[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study characterized the kynurenine pathway (KP) in human obesity by evaluating circulating levels of kynurenines and the expression of KP enzymes in adipose tissue.
Tryptophan and KP metabolite levels were measured in serum of individuals from the D.E.S.I.R. cohort (case-cohort study: 212 diabetic, 836 randomly sampled) and in women with obesity, diabetic or normoglycemic, from the ABOS cohort (n = 100). KP enzyme gene expressions were analyzed in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of women from the ABOS cohort, in human primary adipocytes and in monocyte-derived macrophages.
In the D.E.S.I.R. cohort, kynurenine levels were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 4.68 × 10(-19) ) and with a higher HOMA2-IR insulin resistance index (P = 6.23 × 10(-4) ). The levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and quinolinic acid were associated with higher BMI (P < 0.05). The expression of several KP enzyme genes (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 [IDO1], kynureninase [KYNU], kynurenine 3-monooxygenase [KMO], and kynurenine aminotransferase III [CCBL2]) was increased in the omental adipose tissue of women with obesity compared to lean (P < 0.05), and their expression was induced by proinflammatory cytokines in human primary adipocytes (P < 0.05), except for KMO that is not expressed in these cells. The expressions of IDO1, KYNU, KMO, and CCBL2 were higher in proinflammatory than in anti-inflammatory macrophages (P < 0.05).
In the context of obesity, the presence of macrophages in adipose tissue may contribute to diverting KP toward KMO activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-α (IFN-α) is the only approved adjuvant treatment for high-risk melanoma patients in Europe, but the impact on overall survival is low. Although it is believed that IFN-α exerts its effects through immunomodulation, data on its impact on circulating immune cells are scarce. Flow cytometry was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight IFN-α2b-treated stage III melanoma patients and 26 untreated stage III melanoma patients as controls to enumerate myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (mDC and pDC), monocytic and polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC and pmnMDSC) and cytotoxic and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). The expression of several immunosuppressive markers [indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed-death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4)] was explored. IDO activity in the blood was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with controls, IFN-α2b treatment was associated with increased IDO expression by pDCs (P=0.021) and an increased kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in the serum (P=0.004), compatible with IDO enzyme activity. Furthermore, IFN-α2b-treated patients had a decreased mDC/DC ratio (P=0.002), decreased CD3+ lymphocytes (P=0.034) and increased circulating Treg (P<0.001) and PD-L1+cytotoxic T-cell (P=0.001) frequencies. IDO expression is upregulated in circulating pDCs of high-risk melanoma patients treated with adjuvant IFN-α2b. This is associated with tryptophan consumption in the patients' serum and higher Treg and PD-L1+cytotoxic T-cell frequencies. We hypothesize that in IFN-α2b-treated patients, IDO activity acts as a negative feedback mechanism and might limit the clinical efficacy of IFN-α2b therapy. The underlying mechanism should be explored as this could lead to more efficient immunotherapies.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Melanoma research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In melanoma, both the induction of immunosuppression by tumor cells and the inflammatory antitumor response
can induce an upregulation of counter-regulatory mechanisms such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO),
programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CTLA-4C regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment. Even
though these immunosuppressive mediators are targets for immunotherapy, research investigating their expression in
the peripheral blood is lacking. We therefore, performed flow cytometry on PBMCs of stage I–IV melanoma patients.
IDO expression was detected in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells
(mMDSC), and increased in advanced disease stage (p D 0.027). Tryptophan breakdown confirmed the functional
activity of IDO and was linked with increased PD-L1C cytotoxic T-cells (p D 0.009), relative lymphopenia (p D 0.036),
and a higher mDC/pDC ratio (p D 0.002). High levels of circulating PD-L1C cytotoxic T-cells were associated with
increased CTLA-4 expression by Tregs (p D 0.005) and MDSC levels (p D 0.033). This illustrates that counter-regulatory
immune mechanisms in melanoma should be considered as one interrelated signaling network. Moreover, both
increased PD-L1C T-cells and CTLA-4 expression in Tregs conferred a negative prognosis, indicating their in vivo
relevance. Remarkably, circulating CTLA-4, IDO, and pDC levels were altered according to prior invasion of the sentinel
lymph node and IDO expression in the sentinel was associated with more IDOC PBMCs. We conclude that the
expression of IDO, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 in the peripheral blood of melanoma patients is strongly interconnected,
associated with advanced disease and negative outcome, independent of disease stage. Combination treatments
targeting several of these markers are therefore likely to exert a synergistic response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-grade and chronic inflammation is elicited in white adipose tissue in human obesity. The presence of inflammatory molecules leads to an increased tryptophan catabolism through the induction of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). In order to characterize the mechanisms underlying this dysregulation, we have studied 2 mouse models of obesity. Unexpectedly, we did not detect any IDO1 expression in obese or lean mice adipose tissue. In a previous study, we did not find any significant difference in the liver for IDO2 and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) gene expression between normal weight and obese patients. IDO2 and TDO2 expression was increased in the liver of high-fat fed mice, but not in ob/ob mice, and was strongly correlated with hydroxysteroid-(11-beta) dehydrogenase-1 (HSD11B1) expression, an enzyme that generates active cortisol within tissues. In conclusion, despite a dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism, obese mice display discrepancies with human obesity metabolism, rendering them inappropriate for further investigations in this animal model.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Tryptophan Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tryptophan catabolism, which is mediated by the enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), produces kynurenine. Kynurenine itself is converted by downstream enzymes into secondary catabolites. We evaluated the serum levels of primary and secondary tryptophan catabolites in a cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The MDS patients showed significantly higher levels tryptophan catabolites which correlated with cytopenia. The tryptophan catabolites inhibited progenitor expansion during the in vitro culture of hematopoietic cells. Thus, MDS patients are characterized by high tryptophan catabolism resulting in elevated primary and secondary metabolites, which both have inhibitory effects on hematopoiesis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Leukemia research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissue and is often associated with hypertension. The potential induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), the rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan/kynurenine degradation pathway, by proinflammatory cytokines, could be associated with these disorders but has remained unexplored in obesity. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected IDO1 expression in white adipose tissue of obese patients, and we focused on its contribution in the regulation of vascular tone and on its immunoregulatory effects. Concentrations of tryptophan and kynurenine were measured in sera of 36 obese and 15 lean women. The expression of IDO1 in corresponding omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues and liver was evaluated. Proinflammatory markers and T-cell subsets were analyzed in adipose tissue via the expression of CD14, IL-18, CD68, TNFα, CD3ε, FOXP3 [a regulatory T-cell (Treg) marker] and RORC (a Th17 marker). In obese subjects, the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan, which reflects IDO1 activation, is higher than in lean subjects. Furthermore, IDO1 expression in both adipose tissues and liver is increased and is inversely correlated with arterial blood pressure. Inflammation is associated with a T-cell infiltration in obese adipose tissue, with predominance of Th17 in the omental compartment and of Treg in the subcutaneous depot. The Th17/Treg balance is decreased in subcutaneous fat and correlates with IDO1 activation. In contrast, in the omental compartment, despite IDO1 activation, the Th17/Treg balance control is impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that IDO1 activation represents a local compensatory mechanism to limit obesity-induced inflammation and hypertension.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway that is an important component of immunomodulatory and neuromodulatory processes. The IDO1 gene is highly inducible by IFN-γ and TNF-α through interaction with cis-acting regulatory elements of the promoter region. Accordingly, functional polymorphisms in the IDO1 promoter could partly explain the interindividual variability in IDO expression that has been previously documented.
A PCR-sequencing strategy, applied to DNA samples from healthy Caucasians, allowed us to identify a VNTR polymorphism in the IDO1 promoter, which correlates significantly with serum tryptophan concentration, controlled partially by IDO activity, in female subjects, but not in males. Although this VNTR does not appear to affect basal or cytokine-induced promoter activity in gene reporter assays, it contains novel cis-acting elements. Three putative LEF-1 binding sites, one being located within the VNTR repeat motif, were predicted in silico and confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of LEF-1 in luciferase assays confirmed an interaction between LEF-1 and the predicted transcription factor binding sites, and modification of the LEF-1 core sequence within the VNTR repeat motif, by site-directed mutagenesis, resulted in an increase in promoter activity.
The identification of a VNTR in the IDO1 promoter revealed a cis-acting element interacting with the most downstream factor of the Wnt signaling pathway, suggesting novel mechanisms of regulation of IDO1 expression. These data offer new insights, and suggest further studies, into the role of IDO in various pathological conditions, particularly in cancer where IDO and the Wnt pathway are strongly dysregulated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Ethyl-β-D-6-glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase-II metabolite of ethanol. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a gas chromatography negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) method to measure EtG levels in human urine and serum with both high sensitivity and specificity. Methods: EtG was extracted and purified from 1 mL urine or 0.5 mL serum by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Mixed-mode Anion-eXchange (Oasis®MAX) extraction cartridges, followed by derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the transitions m/z 496→163 (for EtG quantification), m/z 347→163 and m/z 496→119 (for identification), and m/z 501→163 for the internal standard EtG-D5. The validation procedure was performed according to the guidelines of the French Society of Analytical Toxicology (SFTA) and the French Committee of Accreditation (COFRAC; LAB GTA 04). Results: Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10 to 10 000 ng/mL and 5 to 1 000 ng/mL in urine and serum, respectively, with a coefficient of correlation (r) above 0.996. The LOD and LOQ values were 5 and 10 ng/mL, respectively, for both matrices. The intra-and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation RSD%) and relative bias were less than 20%. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of a GC-MS/MS method for EtG measurement in urine and serum. The LOQ achieved appears to be better than those reported in the literature using other validated analytical techniques. This method could be used routinely for EtG measurement in various clinical and forensic contexts.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Annales de Toxicologie Analytique