[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the validity of robotic surgery (RS) for pediatric choledochal cyst (CC) in comparison to open surgery (OS).
From January 2009 to April 2013, clinical data from 79 consecutive pediatric patients with CC, who underwent RS (n=36) or OS (n=43) performed by a single pediatric surgeon, were analyzed retrospectively.
In the RS group, the age of the patients was significantly older, compared to the OS group. Operation and anesthesia times were significantly longer in the RS group than the OS group. Fluid input rates to maintain the same urine output were significantly smaller in the RS group than the OS group. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, length of postoperative hospital stay, and the incidence of surgical complications did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Although early complications could not be avoided during the development of robotic surgical techniques, RS for pediatric CC showed results comparable to those for OS. We believe that RS may be a valid and alternative surgery for pediatric CC. After further development of robotic surgical systems and advancement of surgical techniques therewith, future prospective studies may reveal more positive results.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Yonsei medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate perfusion change in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to evaluate liver fibrosis based on biliary obstruction using an animal model.
New Zealand white rabbits (3-4 kg) underwent bile duct ligation to form a biliary obstruction model. We performed liver CEUS and laboratory tests on the day before the operation (day 0) and every 7 postoperative days until the rabbits were sacrificed. After CEUS, signal intensity of liver parenchyma with a time-intensity curve was analyzed. Perfusion parameters were automatically calculated from region-of-interests, including peak signal intensity, mean transit time, area under the curve and time to peak. Histological grades of liver fibrosis were assessed according to the Metavir score system immediately after sacrifice. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between liver fibrosis grades and perfusion parameters for statistical analysis. The perfusion parameters were measured on the last day and the difference between day 0 and the last day were evaluated.
From the nine rabbits, histological grades of liver fibrosis were grade 1 in one rabbit, grade 2 and 3 in three rabbits each, and grade 4 in two rabbits. Among the four CEUS parameters, only the peak signal intensity measured on the last day demonstrated a significant association with liver fibrosis grades (OR = 1.392, 95%CI: 1.114-1.741, P = 0.004). The difference in peak signal intensity between day 0 and the last day also demonstrated an association with liver fibrosis (OR = 1.191, 95%CI: 0.999-1.419, P = 0.051). The other parameters tested, including mean transit time, area under the curve, and time to peak, showed no significant correlation with liver fibrosis grades.
This animal study demonstrates that CEUS can be used to evaluate liver fibrosis from biliary obstruction using peak signal intensity as a parameter.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pediatric case report was to provide clinical evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic surgical glue injection hernioplasty (LSGIH) in humans for indirect inguinal hernia repair.
We performed LSGIH on a female newborn for a right indirect inguinal hernia that was incidentally discovered during a laparoscopic right salphingo-oophorectomy for prenatal right ovarian cyst torsion. Under laparoscopic control, the internal ring was closed by injection of Histoacryl® into the internal opening of the patent processus vaginalis. One month later, the patient underwent another laparoscopic operation due to torsion of a newly developed contralateral ovarian cyst. During the second operation, we were able to clearly observe the previous LSGIH site. Despite partial absorption of the injected Histoacryl®, the opening of the internal ring remained closed without any evidence of adhesions.
This case supports LSGIH as a simple, safe, and useful technique for pediatric inguinal hernioplasty. However, more clinical trials should be performed to confirm the long-term reliability and safety of LSGIH in humans.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The term benign transient non-organic ileus of neonates (BTNIN) is applied to neonates who present symptoms and plain radiographic findings of Hirschsprung's disease, but do not have aganglionic bowel and are managed well by conservative treatment. It can often be difficult to diagnose BTNIN because its initial symptoms are similar to those of Hirschsprung's disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and proper treatment of BTNIN.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review was made on the clinical data of 19 neonates who were treated for BTNIN between January 2008 and December 2011 at a single facility.
Abdominal distension occurred in every patient (19/19). Other common symptoms included emesis (5/19), explosive defecation (5/19), and constipation (4/19). The vast majority of patients (15/19) experienced the onset of symptoms between 2 and 4 weeks of age. Radiograph findings from all of the patients were similar to Hirschsprung's disease. A barium study showed a transition zone in 33.4% (6/18) of the patients. However, rectal biopsy revealed ganglion cells in the distal rectum in 88.2% (15/17) of the patients, and anorectal manometry showed a normal rectoanal inhibitory reflex in 90% (9/10). All patients responded well to conservative treatment. Symptoms disappeared at the mean age of 4.9±1.0 months, and the abdominal radiographs normalized.
BTNIN had an excellent outcome with conservative treatment, and must be differentiated from Hirschsprung's disease. A rectal biopsy and anorectal manometry were useful diagnostic tools in the differential diagnosis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Yonsei medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine clinical indications for performing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with acceptable results by reviewing our experience in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair and comparing outcomes of MIS with open surgery.
Medical records of patients who underwent CDH repair were reviewed retrospectively between January 2008 and December 2012, and outcomes were compared between MIS and open repair of CDH.
From 2008 to 2012, 35 patients were operated on for CDH. Among these patients, 20 patients underwent open surgery, and 15 patients underwent MIS. Patients with delayed presentations (60.0% [9/15] in the MIS group vs. 20.0% [4/20] in the open surgery group; P = 0.015) and small diaphragmatic defect less than 3 cm (80.0% [12/15] in the MIS group vs. 0.0% [0/20] in the open surgery group; P < 0.001) were more frequently in the MIS group than the open surgery group. All 10 patients who also had other anomalies underwent open surgery (P = 0.002). Moreover, nine patients who needed a patch for repair underwent open surgery (P = 0.003). Patients in the MIS group showed earlier enteral feeding and shorter hospital stays. There was no recurrence in either group.
CDH repair with MIS can be suggested as the treatment of choice for patients with a small sized diaphragmatic defect, in neonates with stable hemodynamics and without additional anomalies, or in infants with delayed presen tation of CDH, resulting in excellent outcomes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the Korean Surgical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared long-term outcomes of left- vs right-sided antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedures.
We retrospectively analyzed medical records and performed a follow-up telephone survey of patients who underwent the ACE procedure at Severance Children's Hospital between 1999 and 2011.
A total of 49 patients underwent 51 ACE procedures. The procedures were left-sided ACE in 25 patients (group 1) and right-sided in 26 patients (group 2), including 2 patients who underwent left-sided procedures a few years earlier. Fecal soiling was more common in group 1 than in group 2 (8/25 [32.0%] vs 1/26 [3.9%], respectively; P = .0109). Seven patients (28.0%) in group 1 had abdominal pain unrelieved by ACEs. Stomal reflux of fecal material was more frequent in group 1 than in group 2 (13/25 [52.0%] vs 0/26 [0%], respectively; P < .0001). Nonuse or infrequent use of ACE was more common in group 1 than in group 2 (11/25 [44.0%] vs 0/26 [0%], respectively; P < .0001). Patient satisfaction was higher in group 2 (P = .0015).
In our experience using the sigmoid colon for left-sided ACE, right-sided ACE was superior to left-sided ACE in achieving fecal continence, resolving intractable constipation, and providing patient satisfaction.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment for esophageal atresia has advanced over several decades due to improvements in surgical techniques and neonatal intensive care. Subsequent to increased survival, postoperative morbidity has become an important issue in this disease. The aim of our study was to analyze our experience regarding the treatment of esophageal atresia.
We reviewed and analyzed the clinical data of patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at Severance Children's Hospital from 1995 to 2010 regarding demographics, surgical procedures, and postoperative outcomes.
Seventy-two patients had surgery for esophageal atresia. The most common gross type was C (81.9%), followed by type A (15.3%). Primary repair was performed in 52 patients. Staged operation was performed in 17 patients. Postoperative esophageal strictures developed in 43.1% of patients. Anastomotic leakages occurred in 23.6% of patients, and recurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula was reported in 8.3% of patients. Esophageal stricture was significantly associated with long-gap (≥3 cm or three vertebral bodies) atresia (P = 0.042). The overall mortality rate was 15.3%. The mortality in patients weighing less than 2.5 kg was higher than in patients weighing at least 2.5 kg (P = 0.001). During the later period of this study, anastomotic leakage and mortality both significantly decreased compared to the earlier study period (P = 0.009 and 0.023, respectively).
The survival of patients with esophageal atresia has improved over the years and the rate of anastomotic leakage has been significantly reduced. However, overall morbidities related to surgical treatment of esophageal atresia still exists with high incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The laparoscopic surgery for a choledochal cyst in children is technically challenging because of its high degree of complexity despite its possibility. In an attempt to overcome this laparoscopic weakness and to facilitate the difficult steps in the minimally invasive surgery for choledochal cyst resection in children, we have performed the robot-assisted resection of the choledochal cyst. The aim of this study is to report lessons and tips obtained from our experience of the robot-assisted choledochal cyst resection in children.
From July 2008 to October 2011, we have attempted robot-assisted resections of choledochal cyst for 14 children using the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System(®) (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). We analyzed retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients' clinical characteristics, operative methods, and postoperative outcomes including operative time, hospital days, and complications.
In 3 early consecutive cases, we encountered serious technical problems and complications. However, after the operator underwent the robot system off-site training program, complete resection of the choledochal cyst and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy were performed successfully without difficulty and any complication in the 11 later consecutive cases. The important technical developments of our late-period operations include placing the patient's body above the operative table, performing the extracorporeal jejunojejunostomy through an umbilical incision, omitting the operative cholangiography with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography substitution, exposure of the porta hepatis by lateral retractions of the gallbladder and the falciform ligament with anchoring sutures to the abdominal wall, and using a third robotic arm for counter-traction of tissues for careful dissection.
