[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40-70 years with fasting TAG concentrations ≥1.2 mmol/L. Postprandial changes in plasma lipids following meals containing 75 g fat (NPO and IPO) were compared using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (n = 11). Although there were no significant differences in plasma TAG concentrations between meals over the total 6-h postprandial measurement period, IPO resulted in a decreased plasma TAG response during the first 4 h of the postprandial period (iAUC 1.65 mmol/L h, 95 % CI 1.01-2.29) compared to NPO (iAUC 2.33 mmol/L h, 95 % CI 1.58-3.07); meal effect P = 0.024. Chylomicron fraction TAG concentrations at 4-6 h were slightly reduced following IPO compared to NPO [NPO-IPO mean difference 0.29 mmol/L (95 % CI -0.01-0.59), P = 0.055]. There were no differences in IDL fraction TAG, cholesterol or apolipoprotein B48 concentrations following IPO compared with NPO. In conclusion, consuming a meal containing palm olein with a higher proportion of 16:0 in the sn-2 position decreases postprandial lipemia compared to native palm olein during the early phase of the postprandial period in men with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose.
We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose.
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05).
Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. We tested this hypothesis by comparing postprandial responses to fats with varying proportions of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position.
Using a crossover-designed randomized controlled trial in healthy men (n=25) and women (n=25), we compared four meals on postprandial changes in glucose (primary outcome), insulin, C-peptide, glucose, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and polypeptide YY (PYY) concentrations. The meals provided 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g test fat, supplied as high oleic sunflower (HOS) oil (control), palm olein (PO), interesterified palm olein (IPO) and lard containing 0.6, 9.2, 39.1 and 70.5 mol% palmitic acid at sn-2, respectively.
No differences in plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response between meals were found. GIP release was lower (P<0.001) for IPO and lard compared with HOS and PO meals; the maximal increments (geometric mean and 95% confidence interval) for HOS, PO, IPO and lard were 515 (468, 569), 492 (448, 540), 398 (350, 452) and 395 (364, 429) ng/l, respectively. There was a trend for the postprandial increase in PYY to be lower in women on the IPO and lard meals than those on the HOS and PO meals.
Dietary TAGs with an increased proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position do not have acute adverse effects on the insulin and glucose response to meals in healthy men and women, but they decrease GIP release.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · European journal of clinical nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The triacylglycerol structure of saturated fats may influence postprandial lipemia.
We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position decrease lipemia.
Postprandial changes in plasma lipids, apolipoprotein B48, and cytokines were compared in healthy men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) by using a randomized crossover design after meals that provided 50 g fat supplied as high-oleic sunflower oil (control), palm olein (PO), interesterified palm olein (IPO), and lard containing 0.6, 9.2, 39.1, and 70.5 mol% 16:0, respectively, at sn-2.
The sn-2-rich meals elicited different postprandial responses in plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid (meal × time, P = 0.00014), triacylglycerol (meal × time, P = 0.002), and apolipoprotein B48 (meal × time × sex, P = 0.008). Nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were lower up to 3 h after lard and IPO meals than after control or PO meals. Triacylglycerol increased less steeply after lard and IPO meals than after control and PO meals; the incremental AUCs (iAUCs) were 34% (95% CI: 7%, 124%; P < 0.05) and 26% (95% CI: 16%, 132%; P < 0.05) lower after lard than after control and PO meals, respectively. In men, the maximal increment in apolipoprotein B48 was 14% (95% CI: 3%, 25%; P < 0.05) and 16% (95% CI: 2%, 30%; P < 0.05) lower for lard and IPO, respectively, compared with control. The postprandial iAUC in triacylglycerol was 51% lower in women (P = 0.001) than in men. Plasma IL-6 increased postprandially, but IL-8, TNF-α, and E-selectin decreased after all meals.
Fats with a higher proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position decrease postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN20774126.
Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition