and cocaine in utero. For this purpose, we will review all retrospective and prospective studies (in English and French) referenced in PubMed reporting on the somatic or psychiatric consequences of alcohol, tobacco and drug consumption by pregnant women on newborn and children. Consumption during pregnancy was assessed in these studies using simple questionnaires, biomarkers analysis or both. Generally speaking, these pregnancies are at high risk for both the mother and the foetus: for example, an increased risk of miscarriage or of reduced length of gestation, an increased risk of uterine apoplexy and placenta praevia, more premature births and/or hypotrophy were reported. The occurrence of a newborn's withdrawal syndrome may be misdiagnosed. Many consequences on child development may be observed such as growth disorders, learning or motor disorders, language disorders, cognitive disorders (attention, memory, executive functions), attention deficit disorders with impulsivity or with hyperactivity (ADHD), and memory disorders. The prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders may also be increased in these children. The risk of addictive disorders or schizophrenia in children exposed in utero to illicit drugs or tobacco is still unknown. The combined use of different substances increases, consequently it is difficult to disentangle the consequences on child development of each of the drugs used during pregnancy owing to potential interactions between these drugs. The consequences on child development will also depend on the dose and on the time of drug use during pregnancy. The National Institute of Drug Abuse reported that 75% of the infants exposed in utero to one or more substances will present medical problems during childhood, as compared to only 27% of the non-exposed infants. However, the medical consequences are still a matter of controversies. Methodological biases, such as the use of different rating scales among studies, and the heterogeneity of the populations included are main limitations. Further studies are needed using larger cohorts and longer follow-up periods. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · L Encéphale
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    Full-text · Book · Oct 2014
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    Johan Cohen · Alain Dervaux · Xavier Laqueille
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    ABSTRACT: Background Drug treatments used in substance use disorders are not effective in all patients. Objective To assess the effectiveness of topiramate use in the treatment of substance use disorders. Information sources Medline database from January 1966 to December 2013, Cochrane database and clinicaltrials.gov. Selection of studies We used keywords topiramate, addiction, substance abuse, alcohol, tobacco, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opiate, heroin, benzodiazepine, cannabis, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, gambling. All clinical trials were included. Animal trials, laboratory tests, reviews, answers to writers, case-reports, case series and publications unrelated to the topic were excluded. Twenty-eight articles investigating the efficacy of topiramate in substance use were included. Results In alcohol-related disorder, several trials and a meta-analysis showed a reduction of days of consumption. In a single-center trial on tobacco-related disorder, topiramate was not found effective in reducing the carbon monoxide expired. In cocaine-related disorder, one single-center trial showed a reduction of days of consumption and two single-center trials have found a trend in favour of topiramate. In alcohol and cocaine co-dependency, a single-center trial found a trend in favour of topiramate. In methamphetamine-related disorder, a multicenter trial found a trend in favour of topiramate. In bulimia nervosa, two single-center trials showed a reduction in binge eating and compensatory behaviours. In binge eating disorder, several trials showed a reduction of binge eating and weight. In gambling, one single-center trial did not show any significant results. There were no randomized controlled trials found in opioid-related disorder, benzodiazepines-related disorder, and cannabis-related disorder. Limitations Definition of abstinence and methods to assess the efficacy of topiramate differed between trials. The methodological quality of included trials was variable, especially with no double-blind procedure in eight trials. Conclusion Topiramate showed interest mainly in alcoholism, binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. No definitive conclusions can be reached for other substance use disorders such as nicotine dependence, cocaine dependence, amphetamine dependence or cannabis dependence and for gambling.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · La Presse Médicale
  • Johan Cohen · Alain Dervaux · Xavier Laqueille
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    ABSTRACT: Drug treatments used in substance use disorders are not effective in all patients.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
  • Alain Dervaux · Laqueille X
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    ABSTRACT: En cas de comorbidité troubles bipolaires/addictions, il importe de ne pas traiter un trouble sans traiter l’autre. L’observance des patients à double diagnostic est faible et doit être systématiquement évaluée. Les médicaments à visée addictologique peuvent être utilisés sans difficulté chez les patients bipolaires
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
  • Alain Dervaux · Laqueille X
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    ABSTRACT: La fréquence de la comorbidité troubles psychiatriques-troubles de la personnalité états limites est élevée. Les patients présentant un trouble de la personnalité état limite sont sous-diagnostiqués et sous-traités dans les structures addictologiques. La consommation de substances aggrave la symptomatologie de ces patients, favorise les conduites suicidaires et diminue l’observance des traitements. Il est souhaitable qu’addictions et troubles de la personnalité soient pris en charge simultanément.
    No preview · Article · May 2014

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · La Presse Médicale
  • A. Dervaux · M.-O. Krebs · X. Laqueille
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC, the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1 % in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social, occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the general population have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB)1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • Xavier Laqueille · Alain Dervaux

    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · La Revue du praticien
  • A. Dervaux · M.O. Krebs · M.C. Bourdel · X. Laqueille