We believe that the techniques of pediatric robotic choledochal cyst resection have evolved from the previous experiences to be safer and easier.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure is a novel technique to lengthen and taper the bowel in patients with short bowel syndrome. The advantages of STEP include not only technical ease and simplicity, but also the ability to repeat the procedure. Herein, we report a case of extreme short bowel syndrome that was successfully treated by the second STEP procedure. A 3-day old newborn girl underwent STEP because of jejunal atresia with the small bowel length of 15 cm, but her bowel elongation was not enough to escape from short bowel syndrome. At the age of 6 months, she underwent a second STEP procedure. The bowel lengthening by the second STEP made her tolerable to enteral feeding with body weight gain and rescued her from short bowel syndrome. This case showed that second STEP is very helpful in treatment of extreme short bowel syndrome.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the correlation between the change of atopic dermatitis (AD) severity and the change of quality of life (QOL).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental pollutants are thought to be one of major triggers of atopic dermatitis (AD).
We attempted to evaluate the clinical effects of environment with low indoor pollutant levels on AD management.
Fifty-one children (mean age 1.7 years) with moderate to severe AD who failed to show improvement with conventional management were recruited. Disease severity was assessed by SCORAD (Scoring of AD) indices. They were admitted in a low pollutant oom for 3-4 days (mean 3.3 days) which was designed to keep low levels of dust, house dust mites, micro-organisms, and indoor air pollutants such as total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), particulate matter (PM), and so on. Air pollutant levels in the low pollutant room were lower than primary standards defined by the Korean Ministry of Environment. we compared disease severity on admission and after discharge, and the pollutant levels of each patient's home and low pollutant room.
The SCORAD was significantly reduced from 42.0 ± 11 .5 to 29.8 ± 8.9 (p < 0.001) by management in a low pollutant room. PM(2.5), PM(10), formaldehyde, TVOCs, carbon dioxide, bacterial suspensions, and indoor molds were significantly higher in the patient's home than low pollutant room. Out of 29 patients who deteriorated after discharge to their home, 8 patients were admitted again, and their SCORAD was rapidly decreased from 53.1 ± 16.2 to 39.2 ± 9.8 (p = 0.036).
Indoor air pollutants are likely to affect AD in susceptible individuals. Environmental control to lower indoor air pollutant levels might be necessary for better management of AD in some patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with biliary atresia (BA) treated with Kasai portoenterostomy may later develop intractable cholangitis (IC) that is unresponsive to routine conservative treatment. It may cause biliary cirrhosis and eventually hepatic failure with portal hypertension. Control of IC requires prolonged hospitalization for the administration of intravenous antibiotics. To reduce the hospitalization period, we designed a home intravenous antibiotic treatment (HIVA) which can be administered after initial inpatient treatment. In this study, we reviewed the effects of this treatment.
We reviewed medical records of 10 patients treated with HIVA for IC after successful Kasai portoenterostomies performed for BA between July 1997 and June 2009.
The duration of HIVA ranged from 8 to 39 months (median, 13.5 months). The median length of hospital stay was 5.7 days per month for conventional treatments to manage IC before HIVA and, 1.5 days per month (P = 0.012) after HIVA. The median amount of medical expenses per month was reduced by about one tenth with HIVA. One patient underwent liver transplantation due to uncontrolled esophageal variceal bleeding, but the other nine patients had acceptable hepatic function with native livers.
HIVA may be an effective primary treatment for IC after Kasai portoenterostomies for BA, and reduce length of hospital stay and medical expense.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe our early experiences with a novel surgical procedure, "slide thyrocricotracheoplasty," for the treatment of high-grade subglottic stenosis in children.
A retrospective analysis was performed in 7 children who underwent slide thyrocricotracheoplasty for high-grade subglottic stenosis from 1996 to 2009.
Three patients were male and four were female. The etiology of subglottic stenosis was congenital (n = 4) or acquired (n = 3). All patients had undergone a tracheostomy before slide thyrocricotracheoplasty. Median age at operation was 16 months (range, 1-25 months). The median follow-up period after definitive operation was 58 months (range, 13-156 months). There was one case requiring debridement and re-anastomosis of slide thyrocricotracheoplasty site because of anastomotic disruption caused by a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection of the cartilage and one case requiring a minor operation to remove granulation tissue. At final follow-up, all patients did not have any airway cannulation with satisfactory functional outcome in terms of breathing and swallowing. All except one were noted to have acceptable vocal function. The patient with unsatisfactory vocal function continued to receive voice rehabilitation treatment.
Slide thyrocricotracheoplasty offers an efficient surgical treatment option with minimal morbidity for high-grade subglottic stenosis in children.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery