L Kyllönen

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (93)240.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Deleterious effects of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) have been established in experimental renal ischemia-reperfusion models but not in clinical renal transplantation thus far. Methods We studied MMP-9 and its physiological inhibitor tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in 45 consecutive patients of a larger trial in renal transplantation: perioperative anti-thymocyte globulin (group A, n = 15), perioperative basiliximab (group B, n = 16), and conventional triple therapy (group C, n = 14). In addition to systemic blood samples, local blood samples were obtained simultaneously at 1 and 5 minutes after reperfusion from iliac artery and graft vein for calculation of transrenal changes. Because anti-thymocyte globulin activates inflammation, group A was analyzed separately. Groups B and C were pooled (group BC). Results Anti-thymocyte globulin infusion caused a robust rise of MMP-9 in the systemic circulation in group A. No significant transrenal difference of MMP-9 or TIMP-1 occurred in either group during graft reperfusion. In group BC, strong transrenal release of MMP-9 at 1 minute after reperfusion correlated with cold ischemia time (R = 0.66, P =.0001) and was associated with delayed graft function (P =.052). Conclusions Renal production of MMP-9 on graft reperfusion is associated with cold ischemia time and emergence of delayed graft function. MMP inhibition may offer a means to reduce reperfusion injury in renal transplantation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sensitive screening methods have revealed that many patients have donor-specific human leucocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) prior to transplantation, regardless of negative crossmatch results. The clinical significance of pre-transplant (pre-Tx) DSAs for early graft function has remained unclear. Our aim was to examine the association of DSAs with delayed graft function (DGF). Methods Pre-Tx sera of 771 patients who received kidney transplants in our single-centre study were retrospectively screened. All transplantations were performed after negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch. Results DSAs were detected in 13% of the patients. The overall DGF rate in our study was 29%. Patients with DSAs had a higher incidence of DGF when compared with non-sensitized patients (48 and 26%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Third-party antibodies had no effect for DGF incidence (28%; P = 0.6098). The relative risk (RR) of DGF for patients with DSAs in the multivariate analysis was 2.039 (95% CI 1.246–3.335; P = 0.0046). Analyses of the cumulative mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) value of the DSAs revealed a rate of DGF more than two times higher in patients with a cumulative value of 3000–5000 MFI compared with a cumulative value of 1000–3000 (65 versus 31%; P = 0.0351). DSAs against any loci showed an elevated DGF incidence of 44–69% when compared with patients without DSA (27%). Conclusions The risk of DGF is twice as high in patients having pre-formed DSAs. Pre-Tx DSAs is a modifiable risk factor that can be obviated with careful organ allocation relying on careful pre-Tx analysis of non-accepted mismatches determined with sensitive solid phase methods.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
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    M Lempinen · J Stenman · L Kyllönen · K Salmela
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to clarify the frequency and the sequel of surgical complications occurring within 1 year after renal transplantation. Surgical complications after 1670 consecutive adult kidney transplantations performed between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. In 2%, a living-related allograft was used, and 10% were retransplantations. An intravesical technique without stenting was used for the ureteric implantation. There were 282 surgical complications occurring in 259 (15.5%) transplantations. Ureteral obstruction occurred in 53 (3.1%), lymphoceles in 39 (1.5%), postoperative hemorrhage in 36 (2.1%), and renal vein thrombosis in 22 (1.3%) patients, respectively. Out of the 17 lung emboli, 4 were fatal. Male recipients had twice as much ureteral stenosis as female (2.4 vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), and the opposite was true of urinary leakage (1.8% vs 4.0%, p < 0.025). Five-year patient and graft survival was impaired in patients with complications compared with patients without complications. Five-year patient survival was 92% versus 88% and graft survival 87% versus 74%. Surgical complications impair patient and graft survival after kidney transplantation. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
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    Maria E Hollmen · Lauri E Kyllönen · Jussi Merenmies · Kaija T Salmela