    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · European Psychiatry
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Contexte La méthadone est utilisée en France dans l’indication de traitement de substitution de la dépendance aux opiacés depuis 1969. Néanmoins, la durée pendant laquelle ce traitement doit être maintenu et ses modalités d’arrêt sont imprécises. Objectif Conduire une revue de la littérature sur le moment et les stratégies d’arrêt du traitement de substitution par méthadone et recueillir des opinions d’expert. Sources documentaires Nous avons conduit une recherche PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library et PsycINFO sur la période 1966–2011 en utilisant les mots clés methadone, maintenance, detoxification, tapering, cessation, withdrawal et dans des revues d’addictologie françaises non indexées. Nous avons également recueilli l’opinion du médecin responsable du centre de soins ayant la plus longue expérience de prescription de méthadone en France (depuis 1969). Sélection des études Nous avons exclu les études qui envisageaient la méthadone comme traitement bref du sevrage en opiacés et retenu 23 articles. Résultats Il existe un consensus sur le moment où l’on peut arrêter le traitement par méthadone, déterminé par le volontariat du patient, l’appréciation par le clinicien que le patient est stable depuis une durée suffisante mais aussi la motivation du patient et sa capacité à concevoir sa vie future sans substitution. De même, il existe une majorité d’articles prônant des modalités d’arrêt fondées sur des approches pragmatiques, utilisant des décroissances progressives, en ambulatoire, avec possibilité de retour en arrière en cas d’apparition de consommations d’héroïne, de symptômes de sevrage, ou de symptômes psychiatriques. Limites du travail Le nombre d’article est limité et nous avons trouvé peu d’études prospectives comparant différentes stratégies d’arrêt. Conclusion La substitution n’est pas forcément un traitement à vie pour tous les patients et son arrêt peut être envisagé au sein du cadre de prescription c’est-à-dire accompagné d’un suivi médical, psychologique et social.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · La Presse Médicale
  • Alain Dervaux · Xavier Laqueille
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    ABSTRACT: Les principales caractéristiques de la dépendance au cannabis sont le craving, la perte de contrôle de la consommation et le retentissement important sur la vie familiale, professionnelle, sociale ou de loisirs. Le sevrage, survenant chez les patients les plus sévèrement dépendants, est caractérisé principalement par des troubles du sommeil, une irritabilité, une humeur dysphorique et un craving intense. La consommation prolongée de cannabis induit des troubles cognitifs, en particulier des troubles de l’attention, de la mémoire de travail et de la mémoire épisodique. La dépendance cannabique est fréquemment associée à d’autres addictions, en particulier à des conduites d’alcoolisation. La dépendance cannabique est fréquemment associée à des comorbidités psychiatriques, en particulier à des troubles anxieux, des troubles de l’humeur et des troubles de la personnalité. La prise en charge repose sur les approches psychothérapiques, en particulier les entretiens motivationnels et les thérapies cognitivo-comportementales et la prise en charge des comorbidités psychiatriques. Il n’existe pas actuellement, pour les sujets dépendants au cannabis, de traitement médicamenteux spécifique du sevrage, de l’appétence ou de traitement de substitution.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · La Presse Médicale
  • Alain Dervaux · Xavier Laqueille
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    ABSTRACT: The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · La Presse Médicale
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methadone is prescribed in France as a maintenance treatment for heroin dependence since 1969. Nevertheless, the optimal duration of methadone maintenance treatment and how detoxification from methadone at the end of the treatment should be performed is still discussed. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on when and how detoxify clients from methadone maintenance treatment and to collect the opinion of experts in the field. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases on the 1966-2011 period using the keywords "methadone", "maintenance", "detoxification", "tapering", "cessation", "withdrawal". We also searched data in other addictive journals in French that are not available in those databases. We also collected the opinion of the physician in charge of the oldest methadone program in France (1969). STUDIES SELECTION: We excluded studies that used methadone as short time treatment of heroin withdrawal and thus selected 23 articles. RESULTS: There is a consensus on when methadone maintenance treatment should be stopped, defined by the client's will to stop, the judgement from the physician that the client has been stable for a period of time that is long enough, but also the client's motivation to live his life without maintenance treatment. There is also a majority, among articles on how methadone treatment should be stopped, recommending ambulatory, practical approaches using slow tapering of the dose, with the ability to go back to the previous dose if needed, namely in case of relapse to heroin use, heavy withdrawal or psychiatric symptoms. LIMITS: There are few articles addressing the subject, especially comparing prospectively different cessation strategies. CONCLUSION: Methadone maintenance treatment should not necessarily be maintained all life long and can be stopped within its prescription setting, including medical, psychological and social evaluation.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · La Presse Médicale

Publication Stats

472 Citations
316.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004-2012
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences (UMR_S 894)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006
    • Université de la Manouba
      La Manouba, Manouba, Tunisia
  • 1996
    • Sheffield Hallam University
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom