[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The patient was a 70-year-old woman who had been undergoing steroid and warfarin treatment for five years after being given a diagnosis of polymyositis and atrial fibrillation. She had a two-week history of hematochezia, but did not visit our hospital before the symptoms of sudden lower abdominal pain began. She presented deep tenderness and rebound tenderness in her left lower abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen revealed a pneumoperitoneum, suggestive of gastrointestinal perforation, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a perforation approximately 5 mm in diameter in the sigmoid colon. Therefore, we resected the perforated segment of the colon and performed a colostomy. Several ulcers were observed in the mucosa of the sigmoid colon, which was exposed for the colostomy. As the patient was under long-term steroid treatment, cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis was suspected; she was put on a 3-week course of ganciclovir. The postoperative progress was favorable and the patient was discharged on the 28th day of hospitalization. CMV inclusion bodies were detected in the pathological examination of the resected segment. To the best of our knowledge, no previous reports of cases of intestinal perforation caused by CMV enteritis during treatment for polymyositis have been published. When patients undergoing immunosuppresive therapy suffer gastrointestinal perforation, CMV enteritis should be suspected and early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 67-year-old man was referred to our hospital with suspicion of rectal tumor, hilar tumor, and urinary tumor. Colonoscopic findings were intermittent nodular lesions with redness which were atypical to primary rectal cancer. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed narrowing of the bilateral intrahepatic bile duct. However, the findings were improved 1 month later. Blood biochemistry showed high level of serum IgG4 up to 1140 mg/dl. The patient matched to comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease as a possible diagnostic case. Laparoscopic low anterior resection with creation of ileostomy was performed for rectal cancer. Histological findings revealed cancer cells spread horizontally at submucosal layer and subserosal layer. There was marked infiltration of the plasma cells and lymphocytes at tumor stroma, and more than half of the plasma cells were positive for IgG4. After surgery, the level of serum IgG4 was decreased to 597 mg/dl. Although the association with IgG4-related disease and colorectal disease is unclear, the tumor progression was atypical for rectal cancer. Some report that the disease may rise up the risk of a malignant disease. It is necessary to perform systemic examination keeping in mind for concurrence of malignancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential value of microRNAs (miRNAs) as prognostic biomarkers are of interest. It is known that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is implicated in the promotion, proliferation and progression of several types of human cancers. However, the prognostic significance of miR-21 in each tumor stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains elusive. The objective of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of miR-21 for CRC patients at each tumor stage. The expression levels of miR-21 in the tumor tissues and normal adjacent tumor tissues of 306 CRC patients were determined by TaqMan microRNA assays. In order to clarify the miRNA profile in CRC tissues, miRNA arrays were examined. In this analysis, miR-21, miR-224, miR-96, miR-31 and miR-155 showed marked upregulation, and miR-21 showed the highest level. Upon comparison of clinicopathological factors, miR-21 expression showed significant association with depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, liver metastasis and Dukes' stage. In the Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis of all patients, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of the patients with high miR-21 expression were significantly worse than these rates in patients with low miR-21 expression. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis of each tumor stage, the DFS of patients with high miR-21 expression was significantly worse than patients with low miR-21 levels in Dukes' stage A tumors. In Dukes' stage B and C, patients with high miR-21 expression showed a significantly worse OS and DFS than patients with low miR-21 expression. In Dukes' stage D, patients with high miR-21 expression showed a significantly worse OS than patients with low miR-21 expression. In the Cox multivariate analysis, it was shown that miR-21 expressions in CRC tissues is an independent prognostic factor in Dukes' stage B, C and D. In conclusion, miR-21 expression may be a valuable biomarker for prediction of poor prognosis in CRC patients with Dukes' stage B, C and D.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the oncological significance of the number of lymph nodes in rectal cancers treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
We studied 126 curatively operated patients with clinical T3-T4 and M0 rectal cancers. The number of lymph nodes and clinicopathological features were compared between the patients treated with surgery alone (OP group, n = 45) and those treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (50-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions with tegafur-uracil and leucovorin, CRT group, n = 81). Factors influencing lymph node count and its prognostic significance were analyzed.
The CRT group had significantly fewer lymph nodes than the OP group (12.4 vs. 21.1, P < 0.0001). High histological regression of rectal lesions was significantly correlated with decreased lymph node count in the CRT group. In the OP group, the 5-year cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with 12 or more lymph nodes was significantly better than those with fewer than 12 lymph nodes (75.1% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.02); in the CRT group, on the other hand, these survival rates did not differ (84.5% vs. 77.5%, P = 0.6).
The number of lymph nodes in rectal cancer was correlated with the response of primary rectal lesions to chemoradiotherapy, and was not associated with patient survival.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer following chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has not been fully established. The aim of our retrospective study was to examine the outcomes and the factors contributing to the difficulty of laparoscopic surgery after CRT.
Eighty-seven consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with CRT were analyzed. Clinicopathological factors were compared between laparoscopic surgery (n = 57) and open surgery (n = 30) groups, and factors that correlated with operation time and blood loss were analyzed in low anterior resection (LAR) cases in the laparoscopic surgery group (n = 46).
There was less blood loss in the laparoscopic surgery group than in the open surgery group (191 vs. 1,043 ml, p = 0.0001), and the operation time in the two groups was similar (329 vs. 322 min, p = 0.8). The rate of conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery was 1.8 %. There was no significant difference in the morbidity rate (laparoscopic surgery 22.8 % vs. open surgery 33.3 %, p = 0.3). All circumferential resection margins were clear. Three-year cumulative rates of local recurrence were as follows: laparoscopic surgery: 1.9 % vs. open surgery: 8.4 % (p = 0.4), and distant recurrence was 28.5 % in laparoscopic surgery vs. 22.7 % in open surgery (p = 0.8) and these rates were not significantly different. In laparoscopic LAR cases, a shorter distance of the tumor from the anal verge was associated with a longer operation time. A high computed tomography Hounsfield units value of the mesorectum (CTV) was associated with increased blood loss in the first 23 cases, but not in the other 23 cases.
Laparoscopic surgery following CRT was safe and feasible. A shorter anal verge was associated with a longer operation time. Blood loss increased in cases with high CTV, but this can likely be mitigated by experience.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Techniques in Coloproctology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response of rectal cancer to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PRT) varies widely among patients, and predictors of the response remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) reflects the underlying intrinsic radiosensitivity of rectal cancer.
Forty-one patients with clinical T3-4, M0 low rectal cancers, treated with PRT and curative surgery, were retrospectively studied. PBLs were obtained from blood samples of the patients, irradiated at 0, 2, 8, and 16 Gy in vitro, and analyzed for RIA by flow cytometry using Annexin V (AV) and propidium iodide (PI). The correlation of the RIA of PBLs and histological regression of rectal cancer in response to PRT was examined.
Both the proportions of AV+/PI- PBLs (early apoptosis) and AV+/PI + PBLs (late apoptosis) were significantly higher in patients with high histological regression than in those with low histological regression. Age, sex, tumor size, and clinical T and N stages did not affect the RIA of PBLs.
This study showed that the RIA of PBLs is correlated with the histological regression of rectal cancer in response to PRT and suggested that the radiosensitivity of rectal cancer might be estimated by the RIA of PBLs.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology