[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustained antibody levels are a hallmark of immunity against many pathogens, and induction of long-term durable antibody titers is an essential feature of effective vaccines. Heterologous prime-boost approaches with vectors are optimal strategies to improve a broad and prolonged immunogenicity of malaria vaccines.
In this study, we demonstrate that the heterologous prime-boost regimen Ad35-CS/BCG-CS induces stronger immune responses by enhancing type 1 cellular producing-cells with high levels of CSp-specific IFN-γ and cytophilic IgG2a antibodies as compared to a homologous BCG-CS and a heterologous BCG-CS/CSp prime-boost regimen. Moreover, the heterologous prime-boost regimen elicits the highest level of LLPC-mediated immune responses.
The increased IFN-γ-producing cell responses induced by the combination of Ad35-CS/BCG-CS and sustained type 1 antibody profile together with high levels of LLPCs may be essential for the development of long-term protective immunity against liver-stage parasites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A protective malaria vaccine may induce both high levels of neutralising antibodies and strong T-cell responses. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSp) is a leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate. CSp is a week immunogen per se, but Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has excellent adjuvant activity and has been utilized as a vector to deliver heterologous vaccine candidate antigens. It is safe in immunocompetent individuals and inexpensive to produce.We assessed in vitro and in vivo a recombinant BCG-expressing CSp (BCG-CS) as malaria vaccine candidate. Immunisation of BALB/c mice with BCG-CS augmented numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes and in the spleen. The activation markers MHC-class-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 on DCs were significantly upregulated by BCG-CS as compared to wild-type BCG (wt-BCG). In vitro stimulation of bone marrow-derived DCs and macrophages with BCG-CS induced IL-12 and TNF-α production. BCG-CS induced higher phagocytic activity in macrophages as compared to wt-BCG. Immunogenicity studies show that BCG-CS induced CS-specific antibodies and IFN-γ-producing memory cells.In conclusion, BCG-CS is highly efficient in activating antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for priming of adaptive immunity. Implications for the rational design of novel vaccines against malaria and TB, the two major devastating poverty-related diseases, are discussed.Highlights► BCG-CS induced superior activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ► BCG-CS induced CS-specific antibody responses. ► BCG-CS induced strong CS-specific T-cell responses. ► The response is polarized towards TH1 type immunity. ► BCG-CS is highly efficient in activating APCs for priming of adaptive immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development and innate immune defence are two vital processes that have been demonstrated to use the same or similar molecules and signalling pathways in insects. Hemolin is a moth haemolymph protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is strongly induced upon bacterial infection. However, recent studies indicate a developmental regulation of hemolin. We show that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) can activate the expression of Hyalophora cecropia Hemolin (HcHemolin) in the fat body of diapausing pupae. Using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide we demonstrate that Hemolin up-regulation by 20E requires ongoing protein synthesis. Moreover, 20E enhances transcription of the Hemolin gene in response to bacteria. Comparing the upstream regions of Manduca sexta Hemolin (MsHemolin) and HcHemolin, we identified four putative regulatory sites. Two are putative hormone response elements (HREs), one with an imperfect inverted repeat (HRE-IR) and one with a monomeric site (HRE-M). An additional monomeric hormone receptor site (MRE) is present only in HcHemolin. The third conserved motif is similar to the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor binding element (IRF-E) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE). The fourth conserved element is a kappaB motif situated between the Cap-site and the TATA-box. Finally, by electrophoresis mobility shift assay we demonstrate that the HRE-IR forms specific complexes with nuclear extract proteins of normal pupae that increase after 20E stimulation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Insect Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemolin is the most abundant bacteria-induced proteins in Hyalophora cecropia hemolymph. Its structural features, both at the protein and gene level, ascribe this molecule to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF) with particular homology to neural cell adhesion molecules. An increasing number of evidence suggest a role in immune recognition and in cell adhesion events. Hemolin is also developmentally regulated as suggested by changes in its concentration during larval and pupal ecdysis (Trenczek, T., 1998. Endogenous defense mechanisms of insects. Zoology 101, 298-315; Lanz-Mendoza, H., Faye, I., 1999. Physiological aspects of the immunoglobulin superfamily in invertebrates. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 23, 359-374). In the present study the expression of hemolin was investigated in oogenesis and in early embryogenesis. Our results reveal that hemolin is expressed in follicles and in epidermal and neural tissues of embryos.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2000 · Mechanisms of Development