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a marker for acute kidney injury. We studied whether serum NGAL predicts delayed graft function (DGF) and recovery of kidney function after transplantation. Methods Serum NGAL was analyzed using commercial ELISA and point-of-care (POC) (Triage®, Biosite) methods. Serum samples were collected from 176 consecutive, deceased-donor kidney recipients just before transplant surgery and on day 1 and 14 after transplantation. The first 132 samples were analyzed with both methods and the remaining samples with the POC method. Results The correlation between the ELISA and POC methods was 0.89, p < 0.0001 and hence the POC method was used for the remaining analyses. DGF was seen in 66/176 patients. Day 1 sNGAL was significantly higher in DGF (588 ng/ml, SD 189.6) compared to early graft function (355 ng/ml, SD 166.2, p < 0.0001) and this difference persisted on day 14. Day 1 sNGAL predicted DGF with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.853 (CI 0.792-0.914, p < 0.0001). At the optimal cutoff level of 423 ng/ml the sensitivity was 87% and the specificity 77%. In a multivariate analysis, day 1 sNGAL emerged as an independent predictor of DGF. The sNGAL also predicted DGF lasting longer than 14 days with an AUC of 0.825 (CI 0.751-0.899, p < 0.0001). At the optimal cutoff level of 486 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 75%. Conclusion Serum NGAL predicts clinically significant DGF and is useful in the care of kidney transplant recipients.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe clinical course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in the current era is poorly described. We characterized the symptoms and outcome of all CMV infections in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients. Among 1129 kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 2004 and 2011 in Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Helsinki University Hospital, 297 patients with CMV infection were characterized.ResultsCMV disease occurred in 217/1129 patients (19.2%), and CMV infection in 297/1129 (26.3%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in 58% and fever in 47% patients with primary CMV disease, compared to 46% and 27% patients with symptomatic CMV reactivation, whereas leukopenia or thrombocytopenia were seen in only 17–28% patients, and malaise in 9–10%. Tissue-invasive CMV gastroenteritis was confirmed in 11% and CMV pneumonia in only 1% of patients with CMV disease. Only 1 patient died because of CMV infection (mortality 0.3%). Virus-related factors or the use of secondary prophylaxis did not predict the risk of recurrence, which occurred in 33% patients.Conclusion In conclusion, CMV disease remains a common problem after kidney transplantation. Gastrointestinal symptoms were common, especially in patients with primary CMV infection, whereas bone marrow suppression, hepatopathy, or malaise were seen less frequently.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Transplant Infectious Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Although longer pretransplant dialysis has been associated with poor kidney transplant outcome, no data about this association exist from the current era or from Europe. We studied the association of pretransplant dialysis duration on outcomes after kidney transplantation across two different time periods. All recipients of first kidney transplantation between 1990 and 2010 in Finland were included (N=3,105) in this observational follow-up study of an inception cohort. The association of the duration of pretransplant dialysis with patient and graft survival after transplantation was analyzed with multivariable Cox regression and competing risk analyses. The association of pretransplant dialysis duration with the risk of specific causes of death (cardiovascular, infectious, or other) was analyzed using competing risk analysis. Longer duration of pretransplant dialysis was an independent risk factor for patient death after transplantation (risk ratio [RR] 1.14 per 1-year increase) in the whole study population, but not for graft loss. Risk of death was increased in patients with greater than 12 months of pretransplant dialysis. After further adjustment in patients transplanted in 2000 to 2010, longer duration of dialysis remained an independent risk factor (RR 1.23 per 1-year increase). Longer duration of dialysis was an independent predictor of death resulting from cardiovascular diseases (RR 1.14 per 1-year increase), but not for other causes. The risk of death associated with longer duration of dialysis has not decreased over time, but remains an independent predictor of patient death after kidney transplantation because of increased risk of death resulting from cardiovascular diseases.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Transplantation
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The annual number of kidney transplantations in Finland is 150 to 200. Successful kidney transplantation improves the patient's quality of life and prognosis and is cost-effective as compared with dialytic therapy. Only a few per cent of transplantations are made from a living donor. Waiting times for kidney transplantations have become longer in the last few years. Whereas attempts should be made to better identify potential brain-dead organ donors in order to increase kidney transplantations, transplantations from living donors could also reduce the disproportion between the availability and the need of organs.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on dialysis modality and survival have shown conflicting results, mostly due to insufficient and varying control of confounding factors. Using comprehensive data on a well-defined patient cohort, we therefore investigated the association of dialysis modality with survival on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT) and whether this association varies between subgroups of patients. Survival analyses included all adult patients entering chronic RRT in Finland between 2000 and 2009 and used information obtained from the Finnish Registry for Kidney Diseases and the Finnish Kidney Transplant Registry. In our primary intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, we calculated relative risk of death according to dialysis modality on Day 91 from RRT start, comparing peritoneal dialysis (PD) to haemodialysis (HD). Relative risks were adjusted for putative confounders. Interactions between treatment groups and other variables were estimated. Of the total 4463 patients, 42% died during the 10 years of follow-up. Median survival time was 5.2 years. In unadjusted ITT analysis, relative risk of death of PD patients was 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.73, P < 0.001) compared with HD patients. With adjustment for 26 variables, the corresponding relative risk of death was 1.07 (95% CI 0.94-1.22, P = 0.33). When censoring at time of kidney transplantation, the result was similar with a relative risk of death of 1.09 (95% CI 0.95-1.25, P = 0.24) on PD compared with HD. PD is associated with several factors generally related to good prognosis. After comprehensive adjustment for putative confounding factors with the ITT analysis approach, we found no significant difference in survival between PD and HD patients.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence and clinical course of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) in our well-HLA-matched kidney transplant population mainly on low-dose cyclosporine-based triple-drug immunosuppression has not been described in detail. We aimed to characterize our patients with PyVAN and BK virus (BKV) viremia. Among 166 kidney transplantations between January 2007 and February 2011 followed up at Helsinki University Hospital nephrology clinic, 136 were screened for BKV viremia by quantitative analysis of BKV DNA in plasma. PyVAN was diagnosed by biopsy histopathology and SV40 T-antigen detection. BKV viremia or PyVAN were treated by reducing immunosuppression. BKV viremia was detected in 12 (9%) patients. PyVAN was diagnosed in six patients (4%). In the six patients with no PyVAN, four had low-level viremia (<10 000 copies/mL) of short duration (<2 months), one had high-level viremia, and one had sustained low-level viremia. After reduction of immunosuppression, all except one patient were able to clear viremia. No grafts were lost due to PyVAN. Even in a low-risk population, BKV viremia and PyVAN occur, highlighting the importance of monitoring viral loads. Reduction of immunosuppression was successful, and no grafts were lost due to PyVAN.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Clinical Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital obstructive uropathy can lead to end stage renal disease. Progression to end stage renal disease in childhood is well described but long-term prognosis in adulthood has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study we evaluated the risk of end stage renal disease in patients with posterior urethral valves. During 1953 to 2003 a total of 200 male patients were treated for posterior urethral valves at our institution and of these 193 could be followed for renal outcome. Followup data on patients treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation were collected from patient records and the Finnish Kidney Transplantation Registry, and data on deceased patients were collected from hospital records and the Finnish Population Register Centre. Median patient age at evaluation was 31 years (range 6 to 69). Of the 193 patients followed 44 (22.8%) had progression to end stage renal disease. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis the lifetime risk of end stage renal disease was 28.5% (SE 3.8%). No patient had end stage renal disease after the age of 34 years. The lowest serum creatinine value during postoperative year 1 was associated with speed of progression to end stage renal disease. Early presentation, pneumothorax, bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and recurrent urinary tract infections after the abolition of urethral obstruction were associated with an increased risk of end stage renal disease at followup. Congenital obstructive uropathy can lead to end stage renal disease during childhood or young adulthood. However, the risk of end stage renal disease seems to decrease eventually. Poor kidney function at presentation is associated with worse renal prognosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Expanding the criteria for deceased organ donors increases the risk of delayed graft function (DGF) and complicates kidney transplant outcome. We studied whether donor neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury, could predict DGF after transplantation. We included 99 consecutive, deceased donors and their 176 kidney recipients. For NGAL detection, donor serum and urine samples were collected before the donor operation. The samples were analyzed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (serum) and the ARCHITECT method (urine). Mean donor serum NGAL (S-NGAL) concentration was 218 ng/mL (range 27 to 658, standard deviation (SD) 145.1) and mean donor urine NGAL (U-NGAL) concentration was 18 ng/mL (range 0 to 177, SD 27.1). Donor S-NGAL and U-NGAL concentrations correlated directly with donor plasma creatinine levels and indirectly with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease equation for glomerular filtration rate. In transplantations with high (greater than the mean) donor U-NGAL concentrations, prolonged DGF lasting longer than 14 days occurred more often than in transplantations with low (less than the mean) U-NGAL concentration (23% vs. 11%, P = 0.028), and 1-year graft survival was worse (90.3% vs. 97.4%, P = 0.048). High U-NGAL concentration was also associated with significantly more histological changes in the donor kidney biopsies than the low U-NGAL concentration. In a multivariate analysis, U-NGAL, expanded criteria donor status and eGFR emerged as independent risk factors for prolonged DGF. U-NGAL concentration failed to predict DGF on the basis of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. This first report on S-NGAL and U-NGAL levels in deceased donors shows that donor U-NGAL, but not donor S-NGAL, measurements give added value when evaluating the suitability of a potential deceased kidney donor.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Critical care (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Different donor parameters and baseline biopsy have been used to assess the quality of donor organs. There is, however, no consensus which risk factors and chronic changes in the donor kidney can be accepted for transplantation. The study included 481 deceased organ donors and their 829 kidney recipients transplanted during 1995-2005. The biopsies were re-evaluated according to the Banff 97 classification. The prognostic significance of donor risk factors and Chronic Allograft Damage Index (CADI) was analyzed. We propose a new donor risk score, calculated as the count of positive risk factors from a defined set of factors in the medical history of the donor. This donor risk score predicts histological quality of the kidney, graft function, and survival. Transplantations from donors with donor risk score >4 had significantly decreased graft survival compared to those with donor risk scores 0-4; the five-yr death-censored graft survivals were 83% vs. 93%, respectively. High donor CADI score (>3) was associated with worse graft function and survival. Three-yr glomerular filtration rate declined from 82 to 49 mL/min with donor CADI increase from 0 to ≥4. Our results show that high donor risk score and CADI value reflect low functional reserve and risk for poor graft outcome.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Clinical Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed graft function (DGF), especially long-lasting DGF, complicates kidney transplant outcome. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an acute kidney injury marker; therefore, we tested whether urine NGAL could predict DGF, prolonged DGF (lasting over 14 days), or the quality of kidney function in transplant recipients without DGF (non-DGF). We collected urine samples from 176 recipients transplanted with deceased donor kidneys before and various days after transplantation. A total of 70 transplantations had DGF, of which 26 were prolonged. Patients who developed DGF had a significantly slower decrease in urinary NGAL compared with those without DGF, such that day 1 NGAL predicted DGF (area under the curve (AUC) 0.75) and predicted DGF in 15 of 112 cases with day 1 urine output over 1 l (AUC 0.70) and in 19 of 86 cases with a day 1 decrease in creatinine over 50 μmol/l (AUC 0.74). The urinary NGAL level on day 1 predicted prolonged DGF (AUC 0.75), which had significantly worse 1-year graft survival (73%), compared with shorter DGF (100%). In non-DGF, high day 3 NGAL (greater than the mean) was associated with significantly worse kidney function at 3 weeks compared with low NGAL, but not at 3 months and 1 year. NGAL did not correlate with long-term function in DGF. Hence, day 1 urinary NGAL predicted DGF even when it was not clinically expected early on, and importantly, it predicted prolonged DGF that led to worse graft survival.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 94 (EV-94) is an enterovirus serotype described recently which, together with EV-68 and EV-70, forms human enterovirus D species. This study investigates the seroprevalences of these three serotypes and their abilities to infect, replicate, and damage cell types considered to be essential for enterovirus-induced diseases. The cell types studied included human leukocyte cell lines, primary endothelial cells, and pancreatic islets. High prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against EV-68 and EV-94 was found in the Finnish population. The virus strains studied had wide leukocyte tropism. EV-94 and EV-68 were able to produce infectious progeny in leukocyte cell lines with monocytic, granulocytic, T-cell, or B-cell characteristics. EV-94 and EV-70 were capable of infecting primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells, whereas EV-68 had only marginal progeny production and did not induce cytopathic effects in these cells. Intriguingly, EV-94 was able to damage pancreatic islet β-cells, to infect, replicate, and cause necrosis in human pancreatic islets, and to induce proinflammatory and chemoattractive cytokine expression in endothelial cells. These results suggest that HEV-D viruses may be more prevalent than has been thought previously, and they provide in vitro evidence that EV-94 may be a potent pathogen and should be considered a potentially diabetogenic enterovirus type.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonging cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in CMV seronegative recipients of a kidney from CMV seropositive donor (D+/R–) may reduce the incidence of late infections. We analyzed late-onset primary CMV infections after 6 months valganciclovir prophylaxis. Data from all CMV D+/R– kidney transplant recipients between January 2004 and December 2008 at our center were analyzed. Patients with a functioning graft at 6 months after transplantation who received 6 months of valganciclovir prophylaxis 900 mg once daily were included (N = 127). CMV was diagnosed with quantitative PCR. Prophylaxis was completed in 119 patients. Prophylaxis was stopped at 3–5 months due to leukopenia or gastrointestinal side effects in eight patients. Late-onset primary CMV infection developed in 47/127 (37%) patients median 244 days after transplantation (range 150–655) and median 67 days after the cessation of prophylaxis (range 1–475). Four infections were asymptomatic. In others, symptoms included fever (N = 28), gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) (N = 24), respiratory tract symptoms (N = 12), and hepatopathy (N = 6). Median peak viral load was 13500 copies/mL (range 400–2 831 000). Recurrent CMV infection developed in 9/47 (19%) patients. No significant risk factors for CMV infection were identified. Symptomatic primary CMV infections were commonly detected also after prolonged valganciclovir prophylaxis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · American Journal of Transplantation
  • J. P. Peräsaari · L. Kyllönen · K. Salmela · J. Merenmies

    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Transplantation
  • Heikki Saha · Lauri Kyllönen · Petri Koskinen · Kaija Salmela
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    ABSTRACT: In the treatment of end-stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the best and most cost-effective alternative with regard to both prognosis and quality of life. Problems arise from the disproportion between the number of available allografts and the patients waiting for the transplantation. There are few absolute contraindications to kidney transplantation. In the assessment of the eligibility for transplantation of patients on dialysis the most important factors include cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases, other diseases affecting operability and life expectancy, age, excess weight and possible infections.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
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    ABSTRACT: The fate of islets in clinical transplantation is unclear. To elude on this positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed for 60 min during islet transplantation in five patients receiving six transplants. A fraction of the islets (23%) were labeled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) and carefully mixed with unlabeled islets just prior to intraportal transplantation. The peak radioactivity concentration in the liver was found at 19 min after start of islet infusion and corresponded to only 75% of what was expected, indicating that islets are lost during the transplantation procedure. No accumulation of radioactivity was found in the lungs. A nonphysiological peak of C-peptide was found in plasma during and immediately after transplantation in all subjects. Distribution in the liver was heterogeneous with wide variations in location and concentration. Islets found in areas with concentrations of >400 IEQ/cc liver tissue varied between 1% and 32% of the graft in different subjects. No side effects attributed to the PET/CT procedure were found. Clinical outcome in all patients was comparable to that previously observed indicating that the [(18)F]FDG labeling procedure did not harm the islets. The technique has potential to be used to assess approaches to enhance islet survival and engraftment in clinical transplantation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · American Journal of Transplantation

Publication Stats

2k Citations
240.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990-2015
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • • Division of Transplantation and Liver Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Surgical Hospital
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1992-2014
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Transplantation Laboratory
      • • IV Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Oral Medicine
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2004
    • Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland