Germán Prados

Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granata, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (8)13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in men and women with FM and compare sleep and clinical features between both genders. Methods: Fifteen women and 13 men were selected to participate in nine weekly CBT-I sessions that involved completing several self-reported questionnaires at pretreatment, post-treatment, and follow-up. Patients were recruited from the Rheumatology Service and Pain Unit of Hospital and a fibromyalgia association. Group psychotherapy was performed at clinical unit of the Faculty of Psychology. Results: Both groups showed significant clinical and statistical improvements in sleep quality and the main symptoms associated with FM (ie, pain intensity, fatigue, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related anxiety). Differential treatment responsiveness between sexes was observed. Male group exhibited significant changes at post-treatment in sleep disturbances and pain-related anxiety and catastrophizing. The female group showed post-treatment improvements in sleep latency, general fatigue, and depression, which persisted at follow-up. Conclusions: Differential responses to treatment between men and women were observed in some sleep- and pain-related variables. Outcomes show the needed to design different treatments for men and women with FM is discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Pain Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive attention to pain is a common psychological characteristic among people who suffer from chronic pain. The Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) is an internationally accepted tool to assess this feature, although there is no validated version of this measure for Spanish people with fibromyalgia. Since this pain syndrome mainly affects women, the aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the PVAQ in Spanish women with fibromyalgia. A group of 242 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia aged between 20 and 66 years participated in the study. The goodness of fit of several structures of the PVAQ reported in previous studies was compared via confirmatory factor analysis. A two-factor solution (active vigilance and passive awareness) of the 9-item shortened version (PVAQ-9) was identified as the most appropriate (RMSEA = .08, NNFI = .96, CFI = .97, GFI = .87). It showed good reliability (internal consistency α = .82), convergent validity and divergent validity (p < .01). The optimal cutoff point for identifying fibromyalgia women with worse daily functioning was a score of 24.5, with a sensitivity of .71 and a specificity of .75. The relevance of vigilance to pain for clinical research in fibromyalgia is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Alexithymia is a personality construct that is frequently identified in fibromyalgia (FM). Previous studies have explored the relationship between alexithymia and emotional distress in this disease. Yet, the additional link with factors of pain appraisal is unknown. This study examined the moderating effect of alexithymia in the relationship between emotional distress and pain appraisal in 97 FM women. A control group of 100 healthy women also participated in the study. All participants completed several self-reports about pain experience, sleep quality, impairment, emotional distress, pain appraisal, and alexithymia. FM women showed significantly more difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, but less externally oriented thinking than healthy women. In the clinical group, difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with lower sleep quality, higher anxiety and depression, and increased pain catastrophizing and fear of pain. Difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with higher pain experience and vigilance to pain. Externally oriented thinking was not correlated with any of the clinical variables. Difficulty in identifying feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and pain catastrophizing, and difficulty in describing feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and fear of pain. Implications of the findings for the optimization of care of FM patients are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study was the first to explore whether individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) have different cognitive alterations (i.e., in alertness, orienting, and executive control) depending on their sex. We also analysed possible gender differences in the relationships between cognitive functioning and some of the main symptoms of FM. DesignCross-sectional study. Methods Two clinical groups with FM (n=58 women and n=20 men) and two healthy control groups (n=21 women and n=27 men) aged between 30 and 60years old participated in this study. Pain intensity, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and daily functioning were evaluated with self-report measures. Attentional function was assessed with the ANT-I task (Attentional Network Test-Interactions). ResultsMixed ANOVAs showed impairment in vigilance and executive control in both male and female patients with FM compared with controls. Control men were faster than control women, but FM eliminated sex differences. In addition, attention deficit was associated with worse daily functioning in women but not in men with FM. Emotional distress and sleep disruption seemed to contribute differently to these cognitive alterations in both sexes. Conclusions Therapy strategies aimed at reducing emotional distress and sleep disruption are likely to improve cognitive function by enhancing vigilance. Therapies aimed at reducing emotional distress seem to improve attentional function more in women than in men; those aimed at improving sleep quality are likely to reduce a vigilance/alertness deficit in women and executive problems in men.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · British Journal of Health Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) is much lower in men than in women. Therefore, current knowledge about this chronic pain syndrome emerged mainly from research on women. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical symptoms and sleep parameters between male and female FM patients. Forty FM patients (18 men and 22 women) aged 48.00±8.45 years were evaluated with questionnaires on pain, sleep, fatigue, depression, anxiety and functional impact, and polysomnography (PSG). 61% of male FM patients had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 15, compared to 31.8% of women, and a desaturation index (DI) above five, which was twice more prevalent in men than in women. In addition, males had poorer sleep quality (16.05±2.92% vs. 13.08±3.88%; p=0.01) and slow wave sleep (SWS) (stage 3 duration: 9.02±7.84% vs. 14.44±7.32%; p=0.03) than women. No differences were found between the two groups in the level of pain, emotional distress, or daily functioning. However, pain in men, fatigue in women, and functional impact in both sexes seemed to be related to worse sleep quality. Also in women, alterations in total sleep time (TST) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep features appeared to be related to emotional status. Alterations in sleep respiratory patterns were more highly prevalent in male than in female FM patients. More so in male FM patients, the alterations in sleep patterns, non-refreshing sleep, and other FM-related symptoms observed in this population might be part of a primary sleep-disordered breathing.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with fibromyalgia (FM) have a significant problem of insomnia, which is usually considered as a simple consequence of pain. Disfunctional beliefs about sleep are one of the main maintenance factors of chronic insomnia. However no studies have analyzed the possible contribution of these beliefs to the sleep problems observed in FM. In the present study, 90 women with FM and 70 healthy women completed several self-report measures about sleep, pain, mood state, and daily functioning. Both groups differed significantly in all the variables. In the clinical group, poor sleep quality correlates with greater pain, depression, anxiety and low level of functioning. In addition, patients with FM showed more disfunctional beliefs about sleep, wich correlate significantly with several measures. Pain intensity, depression and disfunctional beliefs about the consequences of insomnia for health are significant predictors of poor sleep quality. The implications of these findings for current treatment of FM are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Behavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual
  • German Prados · Elena Miro
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    ABSTRACT: Although medical literature has devoted little attention to sleep compared to other symptoms of fibro-myalgia, the American College of Rheumatology has recently proposed that sleep should be a central aspect of the clinical assessment of fibromyalgia. Despite this, no comprehensive reviews have encompassed the physiopathological, psycho-social and therapeutic aspects of the relationship between sleep and fibromyalgia. A bibliographic search of the terms 'fibromyalgia' and 'sleep' was made in the platforms Scopus and OVID (Medline, PsychINFO and Ovid Nursing Database) from 1 January 1990 to 31 August 2011. After applying certain inclusion criteria, 112 records were selected. The importance of sleep in this syndrome is increasingly being understood thanks to the progress made in research on fibromyalgia and the use of biopsychosocial explanatory models. Many studies have shown complex inter-actions between sleep disturbances, neuroendocrine and immune abnormalities and the clinical symptoms present in fibromyalgia. Such interactions suggest that sleep disturbances may be both a cause and a consequence of fibromyalgia. Although sleep improvement contributes to alleviating various symptoms of fibromyalgia, there are few effective drugs available and their use has some disadvantages. Regarding other non-drug therapies, it is important to highlight the promising findings of cognitive-behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise. Future research should determine the advantages of each of these treatments and assess their cost-effectiveness.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Revista de neurologia
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome associated with adverse symptoms of cognitive, behavioural, and emotional dysfunction. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that sleep dysfunction, which affects almost all FM patients, has a reciprocal influence on pain. Yet, little is known about the relationship between sleep and other FM symptoms. The present study analysed the role of sleep dysfunction as a mediator of the impact of pain intensity on anxiety, depression, and daily functioning, comparing them with the mediating role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 104 women with FM and 86 healthy control women completed a semi-structured interview and self-reported measures of pain, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, and daily functioning. Multiple mediation models were proposed and a bootstrapping approach was used to test these models. Women diagnosed with FM had more dysfunctional scores on the variables examined than control participants, and there were significant relationships between all the variables examined in the mediation models for the FM group. The mediation analyses suggested that sleep quality and self-efficacy significantly mediated the relationship between pain and emotional distress. Additionally, self-efficacy was a significant mediator and sleep quality a likely mediator that was marginally significant in the relationship between pain and functioning. Sleep dysfunction is importantly related to FM symptoms and deserves more attention in both research and clinical practice. Our results suggest that, in addition to the usual treatment of FM, improving sleep could optimize the current management of the syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · British Journal of Health Psychology